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in  2011  with  funding  from 
Brigham  Young  University 




BY    THE    LATE 

Sir  p.  LE   PAGE  RENOUF,   Knt. 


Prof.    E.     NAVILLE,    D.C.L.,    cfc,    &c., 

Professor  of  Egyptology  at  the  University  of  Geneva. 




37,  CiREAT  Russell  Street,  Bloomsburv, 

LONDON,   1904. 











TO     THR 

C  I  £  A  P  T  E  R  S 


TO    THE 




The  Beginning  of  the  Chapters  of  Coming  forth  by 
Day,  of  the  Words  which  britig  about  Resurrection 
afiit  Glory,  and  of  Coming  out  of  and  ottering 
into  Amenta.  Said  upon  the  Day  of  Burial  of 
N.  the  Victorious,  who  entereth  after  coniiftg  forth. 
Here  is  N  tJie  victorious.     He  saith — • 

Chapter  for  Coming  forth  by  day  and  Living  after 


III.  Afzother  Chapter  like  it. 

IV.  Another  Chapter,  for  travelling  on  the  road  which 

is  above  the  earth. 

V.      Chapter  7vhereby  work  may  nut  be  imposed  \tipoti 
a  person]  in  the  JVetherworld. 

VI.      Chapter  whereby    the  funereal   Statuettes   7nay   be 
made  to  do  tvork  for  a  person  /«  the  Netherworld. 

VII.      Chapter    of  passifig   through   the   chine   of  Apepi 

7C'hich  IS  void. 

VIII.      Chapter  of  opening  the  Tuat  by  day. 

IX.      Chapter  for  opening  the   Tuat. 

X.      Chapter  for  coming  forth  victoriously. 

XI.      Chapter  for  coming  out   against  the  adversary  in 

the  Netlierworld. 

pages     I,  2 

n       IT,  12  "I 

I  2 



„        15,16 
„  16 

,>  19 

»  19 


Plates  I,  II. 

).       No    Vignettes. 





XII.      Chapter  for  entering  and  for   coming  forth  out  of 

the  Netherui07-ld. 

XIII.      Chapter  for  entering  after  coining  o^it  from  Amenta. 

XIV.     Chapter  for   removing    displeasure  from   the  heart 
of  the  god  against  the  deceased  person. 

XV.     Hymn  I. — A  Hymn  to  Ra  at  his  rising. 

[Litany]. — Adored  be   Ra    as    he    setteth    in    the 
Land  of  Life. 

Hymn  II. — A  Hymn  to  Ra  at  his  setting. 

Hymn  III. — A  Hymn  to   Tmu  at  his  setting. 

page        20 
















Chapter  ivherehy    one    cometh  forth    by   day   out  of 
the  Netherivorld.     Let  the  words  be  said  : 

A  Litany  to  Thoth. 

Chapter  of  the  Croiun  of  Triumph. 

Another  Chapter  of  the  Crozvn  of  Triutnph. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Mouth  of  a  person  is  given  to 
him  ifi  the  Netlierworld. 

Another  Chapter  whereby  the  Mouth  of  a  person  is 
given  to  him  in  the  Netheriuorld. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Mouth  of  a  person  is  opened 
for  him  in  the  Netherti'orld. 

Chapter  ivhereby  the    Words  of  Foicer  are  brought 
to  a  person  ifi  the  Netherzvorld. 

Chapter  whereby  a  person  remembereth  his  7iame  in 
the  Netheriuorld. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  is  given  to  a  persoti  in 
the  Netherworld. 

Chapter    'whereby    the   Heart    of  a  persoJi   is    not 
taken  from  him  in  the  Nethierworld. 

Chapter    ivhereby    the    Heart    of  a  person   is   not 
takefi  from  him  in  the  Netherworld. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  may  not 
be  taken  from  him  in  the  Netherworld. 

Atiother  Chapter  of  the  Heart;  upon   Carnelian. 

20  )>  No   Vignettes. 




Plates  HI,  X,  XV 


25,     26 


26,     27 





„     IV,  V 



„     VI,  VII. 



„     VIII,  IX 



„     IX. 





No   Vigfiettes. 



Plates  X,  XI. 


„    63, 64 




n        70,   71 



»     X,  XI. 

„     X. 



Plate  XII. 









VI 1 


Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  is  not  kept 
back  fro7n  him  in  the  IVetherworld. 



Chapter  whereby  the  Crocodiles  are  repulsed  who 
come  to  carry  off  the  IVords  of  Power  from  a 
person  in  the  JVetherivorld. 

Chapter  7i<hereby  the  Crocodiles  are  repulsed  who 
come  to  carry  off  the  Words  of  Power  from  the 
glorified  in  the  JSetherworld. 

XXXIII.  Chapter  whereby  all  Serpents  are  kept  back. 

XXXIV.  Chapter   whei-eby   a  person    is  not  devoured  by  the 

diveller  in  the  shrine. 

XXXV.      Chapter  whereby  the  person  is  not   devoured  by  a 

Serpent  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

XXXVI.      Chapter  whereby  the  Apshait  is  kept  back. 

XXXVII.      Chapter  tvhereby  the  Merta  Goddesses  are  kept  back. 

XXXVIII.      Chapter  ivhereby  one  liveth  by  the  breath  of  air  in 
the  Nethenvorld,  and  keepeth  back  Alerta. 

XXXIX.      Chapter  whereby  the  Serpent  Rekrek  is  repulsed  in 

the  Netherworld. 

XL.      Chapter  ivhereby  the  Eater  of  the  Ass  is  kept  back. 

XLI.      Chapter  whereby  one  avoideth  the  Slaughter  which 
is  carried  out  in  the  Netherworld. 

XLII.      Chapter  whereby  one  hindereth  the  Slaughter  which 

is  wrought  at  Sutenhenen. 

XLII  I.      Chapter  ivhereby  the  head  of  a  person  is  not  severed 
from  him  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

XLIV.     Chapter  zvhereby  one  dieth  not  a  second  time. 

XLV.      Chapter    whereby    one    escapeth   corruption   in   the 


XLVI.      Chapter  whereby  he  that  is  living  is  not  destroyed 

in  the  Netherworld. 

XLVII.     Chapter  whereby  the  seat  of  a  person  is  not  taken 
from  him  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

XLVIII  (same  as  X). 

XLIX  (same  as  XI). 




Plate  XII. 


No  Vignettes. 


„     XU. 



No  Vignettes. 


Plate  XII. 

82  " 


A^o  Vignettes. 


Plates  XII,  XIII 


„     XIIL 


„     XIIL 



„    XIII,  XIV 



„     XIV. 


„     XV. 



„     XVI. 





>  A^o   Vignettes. 

„    102,  103 

Plates  XV,  XVII. 

b  2 























Chapter  wlicrcby  one  cometh  not  to  the  divine  Block 
of  Execution. 

Chapter   whereby   one    goeth    not    headlong   in    the 

Chapter    whereby    one    eateth     not     dirt     in     the 


Chapter  zvhereby  one  is  not  made  to  cat  dirt,  or  to 

drink  lye. 

Whereby  one  eateth  not  dirt. 

Chapter  whereby  air  is  given  i?i  the  Netherworld. 

Another  Chapter  whereby  air  is  given. 

Another  Chapter  of  breathing. 

Chapter  for  breathing  air,  and  command  of  ivater, 
ift  the  Nethertvorld. 

Chapter  for  breathing  air  and  cojnmand  of  water. 

Chapter  for  breathing  air  and  command  of  water. 

Another  Chapter. 

Another  Chapter. 

Chapter  whereby  water  is  drunk  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

Chapter    whereby    one    is    not   burnt  luith  fire,    but 
drinketh  water,  in  the  Netherworld. 

Chapter  whereby  one  is  not  boiled  in  7vater. 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometJi  forth  by  day  from  the 

Chapter   whereby   one    cometh  forth    by    day    and 
prevaileth  over  the  adversaries. 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day. 

Chapter  whereby  the  doors  of  the   Tuat  are  opened 
afid  one  cometh  forth  by  day. 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day. 

Otherivise  said. 
Another  Chapter. 

page        103 



„  107 

„    107,  108 
„  109 

„  no 

„    no,  HI 


Plate  XVII. 

No    Vignettes. 


Plate  XVII. 

„     XVII. 


XI3       1 

■f         No  Vignettes. 



114     . 



Plate  XVII. 



115      " 




No    Vignettes. 






Plate  XVII. 

„     XIX. 

No    Vignettes. 

„   129,  130       Plates  XVIII,  XIX. 

„   130,  131 
„  131.  132 

No  Vignettes. 



LXXI.     Chapter  ivhereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day. 

LXXII.      Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day  and  passes 

through  the  Aniniehit. 

LXXIII  (same  as  IX) 

LXXIV.      Chapter  ivhereby  the  legs  are  set  in  motion  upon  earth. 

LXXV.      Chapter   whereby  one  cometh   to  Heliopolis   and  rc- 

ceiveth  a  seat  there. 

LXXVI.      Chapter   ivhereby   all  forms    are     assumed    ivhich 

one  pleaseth. 

LXXVII.      Chipter   whereby   one   assumeth    the   form    of   the 

Golden  Hawk. 

LXX\^III.      Chapter  ivhereby   otie   assumeth    the  form    of   the 

Sacred  Hawk. 

LXXIX.      Chapter  whereby  one  assiimeth  the  form  of  the  Chief 

god  of  the  Divine  Cycle. 

LXXX.     Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  god 
tvho  giveth  Light  to  the  Darkness. 

LXXXI.     Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Lotus. 

LXXXII.  Chapter  ivhereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  Ftah, 
eateth  bread,  drinketh  beer,  and  sitteth  in  the 
midst  of  the  great  gods. 

LXXXIII.      Chapter  ivhereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Bennu 


LXXXIV.      Cha[>ter   whereby   otte    assumeth    the   form    of   the 


LXXXV.  Chapter  ivhereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  a  Soul, 
that  one  may  not  come  to  the  dungeon.  Lmperish- 
able  is  he  who  knoweth  it. 

LXXXVI.     Chapter   whereby   one   assumeth    the   form    of   the 


LXXXVII.      Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  Se-ta. 

LXXXVIII.     Chapter  whereby    one    assumeth    the   form    of   the 

C?-ocodile  god  \^Sebak\ 

LXXXIX.     Chapter  whereby  the  Soul  is  united  to  the  dead  Body. 
XC.     Chapter  whereby  Memory  is  restored  to  a  person. 


pages  132-134 

Plate  XIX. 

„   136,137 

Plates  XIX,  XX. 

„     XIX,  XX. 


„     XIX,  XX. 

„   I39»i40 

„     XXI, 
numbered  LXXVI  1 1  in 


Plate  XX. 
same  as  LXXIII. 

„            141 

Plate  XXI. 

,.,   142-146 

„     XXL 

„   147,  148 

„     XXI. 


No   Vignettes. 

150         Plates  XXI,  XXII. 

„   150,  151 

„   151;  152 

>,  152,  153 

»   153-  154 



j>  157 

„  157,  158 
,>  159 

„  XXII. 

„  XXII. 

„  XXII. 

„  XXII. 

„  XXII. 


„  XXIII. 

„  XXIII. 

„  XXIII. 



XCL      Chapter  whereby  the  Soiit  is  secured  fro/n  iviprison- 

ment  in  the  JVetherwortd. 

page        1 60 

N'o  Vignettes. 











Chapter  whereby  the  Tomb  is  opened  to  the  Sou/  and 
to  the  Shade  of  the  person,  that  he  may  come  forth 
by  day  and  may  have  mastery  of  his  feet. 

Chapter  whereby  one  avoideth  being  conveyed  to  the 
East  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

Chapter  whereby  one  prayeth  for  a  Palette  and  an 


Chapter  whereby  is  opened  the  place  wherein  Thoth 


Chapter  whereby  is  opened  [the  place]  tvhere  IVioth 


Chapter  ivhereby  one  saileth  a  ship  in  the  Nether- 

Chapter  ivhereby  one  saileth  a  ship  in  the  N^ethcr- 


The  Book  ivhereby  the  glorified  one  is  made  strong, 
and  is  made  to  embark  in  the  boat  of  Rd,  together 
with  those  ivho  are  ivith  the  god. 

Chapter  of  the  safeguards  of  the  Bark  of  Rd. 

Chapter  whereby  one  entereth  into  the  Bark  of  Rd. 

Chapte7-  whereby  one  openeth  the  place  where  Hathor 


CIV.      Chapter  whereby  one  sitteth  in  the  midst  of  the  great 


CV.      Chapter  whereby  one  propitiateth  the  Ka, 

CVI.      Chapter  ivhereby  a  largess  is  presented  at  Hat-ka- 



CVIII.     Chapter    ivhereby  one   knoweth   the   Powers   of  the 


CIX.      Chapter  whereby  one   hioweth   the   Powers  of  the 


„  160,161  Plates  XXIII,  XXIV. 

162  „     XXIV. 

163  „     XXIV. 
„   163,  164  „     XXIV. 

,,            164  No  Vignettes. 

165  Plate  XXV. 

„   165,  166  „     XXV. 

„   167-169  „     XXV,  XXVI. 

171  „     XXVII. 

„   172,  173 

„   176,  177 

,,•   178,  179 

No  Vignettes. 

„  173        Plate  XXVII. 

174  „     XXV. 

174  „     XXV. 

„     XXV. 

A^o  Vignettes. 

Plates  XXV,  XXVII. 

„   181,  1S2  „     XXVII. 




The  Begi?ining  of  the  Chapters  of  the  Garden  of 
Hotepit,  and  of  the  Chapters  of  coming  forth  by 
day  ;  and  of  entering  afid  costing  forth  in  the 
Netherworld,  and  of  arriving  at  the  Garden  of 
Aarnt,  at  the  Rise  in  Hotepit  and  at  the  Grand 
Z)omain,  blest  with  the  breezes  :  that  I  may  take 
possession  there  and  be  in  Glory  there :  that  there 
I  mav  plough  and  motu :  that  there  I  may  eat 
and  drink  and  love:  doing  whatsoever  things  are 
done  upofi  earth. 

CXI  (same  as  CVIII). 

CXI  I.     Chapter  whereby  one  knoweth  the  Powers  of  Fu. 

CXIII.      Chapter  whereby  one  k?ioweth  the  Powers  of  Nechen. 

CXIV.      Chapter  ivhereby  one  knoiveth  the  Powers  of  Her- 


CXV.  Chapter  whereby  otie  cometh  forth  into  Heaven,  and 
opeiieth  the  Ammehit :  a  fid  7V  hereby  the  Poivers  of 
Heliopolis  are  knoivn. 

CXVI.      Chapter  whereby  one  knoweth  the  Poiver   of  Her- 


CXVII.      Chapter   whereby    one    taketh    the    blissful  path    at 


pages  193-195 

„  184,  185 
„  186,  187 
„   188,  189 

„   190,  191 



Plates  XXVIII, 

„     XXIX,  XXX. 
„     XXX. 
„     XXXI. 

No  Vignettes. 

Plate  XXXI. 

„     XXXI  (one 
Vignette    is 
numbered  CVII 
in  error). 


Chapter  whereby  one  arriveth  at  Restau. 



No  Vignettes. 


Chapter  zv hereby  one  entereth  or  goeth  forth  from 




Plate  XXXI. 


(same  as  XII). 


(same  as  XIII). 


(same  as  LVIII). 


Chapter  whereby  one  entereth  into  the  Great  House. 






Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  to  the  Divine  Circle  of 








Part  I. — Said  on  arriving  at  the  Hall  of  Righteotis- 
ness,  that  N  may  be  loosed  from  all  the  sins  which 
he  hath  committed  and  that  he  may  look  upon  the 
divine  countenances. 

Part  II. —  The  Negative  Confession. 

Part  III. — Said  upon  approaching  to  the  gods  who 
are  in  the   Teat. 




-214    " 
















CXXVII.  The  Book  for  invoking  the  gods  of  the  Bounds,  which 
the  person  reciteth  luhen  he  appj-oachcth  them,  that 
he  may  etiter  and  see  the  Strong  one  in  the  Great 
Abode  of  the  Tiiat. 

CXXVI  11.     Invocation  of  Osiris 

CXXIX  (same  as  C).  

CXXX.     A  Book  ivhereby  the  Soul  is  made  to  live  for  ever,  07i 
the  day  of  enteri72g  info  the  Bark  of  Rd,  and  to 
pass   the   Sheniu   of  the    Tiiat.       Made    on    the 
Birthday  of  Osiris. 

CXXXI.      Chapter  whereby  one  proceedeth  into  Heaven  by  the 

side  of  Rd. 

CXXXII.      Chapter  whereby  a  person  is  enabled  to  go  round,  to 
visit  his  divelling  in  the  Netherivorld. 

CXXXIII.  Book  ivherebv  the  deceased  acquireth  jnight  in  the 
Netherworld,  in  presence  of  the  great  cycle  of  tlu 

CXXXIV.      Chapter  whereby  the  deceased  acguireth  might. 

CXXXV.     A?iother  chapter  recited  when  the  Moon  renews  itself 

on  the  first  day  of  the  7no7ith. 

CXXXVIa.     Chapter  whereby  07ie  is  co/iveyed  in  the  Bark  of  Rd. 

CXXXVIb.      Chapter  7u/ie7'eby  07ie  is  co7iveyed  i7i  tlu  Great  Ba7-k 
of  Rd  to  pass  th7-ough  the  orbit  of  fla77ie. 

CXXXVIIa.     Chapter  whereby  a  Light  Is  kindled  for  a  person. 

CXXX  VI I B.     Chapter  whereby  a  Light  is  ki7idled  for  a  person. 

CXXXVIII.     Chapter  ivhereby  07ie  is  e7iabled  to  enter  i7tto  Abydos. 

CXXXIX  (same  as  CXXIII). 

CXL.      The  book  read  on  t/ie  last  day  of  Mechir,  7vhen  the 
Eye  is  full  07t  the  last  day  of  Mechir. 

CXLI.      The  Book  said  by  a  77ia7i  or  his  father  or  his  son  i7i 

to  the  festival  of  the   A//ie7ita,    and  whe7-eivith   )ie 

CXLIII.         acquires  7night  with  Rd,  and  ivith  the  gods  when 

he   is   with   the77i.     Said  07i  the  day  of  tlu  7iew 

Moon,    when   offerings   are  made  of  bread,   beer, 

oxen,  geese,  and  burnt  ince7is^  to — 

pages  244,  245  Plate  XL. 


\        No  Vig/uttes. 

„   251,  252   J 

„   256-259 



„   267,  268 
„   269,  270 

„  270 

„   271,  272" 

»  275_ 




Plate  XL. 
„     XL. 

„     XLL 

„     XLL 

264,  265  Plates  XLI,  XLII. 

Plate  XLL 

Ao  Vignettes. 

Plate  XLII. 

No  Vig/uttes. 

Plate  XLII. 
„     XLIII. 

,,280,281       Plates  XLIII,  XLIV. 

„   282-2S5 

„       XLIV,  XLV, 



CXLH".     The  Chapter  of  the  Arrival. 

CXLV  and     The  hioivhig  of  the  fylons  of  the  house  of  Osiris,  iii 
CXL\T.  the  Garden  of  Aarrii. 



pages  287-289     Plates  XLVI,  XLVII, 

XLIX,   L. 

C'XLVIII.      Giving  sustenance  to  t/ie  deceased  in  the  Netherworld^ 
and  delivering  him  from  all  evil  things. 




CLIa.  bis 

CLIa.  ter 











Chapter  of  the  mysterious  head. 

Chapter  of  building  a  house  on  earth. 

Chapter  of  coming  out  of  the  net. 

Chapter  of  escaping  from  the  catchers  offish. 

Chapter  of  not  letti?ig  the  body  decay  in  the  Nether- 


Chapter  of  the  Tat  of  gold. 

Chapter  of  the  buckle  of  carnelian,  which  is  put  on 
the  fleck  of  the  deceased. 

Chapter  of  the  vultjire  of  gold,  put  on   the  neck  op 
the  deceased. 

Chapter  of  the  collar  of  gold,  put   on  the  neck  of 
the  deceased.     ' 

Chapter  of  the  column  of  green  Felspar,  put  on  the 
neck  of  the  deceased. 

Giving  the  colutnn  of  green  Felspar. 

Chapter  of  unfastening  the  opening  in  the  sky. 
Thoth  does  it  so  that  it  may  be  finished  when  lie 
opens  {the  sky)  zvith  Aten. 

Chapter  of  causing  a  flame  to  arise  under  the  head 
of  the  deceased. 

„  292-294 


,,  296-298 

„     XLIX,  L. 

„  300-301 

„    XLVI,  XLVII, 

„  302-307 

„     LIL 


„     LIII. 


„     LIV,  LVI. 


No  Vignettes. 

Plate  LIV. 


„     LIV. 

„  315. 316 

„     LV. 

»  320,  321 

„     LVI. 

>,  322, 323 

„     LVI. 

325  „     LVI,  LVII. 

326  „     LVI,  LVII. 

„  326,  327  „     LVII. 


„     LVIL 

»  327,  328  „  LVIL 

328  „  LVIL 

„  329,  330  „  LV. 

„  no,  321  „  LVII  I. 



Chapters  brought  from  another  book,  in  addition  to 
the  ^'^  coming  forth  by  day."  Chapter  of  not  letting 
the  body  of  a  man  decay  in  the  Nctherxoorld,  of 
rescuing  him  frotn  the  devourers  of  souls  who 
imprison  jnen  in  the  Tuat,  and  of  tiot  raising  his 
sins  on  earth  against  him,  but  of  saving  his  flesh 
and  his  bones  from  the  worms  and  from  every 
evil-doing  god  in  the  Netherworld,  so  that  he  may 
go  in  and  out  as  he  likes,  and  do  everything  he 
desires  without  restraint. 

page  333,  334 

Plate  LVIII. 

CLXIV.     Another  Chapter. 

CLX\^.      Chapter  of  landing  and  710 1  being  obscured,  so  that 
the  body  may  prosper  in  drinking  water. 

CLXM.  Chapter  of  the  Pillow. 

CLXVII.  Chapter  of  brifigitig  an  Eye. 


CLXIX.  Chapter  of  raising  the  funereal  Bed. 

CLXX.  Chapter  of  arrangi?tg  the  funereal  Bed. 

CLXXL      Chapter   of  wrapping  up  {the  deceased)  in  a  pure 


CLXX  11.     Begin?iing  of  the  Chapter  of  reciting  the  ceremonies 

made  in  the  Netherworld. 

CLXXIIL  The  addresses  of  Horus  to  his  father  wheti  he  goes 
in  to  see  his  father,  and  when  he  comes  out  of  his 
great  sanctuary  to  see  him  Rd  Unneferu,  the 
master  of  Ta-tser,  and  then  the\  embrace  o?ie 
a?iotlier ;  therefore  lie  is  glorious  in  the  Nether- 

CLXXIV.      Chapter  of  causing  the  Chu  to  co??ie  out  of  tJie  great 

door  i7i  the  sky. 

CLXXV.      Chapter  of  not  dying  a  second  death  in  the  N^ether- 


CLXXVL      Chapter  of  not  dying  a  second  titne  in  the  Nether- 

CLXXVII.      Chapter  of  raisifig  the  Chu,  of  vivifying  his  soul 

in  the  Netherivorld. 

CTXXVIII.  Chapter  of  raising  the  body,  of  giving  it  eyes,  0/ 
making  it  possess  ears,  affixing  its  head,  of  putting 
it  on  its  base. 


336,  337 

„     LVIII. 


338,  339 

„     LVIII. 



„     LVIII. 



„     LVIIL 







No  Vignettes 


»  348-351 

'>  -  9    -^  -*  -» 

»  354,355 

5>       J3 

6,  35: 


8  1 


„  360-36: 

Plate  LIX. 

n     LX. 

„     LX. 

No  Vignettes. 




Chapter  of  coining  forth  when  goittg  out  of  yesterday 
and  coming  in  the  {present)  day,  l>eing  equipped 
by  one's  o^vn  hands. 



Chapter  of  coming  forth  by  day,  of  giving  praise  to 
Ed  in  the  Amenta,  of  faying  homage  to  the  in- 
habitants of  the  Tnat,  of  openifig  the  zvay  to  the 
mighty  soul  in  the  Ahthenvorld,  of  letti?ig  him 
li'alk,  lengthen  his  strides,  and  go  in  and  out  in 
the  Netherworld ;  and  take  the  form  of  a  living 

Chapter  of  arriving  before  the  Divine  circle  of 
Osiris  and  before  the  gods,  the  guides  in  the  Tuat, 
before  the  guards  of  their  halls,  the  heralds  of 
their  gates  and  the  doorkeepers  of  their  pylons  in 
the  Amenta,  and  of  taking  the  form  of  a  living 
soul  and  praising  Osiris  the  lord  of  his  circle  of 

Book  of  vivifying  Osiris,  of  giving  air  to  him  whose 
heart  is  motionless,  through  the  action  of  Thoth, 
who  repels  the  enemies  of  Osiris  ivho  comes  there 
in  his  form  .  .  .  as  protector,  saviour,  defender  in 
the  Netherivorld. 

It  is  said  by  Thoth  himself,  so  that  the  morning  light 
may  shine  on  him  {Osiris)  every  day. 

Adoration  to  Osiris,  giving  him  praise,  boiving 
down  before  Unneferu,  falling  on  one's  face  before 
the  lord  of  Ta-tsert,  and  exalting  him  who  is  on 
his  sand. 

CLXXXI  V.      Chapter  of  being  near  Osiris. 

CLXXX V.  Giving  praise  to  Osiris,  falling  on  the  earth  before 
the  lord  of  eternity ;  propitiatifig  the  god  with 
what  he  loves,  speaking  the  truth,  the  lord  of 
which  is  not  known. 

CLXXXVL     Adoration  to  Hathor,  the  lady  of  the    West,  falling 
down  before  Mehurit, 


page  l(n^  3^4 

V  365-367 

No  Vignettes. 

Plate  LX. 

.,  368,  369 

',   370-372 

„   372-374 



„     LXL 

„     LXL 

„     LX. 

„     LX. 
„     LX. 

„     LX,  LXII. 

c  2 


When,  in  the  year  1892,  Sir  Peter  Le  Page  Renouf  began  the  pubh'cation  of  his  translation 
of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  his  intention  was  that  the  work,  once  completed,  should  be  preceded 
by  an  elaborate  Introduction,  giving,  besides  all  the  information  concerning  the  form  and  tlie 
history  of  the  book,  his  views  as  to  its  sense  and  its  religious  value. 

As  with  the  unfinished  part  of  the  translation,^  so  here,  we  are  left  without  any  notes  or  any 
clue  whatever  as  to  the  form  which  this  introduction  was  to  have  taken,  and  we  are  obliged 
to  resort  to  the  fifth  of  the  Hibbert  lectures,  given  by  Renouf  in  1879,  in  order  to  know  his 
views  about  the  book.^ 

Before  speaking  of  its  contents,  we  have  to  state  briefly  under  what  form  the  book  has  come 
down  to  us.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  repeat  that  it  is  no  book  at  all  in  the  ordinary  sense 
of  the  word.  It  is  neither  a  unity  nor  a  whole,  it  is  a  collection  which  has  grown  by  degrees, 
at  various  epochs.  Undoubtedly  part  of  it  goes  back  as  far  as  the  Old  Empire  ;  the  texts  of 
the  Middle  Empire  show  already  that  there  were  various  editions,  and  we  are  forced  to 
admit  that  its  origin  is  not  much  later  than  the  beginning  of  Egyptian  civilization,  as  we 
see  that  some  of  the  rubrics  attribute  certain  chapters  to  a  king  of  the  1st  dynasty.  In 
the  course  of  centuries  the  original  text  was  modified  and  enlarged,  new  chapters  were  added, 
revisions  were  made,  without  casting  these  detached  fragments  into  a  whole.  The  various 
parts  of  the  book  were  always  independent,  like  the  Hebrew  Psalms ;  the  acceptance  of  a 
chapter  does  not  necessarily  imply  the  acceptance  of  the  next  chapter,  and  it  seems  as  if  the 
relatives  of  the  deceased  chose  in  the  collection  which  was  at  their  disposal  what  they  liked 
best,  and  the  number  of  chapters  which  corresponded  to  the  price  they  wished  to  pay  for  a 

This  description  applies  chiefly  to  the  texts  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  of  the  period  prior 
to  the  XXVIth  dynasty.  Under  the  Saite  kings  it  seems  that  a  complete  revision  of  the  text 
was  made ;  a  definite  order  was  adopted,  which  was  not  rigidly  binding  on  the  writers,  but  to 
which  they  generally  adhered;  various  chapters  were  added,  especially  the  last  ones,  162-165, 
which  are  never  found  in  the  older  copies.  It  seems  also  that  something  like  what  we  should 
call  an  authorized  version  was  adopted  ;  and  this  was  done  by  men  to  whom  the  book  was 

'  See  Introductory  Note  to  Chapter  CXL,. 
2  The  Hibbert  Lectures,  1879,  p.  172, 


hardly  intelligible.  A  great  many  glosses  were  introduced,  which  were  copied  afterwards  in 
all  the  hieroglyphic  and  hieratic  texts.  Although  we  do  not  find  the  strict  accuracy  of  Hebrew 
manuscripts,  the  number  of  variants  in  the  Saite,  Ptolemaic  or  Roman  texts  is  considerably 
smaller  than  in  the  manuscripts  of  the  Theban  period,  and  a  collation  of  the  hundreds  of 
papyri  of  late  epoch  which  fill  our  museums  would  lead  to  no  great  result. 

However,  it  is  from  a  text  generally  considered  as  Saitic,  but  which  I  believe  to  be  of 
the  Ptolemaic  epoch,  that  the  Book  of  the  Dead  has  been  first  made  known  in  all  its  extent. 
In  1842  Lepsius  published  the  long  papyrus  in  the  Turin  Museum,  a  document  which  he 
called  "  the  largest  piece  of  Egyptian  literature  which  has  been  preserved." 

Before  him  Champollion  had  seen  it,  and  had  noticed  that  a  great  number  of  repetitions 
of  the  same  text  existed  in  various  museums.  He  made  use  of  it  in  his  grammar,  quoted 
here  and  there  a  sentence  taken  from  it,  but  he  did  not  make  a  special  study  of  the  document. 
Lepsius  understood  at  once  the  importance  of  the  book,  which  was  the  vade-inecutn  of  the 
deceased,  and  seeing  how  much  more  extensive  the  Turin  Papyrus  was  than  the  short  copies 
which  had  been  published  before,  he  traced  the  whole  document  and  published  it  two  years 

Lepsius  gave  to  this  work  the  name  of  Todteiibuch,  "  Book  of  the  Dead,"  in  opposition  to 
the  name  of  "  Ritual  "  adopted  by  Champollion,  which  is  certainly  incorrect.  It  is  no  Ritual ;  a 
few  chapters  with  a  ritualistic  character  have  been  introduced  into  it :  for  instance,  the  chapter 
connected  with  the  ceremony  of  "  opening  the  mouth  of  the  deceased,"  which  is  occasionally 
met  with,  or  Chapter  171,  "chapter  of  wrapping  up  (the  deceased)  in  a  pure  garment;"  but 
these  are  rare  exceptions.  On  the  whole  the  Book  of  the  Dead  differs  widely  from  a  Ritual. 
It  is  not  the  priest  who  speaks,  there  are  no  minute  prescriptions  as  to  how  a  ceremony  is  to 
be  performed ;  all  the  prayers  and  hymns  are  put  in  the  deceased's  mouth,  it  is  he  whose 
speech  is  supposed  to  be  heard  in  the  other  world. 

Todtefibuch,    Book   of  the    Dead,   is   not  a  translation  of  the  Egyptian  title,  which  is : 

book   of  <rr>  ^^      rQ     Y^      pert  m  hru.     As  Renouf  says,  "  Three  simple  words,  perfectly 

unambiguous  when  taken  singly,  but  by  no  means  easy  of  explanation  when  taken  together 
without  a  context ;  "  and  in  fact  at  the  present  day  no  final  translation  has  been  given  of  these 
three  words.  Renouf  translates,  *•  coming  forth  by  day,"  as  will  be  seen  in  the  numerous 
examples  which  occur  in  this  volume ;  but  several  objections  may  be  raised  against  this 
interpretation,  to  which  we  should  prefer,  "  coming  out  of  the  day,"  the  day  being  the  period 
of  a  man's  hfe,  having  its  morning  and  its  evening. 

The  book  is  divided  into  fragments  called  ^'^p* ,  to  each  of  which  Lepsius  has  given  a 
number,  following  the  order  of  the  great  Turin  Papyrus,  and  which  he  calls  chapters.  Although 
his  numbering  is  not  quite  correct,  it  has  been  adhered  to  in  all  the  subsequent  editions. 

In  his  lecture-  on  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  Renouf  insists  on  the  difificulty  of  translating  it : 
"  Nothing  can  exceed  the  simplicity  and  the  brevity  of  the  sentences ;  and  yet  the  difficulties 
which  a  translator  has  to  overcome  are  very  great.     In  the  first  place,  the  text  is  extremely 

-  See  also  Life  Work,  t.  Ill,  p.  51,  "The  title  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,"  and  p.  59,  "The  Eg)-ptian  Book 
of  the  Dead." 


corrupt.  The  unsatisfactory  condition  of  the  text  is  owing  to  different  causes.  The  reasons 
which  writers  on  Hebrew,  Greek  or  Latin  palaeography  have  enumerated  for  the  purpose  of 
accounting  for  mistakes  in  manuscripts,  apply  with  much  greater  force  to  the  funereal  manu- 
scripts of  the  Egyptians  ;  for  as  these  were  not  intended  to  be  seen  by  any  mortal  eye,  but  to 
remain  for  ever  undisturbed  in  the  tomb,  the  unconscientious  scribe  had  no  such  check  upon 
his  carelessness  as  if  his  work  were  liable  to  be  subjected  to  the  constant  inspection  of  the 
living.  But  the  most  conscientious  scribe  might  easily  commit  numerous  errors.  Many  ot 
them  are  to  be  traced  to  a  confusion  between  signs  which  resemble  each  other  in  the  cursive, 
or  as  it  is  called,  the  hieratic  character,  but  not  in  hieroglyphic  writing. 

"  Besides  the  errors  of  copyists,  there  are  different  readings,  the  origin  of  which  is  to  be 
traced  to  the  period  during  which  the  chapters  were  handed  down  by  word  of  mouth  only. 
There  are  copies  which  bear  evidence  that  a  critical  choice  has  been  made  between  the 
different  readings  of  a  passage,  but  the  common  practice  was  to  admit  the  inconsistent  readings 
into  the  text  itself  .  .  . 

"  Some  of  the  variants  have  unquestionably  arisen  from  the  difificulty  of  understanding 
the  ancient  texts.  I  have  no  doubt  whatever  that  some  of  the  chapters  of  the  Book  of  the 
Dead  were  as  obscure  to  Egyptians  living  under  the  eleventh  dynasty  as  they  are  to  our- 
selves ....  The  most  accurate  knowledge  of  the  Egyptian  vocabulary  and  grammar  will 
however  not  suffice  to  pierce  the  obscurity  arising  from  what  M.  de  Rouge  called  symbols 
or  allegories,  which  are  in  fact  simple  mythological  allusions.  The  difficulty  is  not  in  literally 
translating  the  text,  but  in  understanding  the  meaning  which  lies  concealed  beneath  familiar 

These  words  of  Renouf  have  still  a  very  great  force,  although  in  the  last  twenty  years 
some  progress  has  been  made  towards  a  better  understanding  of  the  text.  When  Renouf  gave 
the  above  description  of  the  difficulties  of  the  translation,  the  main  source  from  which  he 
could  derive  his  information  was  what  he  called  "  the  corrupt  Turin  text."  Since  then  a 
critical  edition  has  been  made.-^  It  is  based  on  texts  of  the  XVIIIth  and  XlXth  dynasties, 
written  at  a  time  when  the  intelligence  of  the  book  was  not  lost  to  the  same  extent  as  under 
the  Saites  or  the  Ptolemies,  as  may  be  ascertained  from  the  considerable  number  of  glosses 
introduced  into  the  Turin  text  which  are  absent  from  the  older  versions.  This  edition  has 
been  compiled  from  various  papyri,  as  the  older  ones  are  much  shorter  than  the  later  ones  ; 
it  is  not  a  single  document  like  Lepsius's  Todtenbuch ;  most  of  the  chapters  have  been  found 
in  their 'old  form;  a  few  are  missing,  but  a  good  number  have  been  added  to  the  list  which 
have  fallen  out  of  the  late  versions.  Generally  it  is  from  this  critical  text  that  Renouf  made 
his  translation.  Occasionally  he  may  choose  an  older  version  from  a  tomb,  or  perhaps  a 
papyrus  of  the  British  Museum,  but  he  hardly  ever  reverts  to  the  Turin  Todtenbuch  unless  he 
has  no  other  resonrce  at  his  disposal. 

Nevertheless  the  difficulties  which  Renouf  enumerates  are  only  partly  removed.  We  are 
still  very  far  from  being  able  to  give  a  final  translation  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  and  I  have 

*  Das  Aegyptische  Todtenbuch  der  XVIII bis  XX Dynast je,z\xsa.n\m&ngtsie\h  and  herausgegeben  von  Edouard 
Naville,  ]5erlin,  1886. 


no  doubt  that  Renouf  would  repeat  about  his  own  work  what  he  says  of  Dr.  Birch's  translation, 
"  Many  parts  of  it,  where  most  faithful  to  the  original,  must  in  consequence  of  that  very 
fidelity  be  utterly  unintelligible  to  an  English  reader." 

No  doubt  Renouf's  translation  is  a  great  step  towards  making  the  book  more  intelligible ; 
still  the  reader  may  often  stumble  over  sentences  out  of  which  it  is  hardly  possible  to  make 
a  reasonable  sense,  in  spite  of  their  grammatical  correctness,  and  which  at  first  sight  will  seem 
childish,  not  to  say,  with  Renouf,  "  outrageous  nonsense."  But  we  may  say  with  certainty 
that  they  were  not  so  to  the  old  Egyptians.  Under  this  extraordinary  or  even  ridiculous 
garment  may  be  hidden  some  very  simple,  or  even  elementary  truths.  Let  us  remember  that 
we  have  not  yet  unravelled  all  the  intricacies  of  the  Egyptian  mythology,  which  plays  such  an 
important  part  in  the  book.  Moreover,  we  only  begin  now  to  understand  how  the  Egyptians 
expressed  abstract  ideas.  When  we  speak  of  passion,  shame,  remorse,  hope,  we  have  so 
thoroughly  lost  sight  of  the  concrete  element  in  these  words,  that  we  are  apt  to  forget  that 
originally  they  must  have  been  metaphors,  and  that  they  must  have  expressed  something 
striking  the  senses,  and  connected  with  the  material  world.  An  instance  will  illustrate  the 
difficulty  in  this  translation. 

Chapter  112  relates  how,  owing  to  an  imprudent  request,  Horus  was  the  victim  of 
Sutu,  who  inflicted  a  wound  on  his  eye,  which  caused  him  great  suffering,  and  the  text  adds: 

Y  ^      1  So^  ^  ^^^   ,  lo!  he  ate  his  heart.     Renouf  translates,  "and  wrath  devoured 

11    /vv^/y^       _fl^       -B-  c—ji    ^^ — ^         I 

his  heart."  I  should  prefer,  "he  regretted  sorely  (his  foolish  request)."  I  believe  to  eat  one's 
heart  to  mean,  "  to  feel  regret,  repentance,  or  remorse."  There  the  abstract  meaning  is  not 
difficult  to  find  out ;  but  in  other  cases,  as  long  as  we  have  not  discovered  the  key  to  the 
metaphor,  we  may  go  far  astray,  or  if  we  do  not  go  beyond  the  literal  explanation,  we  miss 
the  abstract  sense,  which  is  the  true  one. 

However,  because  the  work  will  not  bear  the  character  of  finality,  because  some  obscurities 
will  not  be  removed,  and  some  difficulties  remain  unsolved,  there  is  no  reason  why  a  scholar 
like  Renouf  should  have  shrunk  from  attempting  the  translation  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  a 
work  which  he  had  before  his  eyes  for  years,  and  which  he  considered  as  the  crown  of  his 
Egyptological  labours. 

The  lecture  quoted  above  gives  us  Renouf's  ideas  as  to  the  purpose  and  the  sense  of 
the  book  :  it  is  the  beatification  of  the  dead  considered  in  three  aspects  : 

The  renewed  existence  "as  upon  earth."  The  deceased  enjoys  an  existence  similar  to  that 
which  he  has  led  upon  earth  ;  he  has  the  use  of  his  limbs,  he  eats  and  drinks  and  satisfies 
every  one  of  his  physical  wants  exactly  as  in  his  former  life.  The  gods  themselves  minister 
to  him  occasionally,  and  contribute  to  his  welfare  and  to  his  pleasures.  The  bliss  of  the 
future  state  consists  chiefly  in  the  pleasures  of  agricultural  life. 

Transformation.  The  deceased  has  the  range  of  the  entire  universe  in  every  shape  and 
form  he  desires.  He  can  assume  any  appearance  he  likes.  But  these  transformations  are 
not  forced  upon  him ;  he  has  no  definite  series  to  go  through  ;  they  depend  simply  on  his 


Identification  with  Osiris  and  other  gods.  The  identification  with  Osiris,  which  is  already 
mentioned  in  the  earhest  parts  of  the  book,  is  taken  for  granted  later  on,  since  the  name  of 
the  deceased  is  always  preceded  by  "Osiris."  He  may  be  assimilated  to  other  gods;  for 
instance,  in  the  42nd  chapter  every  limb  is  assimilated  to  a  different  deity.  This  Osirian 
nature  gives  the  deceased  the  power  to  triumph  over  the  numerous  enemies  whom  he  has  to 

To  these  three  benefits  which  the  book  confers  on  the  deceased  we  should  add  a  fourth  : 
viz.,  complete  preservation  from  dismemberment  and  decay.  There  is  evidently  in  some  of  the 
prayers  a  remembrance  of  a  time  when  the  deceased  were  dismembered  at  their  burial ;  and 
this  way  of  treating  the  corpse  is  for  the  deceased  an  object  of  horror.  The  frequent  mention 
of  reconstituting  the  body,  the  promises  that  no  part  of  it  shall  be  taken  away,  all  this  shows 
of  what  supreme  importance  it  was  for  him  that  his  body  should  remain  intact.  Without  a 
well  preserved  body  there  could  be  no  life  in  the  other  world ;  its  destruction  implies  the 
destruction  of  the  whole  individual.  This  belief  is  the  origin  of  mummification,  for  decay  is 
the  strongest  agent  of  dismemberment  and  the  certain  ruin  of  the  body. 

These  are  the  outlines  of  the  principal  tenets  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  If  we  inquire 
where  they  originated,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  bulk  of  the  book  came  from  Heliopolis.  It 
is  the  doctrine  of  that  ancient  city  and  of  its  priests.  Some  of  the  chapters  may  be  attributed 
to  the  priests  at  Abydos,  as  M.  Maspero  suggests ;  but  it  seems  certain  that,  except  for  a 
small  part,  the  birthplace  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  the  city  of  Ra  Tmu,  the  place  connected 
with  the  oldest  religious  traditions  of  the  country,  and  which  may  rightly  be  called  the  religious 
capital  of  Egypt. 

January,  1904.  Edguard  Naville. 

BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 


( I )   The  Beginning  of  the  Chapters  of  Co7ning  forth  by  Day,  of 
the  (2)    Words  which  bring  about  Resurrection  and  Glory,   and  of 
Coming  out  of  and  entering  into  Amenta.      Said  upon  the  Day  of 
Burial  of  N,   the    Victorious,  (3)  who  entereth  after  coming  forth. 
(4)  Here  is  N  the  Victorious.     He  saith — 

0  (5)  Bull  of  Amenta,  It  is  Thoth,  the  everlasting  King,  who  is 

1  am  the  great  god  in  the  Bark,  who  have  fought  for  thee. 

I  am  one  of  those  gods,  the  (6)  Powers  who  effect  the  triumph 
of  Osiris  over  his  adversaries  on  the  day  of  the  Weighing  of  the 
Words  :  I  am  thy  kinsman,  Osiris. 

I  am  one  of  those  gods  to  whom  Nut  hath  given  birth,  who  slay 
the  adversaries  of  Osiris  and  imprison  the  (7)  Sebau,  on  his  behalf: 
I  am  thy  kinsman,  Horus. 

I  have  fought  for  thee,  and  have  prevailed  for  thy  name. 

I  am  Thoth  who  effect  the  triumph  of  Osiris  over  his  adversaries 
on  that  day  of  Weighing  of  the  Words  in  the  (8)  House  of  the 
Prince,  which  is  in  Heliopolis. 

I  am  (9)  Tatti,  the  son  of  Tatti,  conceived  in  Tattu  and  born  in 
Tattu ;  and  Tattu  is  my  name. 

I  am  with  the  mourners  and  weepers  who  wail  over  Osiris  in 
(10)  Rechit,  and  who  effect  the  triumph  of  Osiris  over  his  adver- 

Ra  issued  the  mandate  to  Thoth,  that  he  should  effect  the 
triumph  of  Osiris  against  his  adversaries,  and  the  mandate  is  what 
Thoth  hath  executed. 

I  am  with  Horus  on  the  day  of  covering  (11)  Teshtesh  and  of 
opening  the  fountains  for  the  refreshment  of  (12)  the  god  whose 
heart  is  motionless,  and  closing  the  entrance  to  the  hidden  things 
in  (13)  Restau. 


2  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  am  with  Horus,  as  the  avenger  of  that  left  arm  of  Osiris  which 
is  in  (14)  Sechem. 

I  enter  in,  and  I  come  forth  from  the  (15)  Tank  of  Flame  on 
the  day  when  the  adversaries  are  annihilated  at  Sechem. 

I  am  with  Horus  on  the  day  when  the  festivals  of  Osiris  are 
celebrated,  and  when  offerings  are  made  [to  Ra],  on  the  Feast  of 
the  Sixth  day  of  the  Month,  and  on  the  Feast  of  Tenait  {16)  in 

I  am  the  Priest  (17)  in  Tattu  and  exalt  him  who  is  on  the 
Height.  (18) 

I  am  the  Prophet  in  Abydos  on  the  day  when  the  earth  is 

I  am  he  who  seeth  what  is  shut  up  at  Restau.  (19) 

I  am  he  who  reciteth  the  liturgies  of  the  (20)  Soul  who  is  Lord 
of  Tattu. 

I  am  the  Sem-priest  in  all  that  pertaineth  to  his  office. 

I  am  the  Arch-Craftsman,  on  the  day  in  which  the  Ship  of 
Sokaru  is  laid  upon  its  stocks.  (21) 

I  am  he  who  seizeth  the  mattock,  on  the  day  of  the  Feast  of 
Hoeing  in  Suten-henen.  (22) 

O  ye  who  bring  beneficent  souls  into  the  house  of  Osiris,  do 
ye  bring  the  soul  of  N  together  with  you  into  the  house  of  Osiris ; 
let  him  see  as  you  see,  let  him  hear  as  your  hear,  let  him  stand 
as  you  stand,  and  sit  as  you  sit  [in  the  house  of  Osiris]. 

O  ye  who  give  bread  and  beer  to  beneficent  souls  in  the  house 
of  Osiris,  do  you  give  bread  and  beer  at  the  two  periods  to  the 
soul  of  iVwho  is  with  you. 

O  ye  who  unclose  the  ways  and  open  the  roads  to  beneficent 
souls  in  the  house  of  Osiris,  unclose  then  the  ways  and  open  the 
roads  to  the  soul  of  N  who  is  with  you,  let  him  enter  boldly  and 
come  forth  in  peace  at  the  house  of  Osiris,  without  hindrance  and 
without  repulse.  Let  him  enter  at  his  pleasure  and  go  forth  at  his 
will,  triumphantly  with  you ;  and  let  that  be  executed  which  he 
shall  order  in  the  house  of  Osiris. 

No  lightness  of  his  in  the  scale  has  been  found  and  the  Balance 
is  (23)  relieved  of  his  case. 

PLATE    I. 

Papyrus  in  the  British   Museum. 
No.  9901, 

Set  Navili.e,  "  Rook  of  the  Dead,"  I,   PL   I  and  II. 



BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 



The  text  taken  for  the  basis  of  the  translation  of  Chapter  i 
is  that  of  the  papyrus  of  Huneferu  ;  Ag  of  M.  Naville's  edition. 

1.  The  title  here  translated  is  that  usual  in  all  the  papyri 
representing  the  third  period  of  the  text.  It  occurs  however  in 
the  papyrus  Ag  of  Huneferu,  who  lived  in  the  days  of  Seti  I, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  XlXth  dynasty.  It  is  also  found  in 
the  papyrus   of  Ani.     The  most  common  title  of  Chapter  i  in  the 

older  manuscripts  isXra^11^<=>i2i1Tj|' 
"Chapter  of  coming  to  the  divine  Powers  attached  to  Osiris." 
These  divine  Powers  are  Amsta,  Hapi,  Tuamautef  and  Qebehsenuf, 
the  children  of  Horus,  who  stand  upon  the  lotus  which  springs 
from  the  water  beneath  the  throne  of  Osiris,  in  pictures  of  the 
Psychostasia.  Chapter  124  bears  the  same  title  in  the  older 
manuscripts,  which  sometimes  begin  with  it. 

2.  s=»  T|  ^  I  'Iv^  ^  V^  QA  I .     These   are   two   very   difficult 

words,  and  very  different  meanings  have  been  assigned  to  them. 
But  when  the  entire  evidence  is  examined  the  result  is  plain  enough. 

Each  of  the  words  has  for  determinative  the  sign  g7\ ,  expressive 

of  some  kind  of  utterance.  It  is  a  \0709  of  some  kind.  Each 
has  for  its  first  letter  the  causative  — » — .     The  question  therefore 

is,  what  are  the  meanings   of  the  simpler  forms  ~|,  ^es,  and 

The  most  common,  indeed  the  only  true,  meaning  of  Tl  is 

'rising,'  and  even  'raising.'  This  is  too  well-known  to  require 
proof,  g  >  T|  is  'causing  to  rise.'  The  Pyramid  text  of  Teta  says 
(1.  270),  "  Horus  hath  given  his  children  that  they  may  raise  thee  up 
n  ^^  I  www    TV  ."    In  the  same  religious  text,  1.  248,  Tl 

is  the  rising  from  the  funereal  couch  after  the  c^ot  jj  ^j  ,  the  recita- 
tions made  over  the  dead. 

The  'raising  up'  or  'resurrection'  here  spoken  of  is  said  not 
only  of  the  soul  but  of  the  body  of  the  deceased  person.  The 
papyrus  of  Nebseni  has  preserved  two  chapters,  to  which  M.  Naville 
has  assigned  the  numbers  177  and  178. 

B  2 



Chapter  of  raising  up  the  Chu,  and  giving  life  to  the  Soul  in  the 

Chapter  of  raising  2ip  the  body,  of  giving  it  eyes  a  fid  the  possession 
of  ears,  and  establishing  the  head,  made  firtn  on  its  props. 

'S/'  hat,  is  not  simply  the  body  ;  it  is  the  dead  body,  that 
which  has  fallen,  hke  the  Latin  cadaver,  the  Greek  v-wfia,  the 
Hebrew  n7S^.  (See  Tratisactions  Soc.  Bib.  Arch.,  Vol.  VIII, 
p.  221,  note  2.) 

The  true  meaning  of  'Sn^  ®  m  ^«  is  not  '  luminous '  but  '  clear, 

distinct,  glittering,  coruscans,'  and  hence  '  bright,  splendid,  illustrious, 
glorious,'  and  the  like.  Like  the  Greek  Xa^-n-po^,  the  Latin  clarus, 
the  Hebrew  ^pf!^,  or  the  French  eclat,  it  is  applied  to  sound  as  well 
as  to  light.     It  is  said  of  Thoth  (in  the  wretched  orthography  *  of  a 

tablet  of  the  XlXth  dynasty)  fi  '^  ®  ^  ^  1^  '^  S  ^^  '  ^'''  ^e 
glorified  them  with  the  clear  utterances  of  his  mouth."   'Iv^ 

corresponds  to  the  Greek  Xafiirpocptviu'a.      As  a  verb     ^^^  is 

clareo,  and     I  '^  is  clarifico,  glorifico. 

*  Sharpe,  E./.,  pi.  97- 

The  papyrus  Da  which  is  of  the  same  period  reads  '^^^  ®  v\  .^  |  ^|\ 


in  the  title  of  Chapter  17,  instead  of  '^n.  '  glorj-,'  '  eclat.' 

The  '^N^  ®   y\  /K  1  correspond  by  their  name  very  closely  with  the  devas  of 

JT'      Jl  fill  -^    ®  ^H^  ' 

Indian  mytholog>',  and  the  dead  are  called  ^^      "^  I  on  the  pious  hj-pothesis 

of  their  having  obtained  '  glor)'.'     The  word  has  nothing  to  do  with  '  intelligence.' 
It  is  particularly  applicable  to  the  heavenly  bodies,  the  sun,  moon  and  stars — 

'  the  glittering  ones,' and  the  horizon  at  sunrise  ^^^  ^?//,  and   ^^^       )jl    'fire' 
derive  their  names  from  their  ec/at.  ^ 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD,  5 

There  are,  it  is  true,  variants  in  the  title  of  Chapter  17,  giving 
the  form  HT  ^^  v  8i()  ' '  ^"  ^V^^Q  of  the  excellent  authority  of 
these  variants,  they  must  be  considered  as  giving  an  erroneous 
reading.  The  words  IT  ^v  vQD  'remember,'  and  H'^ 
are  different  in  origin  and  meaning.  The  latter  signifies  'confer 
glory,'  and  the  ' '^  ®  v  STl  '  ^^^  religious  formularies  recited 
by  priests,  identifying  the  deceased  person  with  Osiris  and  other 
divinities.  There  are  numerous  pictures  in  the  tombs  representing 
priests  performing  this  office.* 

3.  M.  Deveria  has  produced  excellent  evidence  showing  that 
ci      Jiiadt-heru  has  the  sense  of  '  victorious,  triumphant.'     But  the 

sense  of  veridiqiie   is   untenable.      1  v\  Q[\    heru   is    '  voice '   not 

'speech.'  In  Proceedings  S.B.A.,  Vol.  VI,  p.  192,  note,  I  have 
quoted  a  passage  from  a  chapter  (now  numbered  181  in  M.  Naville's 

edition)  in  which  S^  I    V  signifies  'want  of  success,  failure.' 

S^  I   V\  QA   fiiailt  heru  really  signifies  "one  whose  voice  is 

Law."  It  is  essentially  a  divine  title  (see  "Altar  at  Turin,"  Tra?is- 
actions.  III,  pi.  II,  li?ie  10,  appended  to  Mr.  Bonomi's  article),  and 
in  no  Egyptian  text  is  it  used  of  mortals  supposed  to  be  living. 
The  translation  "juste  de  voix,"  limits  the  conception  of  viadt  to 
one  of  its  secondary  acceptations. 


semaat  heru  is  also,  and  necessarily  so,  a  divine 
act,  that  of  Thoth ;  and  it  is  done  through  his  utterances. 

4.      \     an  in  this  place  as  in  very  many  others  is  not  a  preposition, 

still  less  is  it  a  verb.  It  is  a  demonstrative  particle,  like  the  Latin 
en,  ecce,  or  the  Hebrew  ^n.  Nothing  is  more  common  than  this 
particle  followed  only  by  a  proper  name,  e.g.,  on  the  funereal  figures. 
There  is  not  the  slightest  reason  for  supposing  that  there  is  an 
ellipse  of  the  verb  '  saith.'  The  particle  is  used  like  the  corres- 
ponding Latin  one  under  the  Scottish  picture  of  Edward  I — 

'En  rex  Edwardus  debacchans  ut  leopardus.' 
*  See  Denkin,  II,  71  b,  72  a,  b,  loi  b ;  cf.  98  //,  116  c,  and  III,  260  c. 


When  I  translate  (  L/  ^^  .  .  .  (  ^^^,  "  It  is  Thoth— who  is 
here,"  I  do  not  wish  to  imply  that  (J  W^  is  the  verb  to  be,  any  more 
than  I  should  in  the  frequent  expression  \  ^^  K.<=^  1  -Y-  ^-^^^^  "  It 
is  his  son  who  revives  his  name."         H     is  a  demonstrative  particle 

and  nothing  else. 

Instead  of  looking  out  for  moods  and  tenses  and  paradigms, 
Egyptologists  ought  to  wake  to  the  consciousness  that  the  Egyptians 
never  rose  to  the  conception  of  what  we  mean  by  a  verb. 

5,  The  Bull  of  Amenta  is  Osiris.  Bull,  like  Lion  or  Hawk,  was 
one  of  the  figurative  names  of  gods  or  kings,  and  Osiris  is  sometimes 
represented  with  a  Bull's  head. 

6.  11  I  J)  I  T'afat.  This  word  is  often  wrongly  translated 
'judges.'  The  divine  judges  are  called  t'afat,  but  the  proposition 
is  not  simply  convertible.  There  were  the  A  (i  J)  I  "^ot  only 
of  Osiris,  but  {Todt.,  22,  2)  also  of  every  god  and  every  goddess. 
And  all  the  ancient  towns  of  Egypt  had  their  divine   ll       I   jl  1  •     It 

is  a  term  used  {cf.  p.  55)  as  exactly  synonymous  with  ^    |  |  I-     I^i  a 

mythological  system  like  the  Egyptian  no  god  stood  alone  ;  every 
god  involved  others  in  close  connection  with  himself,  and  every  act 
of  his  necessitated  corresponding  acts  on  their  part. 

7.  The  sfbmi  are  the  enemies  of  the  Sjtn,  either  as  Ra  or  Osiris. 
I  believe  that  under  this  mythological  name  the  dark  clouds  are 

8.  Jlet  Sant,  '  House  of  the  Prince,'  is  the  name  of  the  great 
Sanctuary  at  Heliopolis.  It  must  be  remembered  however  that  many 
of  the  geographical  localities  named  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  have 
their  counterparts  in  the  Egyptian  heaven. 

^"    M  mM^  '    °''  n  H   V'  ^^^  'firni,  stable,  unalterable,  abiding, 
eternal   one,'  whose   origin  and  progress  are  in  eternity.     The  city 

nv^^^TfU^'-^  ^""^^  ^  name  like  the  Palestinian  H-II^j  Gazah, 
the  '  strong '  city,  and  many  other  Hebrew  names  connected  with  the 
root  ffjr. 


10.  Rec/iii,  a  locality  in  the  north  of  Egypt.  The  mourners  and 
weepers  alluded  to  are  chiefly  Isis  and  Nephthys. 

11.  Teshtesh  is  one  of  the  names  of  Osiris;  perhaps,  as  might  be 
inferred  from  a  text  at  Dendera,  of  his  molten  image. 

12.  The  god  "whose  heart  is  motionless"  is  Osiris. 

\x.  ~^    I  Re-stau.  one  of  the  gates  of  the  Netherworld. 

Its  situation  is  specified  in  Chapter  17,  line  19. 

14.  Sechem.  Letopolis,  where  the  arm  of  Osiris  had  been  de- 
posited, when  the  other  limbs  of  the  god  were  dispersed  throughout 
the  cities  of  Egypt. 

15.  The  Tank  of  Flame,  as  may  be  inferred  from  the  vignettes 
of  the  papyri,  is  where  the  sun  rises  or  sets.     Cf.,  Unas,  393,  506. 

16.  Tenait.     Feast  of  the  seventh  day  of  the  month. 

17.  The  speaker  now  assumes  the  persons  of  various  priests  in 
succession,  the  f    \  /wwvv  db,  the     |  y  n+^  hen  tiutar  (prophet),  the 

I  ^^\  M+^  sem,  and  the  ^fe=s  (7  y  ^  ura  herp  hern  ;  *  and  he  de- 
scribes himself  as  performing  certain  religious  ceremonies.  It  must 
never  be  forgotten  when  reading  these  texts  that  the  Egyptian  priests 
had  divine  titles,  and  that  their  ceremonies  were  dramatic,  and 
symbolical  of  the  acts  performed  by  the  gods. 

18.  The  text  here  is  hopelessly  corrupt.  The  translation  given 
follows  Ag. 

Instead  of    I  ^  T  exalt,  several  MSS.  have    1    j  "i^^  ^  (i)  )  , 

which  has  been  rendered  anoint  with  oil.  One  might  translate  the 
Turin  text,  "  I  lustrate  with  water  in  Tattu  and  with  oil  in  Abydos, 
exalting  him  who  is  in  the  heights  (in  excelsls),"  for  this  text  com- 

bines different  readings.     But 


as  it  is  written,  may 

have  another  meaning.       1  a(^  beq,  signifies  'clear,  bright,  shining,' 
and  the  olive  tree  derives  its  name  from  this,     The  determinative 

*  The  evidence  produced  by  W.  Max  Miiller  in  behalf  of  this  reading  of  ihe 
priestly  name  is  quite  convincing. 

?  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

T  and  the  causative   1  furnish  the  sense,  'I  make  bright,  illustrious, 

glorious,'  '  I    celebrate    or   glorify.'     '  He   is  who   on    the   height ' 
(=  p''7i^)  is,  according  to  Chapter  17,  the  Sun. 

19.  This  is  perhaps  supposed  to  be  said  by  the  priest  called 
'^=f y  ,  the  'Arch-seer,'  at  Heliopolis. 

20.  One  of  the  designations  of  Osiris.  Perhaps  the  word  Ba 
should  be  translated  Ram,  for  in  the  Mendesian  Nome  Osiris  was 

worshipped  under  this  form,  and  was  called  ^  js, —     ^  heru  sefit, 

'  god  of  the  strong  face.'     The  fact  is  that  whether  applied  to  the 
soul  or  to  a  ram,  the  word  ba  is  expressive  of  '  power,  force.'     The 

same  word  under  the  form    J  ("^^  ^^  ^  _^  is  used  in  Chapter  120, 

2  (=  12,  2)  in  the  sense  of  'splitting  up.'     And  this  is  clearly  the 
Egyptian  concept  of  the  soul — *  the  internal  force,  that  which  works 

within  us,'  to  evep'-fouv. 

The  word  is  ideographically  written  ^^^  or  <*^^)*  both  the 
Ram  and  the  cranelike  bird  being  called  ba.  Some  have  cleverly 
inferred  that  the  Egyptians  thought  that  the  soul  was  of  a  birdlike 
form,  and  others  have  not  hesitated  to  consider  ba  as  expressive  of 
the  cry  of  the  ram.  The  odd  thing  is  that  only  the  ram  has  this 
name,  not  the  s/trep  or  the  lamb,  who  nevertheless  indulge  in  the 
same  cry.  The  truth  is  that  in  spite  of  appearances  the  word  ba  is 
not  onomatopoeic  here.  Whether  applied  to  the  ram  or  to  the  heron, 
the  word  is  expressive  of  human  action  and  signifies  'digging 
through,  cleaving,  piercing,  splitting.'     The  hieroglyphic  variants  are 

very  expressive  :   J  ^>^>  J  "^"^^  Wl'  J*^"^^' 

J  ([  ^='5>^,     ^^uO^^^n'    '^^^"'^^^   (f^he   last   is  already  found 
in  Denkm.  II,  51). 

The  Ram  is  called  in  Egyptian  ba  on  account  of  the  digs  which 
he  makes  with  his  head,  and  a  force  which  has  occasioned  the  name 
of  '  ram '  to  be  given  to  powerful  engines. 

*  The  human  head  (with  a  beard)  sometimes  given    to  the  bird,   merely 
indicates  the  aivine  nature  of  the  soul. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  9 

The  Heron  is  also  called  ba  because  with  its  bill  it  cleaves  the 
fishes  which  it  attacks. 

And  the  word  which  we  translate  Soul  or  Spirit  is  called  Im, 
because  it  is  conceived  as  something  which  'pierces,  penetrates  and 

It  is  right  to  point  out  (to  those  who  may  wonder  at  this 
Egyptian  etymology)  that  the  Latin  scio  'I  know'  is  etymologically 
akin  to  seco  '  cut,'  securis  '  an  axe,'  and  the  Greek  kqUc^  Ked^w  '  split, 

21.  The 

1  ^^^^  M^  sem,  and  the  "^^  0  9  urd  herp  hem,  were 

priests  in  the  service  of  Ptah.  The  latter,  who  held  perhaps  the 
highest  sacerdotal  office  in  Egypt,  as  high  priest  of  Ptah  at  Memphis, 
is  repeatedly  found  combining  with  his  own  special  office  that  of  the 
seftt.  The  ceremony  which  is  here  referred  to  consisted  in  a  grand 
procession  round  the  walls  of  the  great  sanctuary  of  Ptah,  conveying 

upon  a  sledge  the  bark  '^^vA  in  which  the  coffin  of  the  god  was  sup- 

posed to  rest.  Sokaru  signifies  '  the  coffined,'  and  Ptah  Sokaru  is 
only  a  form  of  Osiris.  Abundant  details  of  the  ceremony  will  be  found 
in  the  plates  of  M.  Mariette's  Abydos,  I,  pi.  t,6  and  following.  The 
king  Seti  I  is  represented  as  a  Sem  priest  presiding  at  the  festival. 

2  2.  1  2j)  "''^•'^  Suten-henen  viiLS  cdWed  by  the  Greeks  Hera- 


23.  Or  'rid  of  his  business.'  The  word  ^^  sej>,  'turn,'  has 
the  different  significations  of  the  Latin  'vices.' 

In  the  later  recensions  this  chapter  is  lengthened  out  by  other 
petitions.  The  deceased  asks,  among  other  things,  to  appear 
"  before  thee,  O  Lord  of  the  gods,  to  attain  the  region  of  Madt, 
may  I  rise  up  a  living  god,  let  me  shine  like  the  divine  host  which 
is  in  heaven,  let  me  be  as  one  of  you.  Let  my  steps  be  lifted  up  in 
Cher-abaut.  Let  me  see  the  ship*  of  the  holy  Sahu  [Orion], 
traversing  the  sky ;  let  me  not  be  prevented  from  seeing  the  lords 
of  the  Tuat  [the  Netherworld],  smelling  the  fragrance  of  the  sacrificial 

*  This  is  one  of  the  meanings  of    1  \  ,'~v:2*c; ,   but  in  this  place  it  may 

simply  mean  '  going  round  in  a  ship.' 



offerings  made  to  the  divine  host,  and  sitting  with  them.  Let  the 
Cher-heb  [the  priestly  ministrant]  make  invocation  over  my  coffin. 
Let  me  hear  the  prayers  of  propitiation.  Let  the  divine  ship 
Neshemet  advance  for  me,  let  not  my  soul  and  its  possessor  suffer 

An  invocation  to  Osiris  follows. 

"  Hail  to  thee,  Prince  of  Amenta,  Osiris,  lord  of  Nifura ;  grant 
that  I  may  advance  in  peace  towards  Amenta,  and  that  the  Lords  of 
Tasert  may  receive  me  and  say  to  me,  '  Salutation !  Salutation !  in 
Peace ! '  let  them  make  for  me  a  seat  by  the  Prince  of  the  divine 
Powers,  let  the  two  Chenemta  goddesses  [Isis  and  NephthysJ  receive 
me,  in  presence  of  Unneferu,  the  Victorious.  Let  me  be  a  follower 
of  Horus  in  Re-stau,  and  of  Osiris  in  Tattu.  Let  me  assume  all 
forms  for  the  satisfaction  of  my  heart  in  every  place  that  my  Genius 
{Ka\  wisheth." 

The  following  rubric  is  found  as  early  as  the  XlXth  dynasty  in 
connection  with  this  chapter,  but  it  seems  to  have  originally  been 
attached  to  Chapter  72. 

"  If  this  discourse  is  learnt  upon  earth,  or  is  written  upon  the 
coffin,  he  (the  deceased)  may  come  forth  upon  every  day  that  he 
pleaseth  and  again  enter  his  house  without  impediment.  And  there 
shall  be  given  to  him  bread  and  beer  and  flesh  meat  upon  the  table 
of  Ra  :  he  shall  receive  allotment  in  the  Fields  of  Aarru  [the 
Elysian  fields  of  Egyptian  mythology],  and  there  shall  be  given  to 
him  there  wheat  and  barley,  for  he  shall  be  flourishing  as  when  he 
was  upon  earth." 

Chapter  i  is  followed  in  M.  Naville's  edition  by  another,  which 
the  learned  editor  calls  i  B.  This  chapter  is  found  in  so  very  few 
copies  that  the  text  cannot  as  yet  be  restored.  The  two  texts 
published  by  M.  Naville  differ  widely  from  each  other.  It  was  known 
however  down  to  the  Roman  period,  though  not  inserted  into  copies 
of  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 

It  is  called  Chapter  of  ititrodvcing  the  Mvmmy  into  the  Tuat  on 
the  day  of  burial.  The  124th  chapter  bears  a  similar  title.  The 
word  here  translated  mummy  is  probably  not  to  be  understood  of 
the  visible  mummy,  but  of  tiie  living  personality  which  it  enclosed. 
The  chapter  opens  with  an  invocation,  "  Hail  to  thee,  who  art  in 
the  sacred  region  of  Amenta,  the  Osiris,  [the  deceased]  knows  thee 
and  thy  name,  defend  him  from  those  Worms  which  are  in  Restau, 


I  I 

who  live  upon  the  flesh  of  men  and  swallow  their  blood."  The 
names  of  the  Worms  were  given,  but  in  consequence  of  the  gaps 
in  the  text  they  cannot  now  be  recovered.  The  chapter  finished 
with  prayers  in  which  the  deceased  identifies  himself  with  Horus, 
who  has  taken  possession  of  the  throne  which  his  father  has  given 
him  ;  he  has  taken  possession  of  heaven,  and  inherited  the  earth, 
and  neither  heaven  nor  earth  shall  be  taken  from  him,  for  he  is  Ra, 
the  eldest  of  the  gods.  His  mother  suckles  him  and  offers  him  her 
breast,  which  is  on  the  horizon  at  Dawn. 


CHAPTER    n. 

Chapter  for  Coining  forth  by  day  and  Living  after  death. 

Oh  thou  Only  One,  (i)  who  shinest  from  the  Moon,  let  me 
come  forth  amid  that  train  (2)  of  thine,  at  large,(3)  and  let  me  be 
revealed  (4)  as  one  of  those  in  glory.  (5) 

And  when  the  Tuat  is  opened  to  the  gods,  let  N  come  forth 
to  do  his  pleasure  upon  earth  amid  the  Living. 


This  chapter  occurs  in  only  two  of  the  ancient  MSS.  collated  by 
Naville :  Ae  and  Pf.     It  is  also  found  in  the  papyrus  of  Ani. 

I.       I       'unicus,'  the  Sole  and  Only  One,  is  one  of  the  many 
.^ a 

appellatives  of  the  Sun.     He  is  here  represented  as  shining  /;/  or 
from  the  Moon.     Cf.  note  on  Chapter  132. 

C  2 

12  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

2-  *^^  Wi  r^  1 5  '  multitude,  throng,  train,'  here  put  for  the 
'heavenly  host,'  the  aKpno9  aarpwu  ©xAos  (Euripid.,  J^r  596),  or  the 
Hebrew  DiDlTn  ^^1!!. 

Osiris  is    |  ^  rTf  <^4v  ^  >  '  ^^^  leader  of  the  host,'  Sharpe,  I,  105. 

3-  ^^^^^'  ^^^'^'^'  V""^^"^^'  ^°^^^'  'forth,  out 
of  doors,  at  large,'  in  opposition  to  enclosure  in  the  tomb. 

4-  p  Ji  o)  explicare,  'disclose,  unfold,  reveal,  make  clear.' 

5.  Or  '  among  the  Glorious  ones,'  (1  ^^^^  ^^  ®  /U  '  • 

Another  chapter  like  it. 

Oh  Tmu,  who  proceedest  from  Ur-henhenu,  (i)  who  art  resplen- 
dent as  the  Lion-faced,  (2)  and  who  strewest  thy  words  to  those  who 
are  before  thee ; 

Here  cometh  the  faithful  N,  from  the  band  of  those  who  do  the 
bidding  of  thy  words. 

0  ye  seamen  of  Ra  at  the  gloaming  of  the  day,  let  iVlive  after 
death,  like  Ra  daily. 

Here  the  /ielms??tan :  As  Ra  is  bom  from  Yesterday,  so  he  too  is 
born  from  Yesterday,  and  as  every  god  exulteth  in  life,  so  shall  N 
exult  even  as  they  exult  in  life. 

1  am  Thoth  as  he  goeth  forth  from  the  House  of  the  Prince  in 
Heliopolis.  (3) 


The  only  ancient  copy  of  this  chapter  is  in  the  papyrus  of 
Amen-neb  {Ae),  and  here  it  is  imperfect. 

I.  A  personification  of  the  Nile,     ■^^  UUt  •     The   later 

texts  read  -cz:=>  ^iJ^^  ,  'the  great  goddess  in  the  Water.' 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 3 

2.  The  later  texts  have  ^^^"^  rVl  Wl'  "^""Plyiig  the  two  hons  Shu 
and  Tefnut.     But  the  older  texts  have  -^^^  ||  [  ^ ,  a  single  god, 

with  a  lion's  face  or  form.     The  two  notions,  however,  are  found  in 
combination  in  the  Pyramid  texts  of  Unas  (1.  558)  and  Teta  (1.  332). 

3.  See  note  8  on  Chapter  i. 


Another  Chapter,  for  travelling  on  the  road  which  is  above 

the  earth. 

It  is  I  who  travel  on  the  Stream  (i)  which  divideth  the  divine 
Pair,  (2)  I  am  come,  let  there  be  given  to  me  the  lands  of  Osiris. 


This  fourth  chapter  has  not  as  yet  been  found  in  any  of  the 
papyri  of  the  best  period. 

^'  ^^  ^  AAAA^ ,  literally  'weeping,'  'flood  of  tears,'  hence 
'overflow,  inundation,  stream  or  canal.'  It  is  one  of  the  names  of 
the  Nile  on  earth  and  in  heaven  and  of  his  personification  as  a  god. 
See  Chapter  61,  and  F.S.B.A.,  XIII,  p.  8  and  9. 

^'  I  ^  ^  ^  '  °''  H  ^^  "^  ^  ^  ^^^  ^^^  divinities  in  opposi- 
tion or  contrast,  like  Set  and  Horus  (Chapter  17,  25)  or  the  sister 
goddesses  named  ^  D-  T)^  Merta  (37,  i).     Thoth  is  the  umpire 

between  Set  and  Horus  (Darkness  and  Light)  and  mediates  between 
them,  but  he  and  Ra  (the  Moon  and  Sun)  are  (Teta,  1.  69)  spoken 
of  as  the  two  Rehu  gods  travelling  over  the  sky. 

Chapter  V. 

Chapter  whereby  work  may  not  be  imposed  \upon  a  person  (1)]  in 

the  Netherworld. 

Here  is  N.  He  saith,  I  am  he  who  raiseth  the  hand  which  is 
motionless,  and  I  come  forth  at  the  hour. (2)  I  am  the  living  Soul.(3) 
and  there  go  before  me  the  longings  (4)  of  those  who  bring  saluta- 

14  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


This  chapter  is  found  in  several  of  the  best  MSS.,  but  the  text  is 
extremely  corrupt,  and  must  have  become  absolutely  unintelligible. 
The  Turin  text  differs  greatly  from  that  of  the  older  copies,  and  the 
transposition  of  words  clearly  shows  how  little  the  transcribers  under- 
stood what  they  were  writing.  I  follow  chiefly  the  text  of  Aa,  the 
papyrus  of  Nebseni. 

1.  These  words  only  occur  in  the  later  copies. 

2.  ^^  D  v\  ®  is  the  older  reading,  but  -^^      _  seems  to  be 

the  more  correct. 

3.  The  oldest  text  must  have  had  simply  the  ideographic  "^^  , 
Ae  gives  "^  ^  Jj  Ba,  but  Fd  has  Q  |\  "%^  J)  Hnemu.  The 
'  living  Soul '  is  that  of  the  Sun,  whether  he  is  called  Ra  or  Osiris. 

4.  '  Desires,  wishes,  loves,'  literally,  '  hearts.' 

5.  [  'vw-.~>  qA  signifies  'salute,' as  in  Chapter  12,  i,  and  14,  i. 

and  [ 


■  ••-■•■  ;^^,  ^i^^  (with  various  Other  forms)  the   '  saluter,' 

is  the  name  of  the  Ape  who  is  seen  in  the  vignettes  of  the  papyri 
saluting  the  rising  of  the  sun.  See  M.  Naville's  Todienbuch,  I, 
plates  2 1  and  2  2  ;  the  Papyrus  of  Ani,  plate  2  ;  the  Todienbuch  of 
Lepsius,  Chapters  16  and  126. 

I  do  not  know  how  far  it  is  correct  to  illustrate  this  undoubted 
origin  of  the  Egyptian  name  for  the  Ape,  as  '  the  saluting  one,'  by 
the  following  extract  of  a  letter  to  Cuvier  from  M.  Duvaucelle,  about 
the  Siamang  apes  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bencoolen  in  Sumatra. 

"They  assemble  in  numerous  troops and  thus  united,  they 

salute  the  rising  and  the  setting  sun  with  the  most  terrific  cries, 
which  may  be  heard  at  the  distance  of  many  miles  ;  and  which,  when 
near,  stun,  when  they  do  not  frighten.  This  is  the  morning  call  of 
the  mountain  Malays,  but  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  town,  who  are 
unaccustomed  to  it,  it  is  a  most  insupportable  annoyance." 

In  this  place  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  the  sign  ^^  is  a  mere 

determinative  of  the  sound  ad7i  with  the  notion  of  salutation,  just  as 
the  sign  ^o^  is  a  determinative  of  the  sound  ab  with  the  notion 
of  thirst. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 5 

The  '  saluters '  of  the  rising  sun  are  neither  real  apes  nor  men 
but  the  "  Spirits  of  the  East  "  who,  as  we  are  told  in  an  inscription  of 
the  tomb  of  Ranieses  VI,  "  effect  the  rising  of  Ra  by  opening  the  door 
at  each  of  the  four  portals  of  the  eastern  horizon  of  heaven.  They 
it  is  who  light  him  on  both  sides,  and  go  forth  in  advance  of  him 
And  when  he  arises  they  turn  into  six  cynocephali."* 

The  Egyptian  words  in  the  later  texts  are  Ar  ^.      I    '    nP<B    ' 

V\  irQ  I  0  v\  A,    the   alternative   reading 

being  itself  a  proof  that  the  difficulty  of  the  text  was  already  felt  by 
some  Egyptian  scribe. 

But  if  the  scribe  had  consulted  the  oldest  texts  accessible  in  his 
day,  he  would  probably  have  seen  another  way  out.    Our  oldest  MS., 

that  of  Nebseni,   reads,  J  fl  "y^  ^^=^\  ^  >?  fl 

bes-kua  aim  aad{n)u,  which  signify  literally,  "antecedunt   me  corda 

salutantium.'     The   word     j     1  "^^  l><:s  is  a  very  common  one  in 

pictures  representing  the  introduction  of  a  king  or  a  god  into  a 
temple.  It  is  the  technical  term  used  in  the  Tablet  of  Canopus  for 
the  inducting,  by  the  king,  of  priests  into  their  offices.     The  subject 

of  this  verb  is  OO  0"  hearts;  an  independent  word,  instead  of  being 

J— <.—  ^ 
.     The  object  of  the  verb  is  the 

speaker — ^^ — X)  v\  ^ — kua,  '  me,'  as  the  papyrus  Pa  reads,  like  Aa. 

And  it  is  easy  to  see  how  the  later  text,  which  is  already  found  in 
Ax,  has  been  corrupted  out  of  the  older. 


Chapter  whereby    the  fimereal  Statuettes  may  be  made  to  do  ivork 
for  a  person  i?i  the  Nether^i'orld. 

O  Statuette  (i)  there  !  Should  I  be  called  and  appointed  to  do 
any  of  the  labours  that  are  done  in  the  Netherworld  by  a  person 
according  to  his  abilities,  lo  !  all  obstacles  have  been  beaten  down 

*  Champollion,  Notices,  torn.  II,  p.  640. 

l6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

for  thee ;  be  thou  counted  for  me  at  every  moment,  for  planting  the 
fields,  for  watering  the  soil,  for  conveying  the  sands  of  east  and  west. 
Here  am  I,  whithersoever  thou  callest  me. 


This  chapter  is  inscribed  on  the  funereal  statuettes,  of  which 
enormous  quantities  are  found ;  sometimes  by  hundreds  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  a  single  mummy.  Much  information  on  the 
subject,  both  archaeological  and  philological,  will  be  found  in 
Mariette's  Catalogue  General  des  Momunents  d'Abydos,  p.  25  and 
following,  and  in  M.  Loret's  articles  "Les  Statuettes. funeraires  du 
Musee  de  Boulaq,"  published  in  the  Recueil  de  Travaux,  tomes  IV 
and  V. 


word  being  read  usebti,  has  very  naturally  been  considered  as  derived 

from   "vNi— TC-i       QA>    i"    Coptic  OTtJOCy^    'to   answer.'     For  the 

statuette  is  addressed  at  the  beginning  of  the  chapter,  and  it  replies 
at  the  end.  But  there  is  no  reason  for  supposing  that  the  earlier 
form  had  the  same  meaning.  • 


Chapter  of  passing  through  the  chine  of  Apepi  which  is  void. 

Oh,  One  of  Wax,  (i)  who  takest  captive  and  seizest  with 
violence,  and  livest  upon  those  who  are  motionless  !  Let  me  not 
become  motionless  before  thee,  let  me  not  be  paralysed  before  thee, 
let  not  thy  venoms  enter  into  my  limbs,  for  my  limbs  are  the  limbs 
of  Tmu. 

And  if  thou  wouldst  not  be  paralysed,  let  me  not  be  paralysed. 

Let  not  thy  languors  enter  these  limbs  of  mine. 

I  am  the  One  who  presideth  over  the  pole  of  Heaven,  and  the 
powers  of  all  the  gods  are  my  powers. 

I  am  he,  whose  names  are  hidden,  and  whose  abodes  are 
mysterious  for  all  eternity. 

It  is  I  who  proceed  from  Tmu,  and  I  am  safe  and  sound.  (2) 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 7 


Apepi  is  the  personification  of  the  storm-cloud  and,  as  such,  is 
the  enemy  of  Ra,  by  whom  he  is  vanquished.  As  representing  a 
natural  phenomenon  of  irregular  occurrence,  he  is  not  deified  like 
Sutu,  the  Darkness  of  Night. 

On  comparing  this  chapter  with  the  99th,  it  would  appear  that 
the  occasion  for  reciting  it  is  on  the  journey  of  the  heavenly  boat 
through  ridges  of  cloud,  which  are  pictured  as  the  coils  of  a  great 
serpent,  and  described   as    ^  ^[^    inanes,  empty,  void.      In  the 

papyrus  of  Nebket  {Fe)  the  vignette  shows  the  deceased  person 
transfixing  the  dragon.  The  chapter  itself  was  said  over  a  wax 
figure  of  the  demon. 

1.  These  wax  figures  of  gods  and  other  personages  were  used 
not  only  for  ritual  but  for  unlawful  magical  purposes.  The  Rollin 
papyrus  reports  about  a  criminal  condemned  to  death  for  magical 

arts.   He  was  charged  with  making    |   |   |  '""^^  X  °  '  gods  of  wax,' 

and  some  men  "  for  the  purpose  of  paralysing  the  limbs  of  men 

& a  S  "'^'^  AA  "^^^  '-^'^^ .  VW^  r34."     See  Chabas,  Papyrus 

Magique,  p.  170,  and    Deveria,  Pap.  judiciaire  de  Turin,  p.  131. 

2.  The  more  recent  texts  omit  this  ending  and  substitute,  "  I 
know,  I  know."     Some  MSS.  have  both  readings. 

CHAPTER    Vni. 

.    Chapter  of  openmg  the  Tuat  by  day. 

The  Hour  (i)  discloseth  what  the  head  of  Thoth  keepeth  close, 
who  giveth  might  to  the  Eye  of  Horus.  (2) 

And  I  call  upon  the  Eye  of  Horus  which  gleams  as  an  ornament 
upon  the  brow  of  Ra,  the  father  of  the  gods. 

I  am  that  Osiris,  the  Lord  of  Amenta,  and  Osiris  knoweth  his 
day,  and  that  it  is  in  his  lot  that  he  should  end  his  being,  and  be  no 
more.  (3) 

I  am  Sutu,  the  father  of  the  gods,  the  imperishable  one. 

Stay,  Horus,  for  he  is  counted  among  the  gods. 


1 8  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1.  Time.  Notes. 

2.  See  note  on  Chapter  17,  27.  It  must  be  sufficient  here  to 
say  that  Thoth  is  a  personification  of  the  moon,  and  that  the 
relations  of  solar  and  lunar  phenomena  are  the  sources  of  a  great 
deal  of  Egyptian  mythology. 

3.  This  is  one  of  the  most  difficult  passages  in  the  Book  of  the 
Dead,  but  I  do  not  see  how  it  can  be  grammatically  understood 
otherwise.  It  is  understood  from  the  passage  from  Light  to  Darkness 
and  the  converse. 

'In  his  lot,'  literally  *in  him.' 

'  End  his  being ' :  more  strictly,  *  bring  to  an  end  his  activity  ' ; 
"^^  ^^  i^^  .  *  Being '  (though  inevitable  in  a  modern  language) 
is  much  too  abstract  a  word  for  these  ancient  texts.  ^^  implies 
'motion,  activity,'  and  '^^^  is  not  a  simple  negation,  but  implies 
'  completion,  end '  (reXea-,  Te'Xo?),  though  not  '  cessation.' 

Our  modern  acceptation  of  the  word  '  perfect '  is  often  wrongly 

applied  to  ytrir  .   We  should  think  rather  of  such  phrases  as  '  annum 


perficere,'  '  sole  perfecto.' 


Chapter  for  opening  the  Tuat. 

0  Soul  most  mighty,  (i)  here  am  I :  I  am  come  to  thee  that  I 
may  see  thee. 

1  open  the  Tuat  that  I  may  see  my  father  Osiris  and  may  drive 
away  the  darkness. 

I  am  he  whom  he  loveth.  I  have  come  to  see  my  father  Osiris, 
to  pierce  the  heart  of  Sutu,  and  to  perform  all  duties  to  my  father 

I  open  all  the  paths  in  heaven  and  upon  earth. 

I  am  the  son  who  loveth  his  father,  and  I  am  come  as  a 
mummied  one,  glorious  and  well  equipt. 

Oh,  all  ye  gods  and  goddesses,  the  path  is  made  for  me. 



I.  "^i^  i  I  fl,-^w-,  'Soul  most  mighty,'  is  one  of  the 

principal  names  of  Osiris.     The  whole  chapter  is  spoken  in  the 
person  of  Horus,  the  son  of  Osiris. 


Chapter  for  coming  forth  victoriously. 

I  come  forth  victoriously  against  the  adversaries. 

I  cleave  the  heaven,  I  open  the  horizon  and  I  travel  over  the 
earth  on  foot.  There  come  forward  to  me  the  Glorious  and  the 
Great  ones,  for  I  am  furnished  with  numberless  Words  of  Might. 

I  eat  with  my  mouth,  and  I  chew  with  my  jaw ;  for,  lo,  I  worship 
the  god  who  is  Lord  of  the  Tuat,  and  that  is  given  to  me  which 
endureth  amid  overthrow. 


Chapter  for  coming  out  against  the  adversary  in  the  Netherworld. 

Here  is  the  Osiris  N. 

0  Eater  of  his  arm  :  away  from  his  path  ! 

1  am  Ra  coming  forth  from  the  horizon  against  his  adversary, 
who  shall  not  be  delivered  from  me. 

I  have  stretched  out  my  hand,  as  the  Lord  of  the  Crown,  and 
lifted  my  feet. 

I  shall  not  be  given  up ;  my  adversary  shall  fall  before  me ;  he 
hath  been  given  up  to  me  and  shall  not  be  delivered  from  me. 

I  rise  up  like  Horus,  I  sit  down  as  Ptah,  I  am  victorious  as 
Thoth,  and  powerful  as  Tmu  :  I  walk  upon  my  feet,  I  speak  with 
my  mouth,  searching  for  him  who  hath  been  given  up  to  me ;  he 
shall  not  be  delivered  from  me. 

D  2 

20  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


There  is  unfortunately  no  early  text  of  this  chapter,  which  we 
have  in  a  very  corrupt  form,  and  can  only  restore  conjecturally. 
The  Eater  of  his  arm  is  evidently  Darkness,  which  is  destroyed  by 
the  Sun. 


Chapter  for  entering  and  for  coming  forth  out  of  the  Netherworld. 

Salutation  to  thee,  O  Ra,  who  guardest  the  secrets  of  the 
gates  (i)  over  this  domain  of  Seb,  and  this  Balance  with  which  Ra 
raiseth  up  Maat(2)  daily  : 

Here  am  I,  who  cleave  open  (3)  the  earth,  grant  that  I  may 
come  and  acquire  advance  in  age.  (4) 


This  chapter,  like  the  next,  occurs  only  in  Pa  among  the  older 
MSS.  It  comes  twice  in  the  Turin  copy,  being  repeated  as 
Chapter  120. 

1.  So  Pa ;  the  Turin  copy  has  'the  Tuat.' 

2.  In  many  places  it  is  important  to  treat  Maat  as  a  proper 

3-  j'^'^^^_/]  °^  J^^"^'  ^  ^^^^  "°'  confined  to 
agricultural  operations.     See  note  20,  p.  8. 

4.  As  the  sun,  who  is  represented  as  an  infant  at  dawn  and  as 
an  aged  man  at  sunset 


Chapter  for  entering  after  coming  out  from  Amenta. 

I  enter  as  a  Hawk  and  come  forth  as  a  Bennu  (i)  at  Dawn. 

Let  the  way  be  made  for  me  that  I  may  adore  Ra  at  the  fair 
Amenta,  and  the  locks  (2)  of  Osiris.     I  urge  on  the  hounds  of  Horus. 

Let  the  way  be  made  for  me  that  I  may  adore  Osiris,  the  Lord 
of  Life. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  21 


This  chapter,  in  the  MSS.  of  which  the  Turin  copy  is  the  type, 
is  repeated  as  Chapter  121,  with  the  following  rubric : — 

"Said  over  an  ear-ring  of  the  flower  Anch-amu,  put  upon  the 
right  ear  of  the  deceased  person,  with  another  ear-ring,  put  in  fine 
linen,  upon  which  is  written  the  name  of  N,  on  the  day  of  burial." 

1.  The  Bennu  is  a  bird  of  the  Heron  kind.  He  is  very  com- 
monly but,  I  think,  erroneously  identified  with  the  Phoenix.  The 
bird  described  by  Herodotus,  H,  73,  was  in  outline  and  size  "very 
like  an  eagle,"  which  no  one  could  say  of  the  Bennu.  He  appeared 
only  once  in  five  hundred  years,  whereas  the  Bennu  appeared  every 
day.  The  fable  as  told  by  the  Greeks  is  utterly  unsupported  by  any 
Egyptian  authority  known  to  us. 

2.  This  passage  is,  unfortunately,  both  in  the  ancient  and  the 
recent  forms,  corrupt. 


Chapter  for  removing  displeasure  from  the  heart  of  the  god 
against  the  deceased  person. 

Hail  to  thee,  oh  god  who  sendest  forth  (i)  the  Moment,  who 
presidest  over  all  the  Secret  things  (2),  and  protectest  the  utterance 
of  my  words. 

Here  (3)  is  a  god  displeased  against  me ;  let  wrong  be  over- 
whelmed and  let  it  fall  upon  the  hands  of  the  Lord  of  Law, 
Remove  (4)  the  impediments  which  are  in  me  and  the  evil  and  the 
darkness  (5),  oh  Lord  of  Law,  and  let  that  god  be  reconciled  to  me, 
removing  that  which  detaineth  me  from  thee. 

Oh,  lord  of  offerings  in  Kenu  (6),  let  me  offer  to  thee  the 
propitiary  offering  by  which  thou  livest,  and  let  me  live  by  it  and 
be  reconciled. 

Let  all  the  displeasure  which  is  in  thy  heart  against  me  be 


There  is  a  very  great  difference  between  the  earlier  and  the  later 
texts  of  this  chapter.     Former  translators,  having  chiefly  the  Turin 

22  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

text  before  them,  have  understood  the  title  of  the  chapter  as  in- 
tended "  to  remove  the  impurities  from  the  heart  of  the  deceased 
person."  The  Turin  text  of  the  chapter  is  really  unintelligible,  and 
even  in  the  earlier  texts  certain  passages  are  so  corrupt  as  to  defy 

1.  [~[]  ^^,  J  J\  like  the  Latin  'mittere'  has  the  sense  of  "let 
go,  give  free  course,  set  at  liberty." 

2.  n^\  ,  the  secrets,  here  as  elsewhere  in  the  funereal 
c^D  _^  III' 

texts,  are  those  of  the  tomb  and  of  the  world  beyond  the  grave. 

3.  The  older  texts  have  (  '^^^^^ ,  the  later  _ru. . 

4.  The  Lord  of  Law  is  in  the  singular,  but  the  imperative 
'  remove '  is  in  the  plural. 

5.  The  word  V  ^v  w-as  a  puzzle  to  the  oldest  transcribers.  It 
is  susceptible  of  different  meanings.  The  Turin  text  V  ^^^  j  ^ 
<cr>  '  the  god  is  joined  with  Law,'  which  is  supported  by  some 
of  the  older  papyri,  is  intelligible  in  itself,  but  not  in  this  context. 
I  have  understood  1  "^^  y  '^^  >  coming  as  it  does  after  ^^^  ^  ■<^ , 

in  the  sense  of  Y  ^>.  uO  "^X^  '  ^^^P  darkness.' 

6.  The  MSS.  differ  hopelessly  on  this  proper  name. 


Hymn  I  (i). 

Adored  he  Ra,  when  he  riseth  up  from  the  eastern  Jiorhon  of 
Heaven  ;  they  who  accompany  him  extol  him. 

Here  is  the  Osiris  N,  the  Victorious,  and  he  saith  : — 

O  thou  radiant  Orb,  who   arisest  each  day  from  the  Horizon, 

shine  thou  upon  the  face  of  the  Osiris  iVwho  adoreth  thee  at  dawn, 

and  propitiateth  thee  at  the  gloaming. 

Let  the  soul  of  N  come  forth  with  thee  into  heaven,  let  him 

journey  in  the  Maatit  boat  and  finish  his  course  in  the  Sektit  boat  (2) 

till  he  reach  in  heaven  unto  the  Stars  which  set  (3). 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  23 

He  saith,  as  he  invoketh  his  Lord,  the  Eternal  one  : — 
Hail  to  thee,  Horus  of  the  Two  Horizons  (4),  who  art  Chepera 
Self-originating  (5) ;  Beautiful  is  thy  rising  up  from  the  horizon, 
enlightening  the  two  Earths  with  thy  rays.  All  the  gods  are  in 
exultation  when  they  see  thee  the  King  of  Heaven,  with  the  Nebt 
Unnut  *  established  upon  thy  head  (and  the  diadem  of  the  South 
and  the  diadem  of  the  North  upon  thy  brow)  which  niaketh  her 
abode  in  front  of  thee. 

Thoth  abideth  at  the  prow  of  thy  bark  that  he  may  destroy  all 
thine  adversaries. 

They  who  dwell  in  the  Tuat  are  coming  forth  to  meet  thy 
Majesty,  and  to  gaze  upon  that  beautiful  semblance  of  thine. 

And  I  too  come  to  thee  that  I  may  be  with  thee  to  see  thine  Orb 
each  day ;  let  me  not  be  detained,  let  me  not  be  repulsed. 

Let  my  limbs  be  renewed  by  the  contemplation  of  thy  glories, 
like  all  thy  servants,  for  I  am  one  of  those  who  honoured  thee  upon 

Let  me  reach  the  Land  of  Ages,  let  me  gain  the  Land  of 
Eternity ;  for  thou,  my  Lord,  hast  destined  them  for  me. 

The  Osiris  N;  he  saith  : — 

Hail  to  thee  who  risest  up  from  the  Horizon  as  Ra  in  union 
with  Maat ;  thou  dost  traverse  heaven  in  peace  and  all  men  see  thee 
as  thou  goest  forward.  And  after  being  concealed  from  them  thou 
presentest  thyself  at  the  dawn  of  each  day. 

Brisk  is  the  bark  under  thy  Majesty. 

Thy  rays  are  upon  men's  faces ;  the  golden  glories  they  cannot 
be  told :  not  to  be  described  are  thy  beams. 

The  Lands  of  the  gods,  the  colours  of  Punit  (6)  are  seen  in  them  ; 
that  men  may  form  an  estimate  of  that  which  is  hidden  from  their 

Alone  art  thou  when  thy  form  riseth  up  upon  the  Sky ;  let  me 
advance  as  thou  advancest,  like  thy  Majesty,  without  a  pause,  O  Ra, 
whom  none  can  outstrip. 

A  mighty  march  is  thine ;  Leagues  by  millions,  and  hundreds  of 
thousands,  in  a  small  moment  thou  hast  travelled  them,  and  thou 
goest  to  rest. 

*  One  of  the  names  of  the  Uroeus  on  the  royal  crown. 

24  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Thou  completest  the  hours  of  the  Night,  according  as  thou  hast 
measured  them  out.  And  when  thou  hast  completed  them  accord- 
ing to  thy  rule,  day  dawneth. 

Thou  presentest  thyself  at  thy  place  as  Ra,  as  thou  risest  from 
the  Horizon. 

The  Osiris  N,  he  saith,  as  he  adoreth  thee  when  thou  shinest ; 
He  saith  to  thee  when  thou  risest  up  at  dawn,  as  he  exalteth  thine 
appearance  ; 

Thou  comest  forth,  most  glorious  one,  fashioning  and  forming 
thy  limbs,  giving  birth  to  them  without  any  labour,  as  Ra  rising  in 

Grant  that  I  may  attain  to  the  Heaven  of  eternity  and  the  abode 
of  thy  servants ;  let  me  be  united  with  the  venerable  and  mighty 
Chu  *  of  the  Netherworld ;  let  me  come  forth  with  them  to  see  thy 
glories,  as  thou  shinest  at  the  gloaming,  when  thy  mother  Nut  (7) 
enfoldeth  thee. 

And  when  thou  turnest  thy  face  to  the  West,  mine  hands  are  in 
adoration  to  thy  setting  as  one  who  liveth  ;t  for  it  is  thou  who  hast 
created  Eternity. 

I  have  set  thee  in  my  heart  unceasingly,  who  art  more  mighty 
than  all  the  gods. 


The  Osiris  N,  he  saith  : — 

Adoration  to  thee,  who  arisest  out  of  the  Golden,  and  givest  light 
to  the  earth  on  the  day  of  thy  birth.  Thy  mother  bringeth  thee  forth 
upon  her  hands,  that  thou  mayest  give  light  to  the  whole  cir- 
cumference which  the  Solar  Orb  enlightenelh. 

Mighty  Enlightener,  who  risest  up  in  the  Sky  and  raisest  up  the 
tribes  of  men  by  thy  Stream,  and  givest  holiday  to  all  districts, 
towns  and  temples ;  and  raising  food,  nourishment  and  dainties. 

Most  Mighty  one,  master  of  masters,  who  defendest  every  abode 
of  thine  against  wrong.  Most  Glorious  one  in  thine  Evening  Bark, 
Most  Illustrious  in  thy  Morning  Bark. 

Glorify  thou  the  Osiris  N  in  the  Netherworld,  grant  that  he  may 
come  into  Amenta  without  defect  and  free  from  wrong,  and  set  him 
among  the  faithful  and  venerable  ones. 

*  '  The  Glorious  ones ' ;  see  Note  i  on  Chapter  I. 
t  See  note  11. 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  25 

Let  him  be  united  with  the  souls  in  the  Netherworld,  let  him 
sail  about  in  the  country  of  Aarru  *  after  a  joyful  journey. 
Here  is  the  Osiris  JV. 

Come  forth  into  Heaven,  sail  across  the  firmament  and  enter 
into  brotherhood  with  the  Stars,  let  salutation  be  made  to  thee  in 
the  Bark,  let  invocation  be  made  to  thee  in  the  Morning  Bark. 
Contemplate  Ra  within  his  Ark  and  do  thou  propitiate  his  Orb 
daily.  See  the  Ant  fish  in  its  birth  from  the  emerald  stream,  and 
see  the  Abtu  fish  and  its  rotations.  (8) 

And  let  the  offender  t  fall  prostrate,  when  he  meditates  destruction 
for  me,  by  blows  upon  his  back-bone. 

Ra  springs  forth  with  a  fair  wind ;  the  Evening  Bark  speeds  on 
and  reaches  the  Haven ;  the  crew  of  Ra  are  in  exultation  when  they 
look  upon  him ;  the  Mistress  of  Life,  her  heart  is  delighted  at  the 
overthrow  of  the  adversary  of  her  Lord. 

See  thou  Horus  at  the  Look-out  of  the  ship,  (9)  and  at  his  sides 
Thoth  and  Maat.  All  the  gods  are  in  exultation  when  they  behold 
Ra  coming  in  peace  to  give  new  life  to  the  hearts  of  the  Chu,  and 
here  is  the  Osiris  iV  along  with  them. 

[Litany].  (10) 
Adored  be  Ra^  as  he  seiteth  in  the  Land  of  Life.  (11) 

Hail  to  thee,  who  hast  come  as  Tmu,  and  hast  been  the  creator  of 
the  cycle  of  the  gods,  (12) 

Hail  to  thee,  who  hast  come  as  the  Soul  of  Souls,  August  one  in 

Hail  to  thee,  who  art  above  the  gods  and  who  lightenest  up  the 
Tuat  with  thy  glories. 

Hail  to  thee,  who  comest  in  splendour,  and  goest  round  in  thine 

Hail  to  thee,  who  art  mightier  than  the  gods,  who  art  crowned  in 
Heaven  and  King  in  the  Tuat, 

Hail  to  thee,  who  openest  the  Tuat  and  disposest  of  all  its  doors. 

*  An   abode   of  bliss   (like   the    Elysian    fields)    frequently  mentioned   and 
described  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 

t  The  dragon  Apepi. 

26  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Hail  to  thee,  supreme  among  the  gods,  and  Weigher  of  Words  in 

the  Netherworld. 
Hail  to  thee,  who  art  in  thy  Nest,  and  stirrest  the  Tuat  with  thy 

Hail  to  thee,  the  Great,  the  Mighty,  whose  enemies  are  laid  prostrate 

at  their  blocks, 

Hail  to  thee,  who  slaughterest  the  Sebau  and  annihilates!  Apepi, 

[Each  invocation  of  this  Litany  is  followed  by] 

Give  thou  delicious  breezes  of  the  north  wind  to  the  Osiris  A\ 

Horus  openeth  ;  the  Great,  the  Mighty,  who  divideth  the  earths, 
the  great  one  who  resteth  in  the  Mountain  of  the  West,  and  lighteneth 
up  the  Tuat  with  his  glories  and  the  Souls  in  their  hidden  abode, 
by  shining  into  their  sepulchres. 

By  hurling  harm  against  the  foe  thou  hast  utterly  destroyed  all 
the  adversaries  of  the  Osiris  JV. 

HvMx  n.  (13) 

The  Osiris  iV^;  he  saith  when  he  adoreth  Ra,  the  Horus  of  the 
Two  Horizons,  when  setting  in  the  Land  of  Life. 

Adoration  to  thee, O  Ra:  Adoration  to  thee,  O  Tmu,  at  thy  coming 
in  thy  beauty,  in  thy  manifestation,  in  thy  mastery. 

Thou  sailest  over  the  Heaven,  thou  travellest  over  earth  and  in 
splendour  thou  reachest  the  zenith  ;  the  two  divisions  of  Heaven  are 
in  obeisance  to  thee,  and  yield  adoration  to  thee. 

All  the  gods  of  Amenta  are  in  exultation  at  thy  glory.  They  whose 
abodes  are  hidden  adore  thee,  and  the  Great  Ones  make  offerings 
to  thee,  who  for  thee  have  created  the  soil  of  earth.  (14) 

They  who  are  on  the  Horizon  convey  thee,  and  they  who  are  in 
the  Evening  Bark  transport  thee,  and  they  say — Adoration  at  the 
approach  of  thy  Majesty,  Come,  Come,  approach  in  peace.  Oh  to 
thee,  Welcome,  Lord  of  Heaven,  King  of  Akerta. 

Thy  mother  Isis  (15)  embraceth  thee,  seeing  in  thee  her  son,  as 
the  Lord  of  Terror,  the  AU-Powerful,  as  he  setteth  in  the  Land  of 
Life  at  night.  1 

Thy  father  Tatunen  (16)  carritth  thee,  and  his  arms  are 
stretched  out  behind  thee,  and  that  which  hath  taken  place  is  made 
fast  upon  earth. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  2/ 

Wake  up  from  thy  rest,  thine  abode  is  in  Manu. 
Let  me  be  entrusted  to  the  fidelity  which  is  yielded  to  Osiris. 
Come,  O  Ra,  Tmu,  he  thou  adored.     Do  thy  will  daily.     Grant 
success  in  presence  of  the  cycle  of  the  mighty  gods. 

Beautiful  art  thou,  O  Ra,  in  thine  Horizon  of  the  West  ;  O  Lord 
of  Law,  in  the  midst  of  the  Horizon. 

Very  terrible  art  thou,  rich  art  thou  in  attributes,  and  great  is  thy 
love  to  those  who  dwell  in  the  Tuat. 

To  be  said,  when  Rd  sets  in  the  Land  of  Life  ;  with  hands  bent 
do7vnward.  (17) 

HvMN  in.  (18) 
Adoration  to  Tmu  as  he  sefteth  in  the  Land  of  Life. 

The  Osiris  N ;  he  saith  :  — 

Adoration  to  Tmu  as  he  setteth  in  the  Land  of  Life. 

The  Osiris  N ;  he  saith,  adoring  Tmu,  when  setting  in  the  Land 
of  Life  and  shedding  his  rays  on  the  Tuat ; 

Hail  to  thee  setting  in  the  Land  of  Life,  O  Father  of  the  gods, 
thou  art  united  to  thy  mother  in  Manu.  Her  two  hands  receive  thee 
daily.  Thy  Majesty  hath  part  in  the  house  of  Sokaru.  Exult  thou 
because  the  doors  are  opened  of  the  Horizon,  at  thy  setting  in  the 
Mountain  of  the  West. 

Thy  rays,  they  run  over  the  earth  to  enlighten  the  dwellers  in 
Amenta.  Those  who  are  in  the  Tuat  worship  thee  with  loud  acclaim, 
and  cherish  hope  when  they  see  thee  daily. 

Thou  grantest  to  the  gods  to  sit  upon  the  earth  ;  to  those, 
namely,  who  follow  thee  and  come  in  thy  train. 

O  august  Soul,  who  begettest  the  gods,  and  dost  invest  them 
with  thine  attributes  ;  the  Unknowable,  the  Ancient  One,  the  Mighty 
in  thy  mystery. 

Be  thy  fair  face  propitious  to  the  Osiris  N,  oh  Chepera,  Father 
of  the  gods  (19). 

Freedom  for  ever  from  perdition  is  derived  through  this  Book, 
and  upon  it  I  take  my  firm  stand. 

E  2 

28  BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD. 

He  hath  written  it  who  spake  it,  and  his  heart  resteth  on  the 

Let  there  be  given  me  armfuls  of  bread  and  drink,  and  let  me 
be  accompanied  by  this  Book  after  my  life. 


The  fifteenth  chapter  as  it  stands  in  the  later  recension  (repre- 
sented by  the  Turin  Todtenbuch)  is  of  ver}'  recent  origin.  It  is  in 
fact  a  collection  of  texts  originally  independent  of  each  other  ; 
(i)  a  hymn  to  Ra  at  his  rising,  (2)  a  litany,  (3)  a  hymn  to  Ra  at  his 
setting,  (4)  a  hymn  to  Tmu  at  his  setting,  followed  by  a  statement 
respecting  the  spiritual  importance  of  the  document. 

Of  the  last  hymn  there  are  no  copies  of  ancient  date,  but  the 
other  three  compositions  are  found  more  or  less  perfect  as  far  back 
as  the  XlXth  dynasty.  The  discrepancies,  however,  between 
the  ancient  texts  furnish  so  much  evidence  of  free  composition  on 
the  part  of  the  scribes,  that  it  is  impossible  to  suppose  that  they 
had  before  them  documents  recognised  as  sacred  and  canonical. 
M.  Naville  has  found  it  necessar)'  to  publish  four  different  forms  of 
the  hymn  to  the  rising,  and  three  of  the  hymn  to  the  setting  sun. 
The  ideas  and  expressions  throughout  these  hymns  are  current  in 
the  religious  texts  of  the  XVIIIth  and  XlXth  dynasties. 

In  the  translation  here  given  I  have  followed  the  form  adopted 
by  the  later  recension,  correcting  the  text  when  necessary  by  the 
copies  written  in  the  better  periods. 

1.  The  text  of  the  Papyrus  of  Ani  has  been  taken  as  the  basis 
of  the  translation  of  Hymn  I.  It  is  the  only  ancient  text  which 
gives  the  hymn  in  the  form  subsequently  acknowledged  as  canonical. 

2.  l"he  sun  was  represented  from  the  earliest  period,  as  we  may 
see  in  the  pyramid  texts,  as  performing  his  celestial  journey  in  a  boat, 

which  during  the  morning  was  called  the  Alddtit  ^^^  ch^^j  ^"-^. 

and  in  the  evening  the  Sektit  ^^^^^^,5. 

^^^  <— =:a 
I  ^=    '  "   <=> 

lY\  "^  ^/f  I  a/jmiu  uretu.     The  stars  which   never  set,  but  are  always 
above  the  horizon  were  called  [I  __  I  '^^ht  ic  ^  1  d^miu  seku. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  29 

The  word  ahmiu  has  often  been  taken  for  a  mere  negative,   but 
it   occurs   by   itself   with    the    sign    of    stars    as  a  determinative 

'J^^    V  I  I  I '     4  , ^^^-       ^"^  ^^^  ^'^o^e  term  is  written 

^-icic.   1  \  '^ir:^  (Denkm.  Ill,  271^  twice). 

As  one  of  the  meanings   of  / hem    is  vu'nuere,  and  as   the 

ordinary  meaning  of  the  Demotic  cl_  :b  Us  "  small,"  like  the  Coptic 
cyoAX  =  \emhs,  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  stars  received  this 
appellation  on  account  of  their  tiny  size  as  compared  with  the  Sun 
and  Moon.     They  were  what  Horace  called  the  "ignes  mifwres." 

The  Sun  and  Moon,  as  we  all  know,  are  called  in  Gen.  i,  16, 
the  "  Two  Great  Lights." 

4.  Both  the  Eastern  and  the  Western  horizon  are  mentioned  in 
this  chapter,  but  "  Horus  of  the  Two  Horizons,"  has  no  reference  to 
this  distinction.  Whatever  the  Sun  passes  through  or  over  is  always 
conceived  as  double.  The  Tn'o  Earths  imply  simply  the  Earth  as 
divided  by  the  passage  of  the  Sun  above  it.  It  is  to  M.  Grebaut 
that  we  are  indebted  for  the  discovery  of  this  important  key  to  many 
Eg}'ptian  expressions. 

heper,  like  the  German  Werden,  has  primarily  the  sense 

of  turning,  hence  of  becoming.     It  never  has  the  sense  of  creatin^r. 

w  -h!^    heper  t'esef  is  the  equivalent  of  the  Greek  avro^fevij^,  and 

like  that  word  is  sometimes  used  for  spontaneous  productions  of  the 
mineral  kingdom,  as  salt  or  natron  as  contrasted  with  artificial  pro- 
ducts of  the  same  nature.  It  cannot  be  used  for  plants,  as  they  have 
an  origin  in  something  external  to  themselves. 

6.  The  Land  of  the  Gods  a.n6.  Funit  dive  ihe  countries  lying  east 
of  Egypt.     When  it  is  said  that  gods  '  come  from  Punit,'  it  is  not 
meant  by  this  that  they  are  of  Arabian  origin,  but  simply  that  Sun 
ISIoon,  and  Stars,  and  Daylight  rise  in  the  East.    "  Ex  oriente  Lux." 

7.  In  many  places  the  divine  name  Nut  has  for  determinative 
the  sign  t=-. — 1 .  Is  this  an  oversight  on  the  part  of  the  scribe,  or  is 
it  one  more  proof  that  the  Egyptians  certainly  believed  in  a  sky 
below  the  horizon  ?     If  so,  I  have  never  seen  it  misplaced. 

30  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

8.  The  Ant  and  the  Abtu  are  sometimes  represented  by  the  side 
of  the  solar  bark.  From  the  egg  of  the  Abtu  there  rises  the  great 
Cat,  the  Sun.    It  is,  as  M.  I.oret  has  proved,  the  Tortoise  of  the  Nile. 

As  \\  '  iibtu,  'the  month,'  is  phonetically  homonymous  with 

4  j]  c-=^  %^  '^^    abtu,    the    Tortoise,    and     that    the    latter 



v^haracterised  by  ,  D   ©,   '  its  rotation,    revolving  or  turning,' 

the  word  abtu,  whether  applied  to  '  month '  or  '  tortoise '  clearly 
signifies  'the  revolving  one.'  Our  modern  words  Tortoise,  Tortue, 
Tortuga,  rather  express  the  turning  or  twisting  of  the  creature's  feet. 
In  some  texts,  e.g.,  the  inscriptions  of  Amenhotep,  the  son  of  Hapu, 
Mariette,  Karnak,  pi.  36,  line  22,  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  Ani 

Papyrus,  the  word  is  written  T  ^^^^  J  abtu.  In  the  later  part 
of  the  Ani  Papyrus  it  is  written  with  the  initial  'V'   j  . 

9.  The  Look-out  of  the  ship,  in  Egyptian  T  [In  ,  or  more 

fully  I  ''^^'^^  nl,  c^  nefrit,  is  written  T  ^  ^^    1  in  the   Papyrus 

of  Ani.  This  interesting  variant  is  of  extreme  value.  It  not  only 
explains  a  word,  the  very  existence  of  which  has  been  called  in 
question,  but  tells  us  the  Egyptian  name  for  that  seat  of  Horus  at 
the  prow  of  the  Solar  Bark  about  which  I  wrote  a  note  in  Proc.  Soc. 
Bib.  Arch,  of  Nov.  3,  1891.  See  the  plates  attached  to  the  note, 
and  the  corresponding  vignettes  in  Todtenbuch,  PI.  VI  and  IX. 

10.  The  Litany  here  translated  is  that  of  the  Turin  Todtenbuch. 
It  is  found,  but  in  a  very  mutilated  condition,  in  the  Papyrus  of 
Nechtuamon  at  Berlin  {Ba),  a  manuscript  of  the  XlXth  dynasty. 

Another  Litany,  preceding  Hymn  I,  is  found  in  the  Papyrus  of 
Ani.  It  is  addressed  to  "  Osiris,  the  everlasting  Lord,  Unneferu, 
Horus  of  the  Two  Horizons,  of  many  forms  and  mighty  of  attributes. 
Ptah  Sakru,  Tmu  in  Heliopolis,  Lord  of  the  Unseen  World,  who 
hath  built  up  Memphis  and  its  gods." 

BOOK   OK   THE   DEAD.  3 1 

"  Hail  to  ihee,  Chabasu  *  in  Heliopolis,  Hammeniit  in  Cher-abau, 
and  Unta  t  more  potent  than  the  unseen  gods  in  Heliopolis. 

Hail  to  thee,  An  in  An  .  .  .  Horus  in  the  Two  Horizons,  who 
extendeth  his  steps  and  traverseth  the  Heaven  ;  he  is  Horchuta ; 

Hail  to  thee,  eternal  Soul,  Soul  which  is  in  Tattu,  Unneferu,  Son 
of  Nut ;  he  is  Lord  of  Acherta ; 

Hail  to  thee,  as  thou  reignest  in  Tattu,  the  royal  crown  is  fixed 
upon  thy  brow.  Thou  art  the  Only  One,  the  author  of  his  own 
attributes,  thou  restest  in  Tattu  ; 

Hail  to  thee.  Lord  of  Heracleopolis,  for  whom  the  Bark  of  Sokru 
is  placed  upon  its  sledge ;  who  repellest  the  Sebau,  the  doers  of 
wrong;  and  who  puttest  the  Ut'a/  into  its  place  ; 

Hail  to  thee.  Potent  One,  at  thine  appointed  moment,  Most 
Mighty  One,  Prince  of  An-arr-ef,  Eternal  Lord,  author  of 
eternity.  Thou  art  the  Lord  of  Suten-henen  ; 

Hail  to  thee,  who  restest  upon  Maat ;  Thou  art  the  Lord  of 
Abydos,  thy  limbs  reach  to  Ta-tsert ;  Thou  art  he  who 
abominatest  wrong ; 

Hail  to  thee,  in  the  midst  of  thy  Bark,  who  bringest  the  Nile  from 
his  fountain  ;  upon  whose  dead  body  the  light  shineth ;  he  is  the 
One  who  is  in  Nechen  ; 

Hail  to  thee,  author  of  the  gods,  King  of  North  and  South,  Osiris, 
the  triumphant  one,  possessing  the  entire  universe  in  his  bene- 
ficent alternations  ;  He  is  the  Lord  of  the  Universe ; 

Grant  me  passage  in  peace.  I  am  righteous,  I  speak  not  falsehood 
knowingly,  I  am  not  guilty  of  duplicity." 

*  Boih  Chabasu  and  Hamniernit  have  the  sign  of  the  plural,  which  may  arise 
from  the  omission  oi -mIw  art  above  before  the  first  of  these  words.  Unfortunately 
we  have  no  other  copy  to  check  the  readings.  But  it  is  certain  that  the  sign  of 
plurality  is  often  affixed  to  words  which  though  in  plural  form  (like  the  Latin 
nioeiiia,  literae,  tciiebrae)  have  a  singular  meaning.  Chabasu  means  a  lamp,  and 
the  stars,  especially  the  decans,  were  called  by  this  appellation.  Hamiiieinit  is 
the  name  given  to  those  yet  unborn. 

'^'    Un-ta,  signifies  the  god  who  assumes  the  face  or  form  of  a 

^^(i^e  ^^^,  just  as  Mau-tii  signifies  the  god  with  the   face  or  form   of  a  Cat, 
Tehuta,  the  god  with  tlie  head  or  form  of  an  Ibis. 

32  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

II.  •¥■  'the  Land  of  Life,'  one  of  the  names  given  to 

the  realm  of  Osiris  after  death,  is  not,  as  far  as    I  can  discover, 
mentioned  anywhere  in  the  earUer  MSS.  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 

Instead  of  "resting  in  the  Land  of  Life,"  the  older  texts  have 

'in  Amenta'  or   ^    •¥•  V\    ft    o      'in  life   in 

r^^^^  .B^    1     ®     Ja^  I'  r^-^^ 

Amenta,'  or  as  '  one  living,  in  Amenta.' 



■  III  ■     "^^^   word   \^       />ai  implies  going  round  like 

a  wheel  or  in  a  circle ;  ^      <=::=>  <rz>  y  J]   '  going  round  on 

^m  O  I       'I  A  ^ I)  V I 

high  with  the  Sun.'     Hence  the  use  of  it  as  synonymous  with  |-,"q, 

in  the  expressions   "W        =  — « —  '  never  '  and  aK       A\       ^  = 

^,    'the   first  time,   the    beginning   of  time,  prima   vice.^     A 

sacrificial  cake  is  called    Ax'  ^^  ^:v  (Z?^«/^;«.,  II,  28)onaccountof 

its  shape,  like  the  Latin  rotimdula,  also  written  Ax'  n  ^1  . 

And,  like  the  Greek  atukXo?,  the  word  comes  to  signify  a  circle  of 
persons.  This  circle  is  not  necessarily  of  gods.  The  Bremner 
Papyrus  in  the  British  Museum  (14,  line  8),  says  an  apage  not  only 
to  Apepi,  who  was  no  god,  and  to  his  soul  and  body,  and  ghost  and 
shadow  and  children,  and  to  his  kith  and   kin,    but,    also   to   his 

^^  \^       ASv       )  that  is  all  associated  with  him,  "  ceux  de  son 


That  '•^'^ws  \^^^  should  express  the  '  feast  of  the  New  Moon '  is 

only  natural,  though  Lepsius  has  pointed  out  serious  difificulties  on 
the  subject. 

But  ^  also  expresses  the  number  nine.     Whence  in  this  relation 

arises  the  Egyptian  conception  of  the  number  nine?  Is  it  the  round 
(we  should  say  the  'square')  number,  three  times  three  ?  It  certainly 
is  merely  a  round  number  in  many  instances,  but  what  is  still  more 
certain  is  that  the  same  expression  meaning  '  circle  of  gods  '  and 
'  nine  gods,'  the  circle  was  supposed  to  consist  of  nine  gods,  and 
was  enlarged  to  companies  of  eighteen  or  twenty-seven.  It  is,  I  am 
sure,  perfectly  idle  work  to  look  for  more  profound  reasons  for  the 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  33 

theory  of  the  'Ennead.'*  Every  god  of  importance  had  his 
^  I  i,t  and  the  best  theory  that  has  ever  been  given  is  that  given  at 
the  beginning  of  Chapter  17, 

13.  The  Turin  text  seems  better  adapted  for  the  basis  of  a  trans- 
lation of  Hymn  II  than  the  older  papyri.  These  have  been  used 
for  checking  the  later  text  whenever  possible. 

14.  A  difficult  passage,  but  the  readings  are  unanimous.  What 
is  °^^^  ?  Brugsch  translates  it  "  the  Talisman  of  the  Earth,"  and 
Pierret  "le  salut  de  la  terre."  No  objection  can  be  raised  against 
the  truth  of  either  of  these  meanings  taken  by  itself.  But  we  have 
to  look  at  the  entire  context.  The  expression  literally  signifies  "  the 
back  of  the  earth."    In  Latin  we  say  sinus,  gremiuin  and  viscera  terrae. 

The  Egyptians  themselves  talk  of  the  back  of  Seb,  \~^  ^^      ,   out 

of  which  the  plants  grow,  and   in  a  place  quoted  by  Duemichen 

{Zeitschrift,  187 1,  p.  92,  note)  ^ '^    ^«  the  Earth,  is  substituted  for 

Seb.    I  believe  then  that  ,°8M8<^  is  best  translated  by  Soil  of  the  Earth. 

15.  Thy  mother  Isis.  So  Ba.  The  Turin  text  has  Nut,  which 
is  inconsistent  with  what  follows. 

t6.  La  gives  Tatunen  ;  Af,  Tunen;  the  Turin  recension  Tanen, 
names  belonging  to  the  god  also  called  Ptah,  Sokru  and  Osiris. 
See  the  inscriptions  in  Mariette's  Abydos,  I,  pi.  16,  6,  on  the  Tat 

Horus,  the  son  of  Osiris  and  Isis,  seems  to  be  here  addressed. 
17.  This  rubric  does  not  occur  in  the  older  MSS. 

*  I  am  deeply  grieved  that  in  my  conversation  and  correspondence  with- 
Goodvi'm  {see  ray  Miscellaneous  Notes  on  Egyptian  Philology,  p.  15),  I  hit  upon 
'  Ennead '  as  a  translation  of  ^.  Goodwin  took  it  up,  and  it  has  since  been 
productive  of  much  mischief.  The  word  in  itself  (like  Triad),  is  perfectly 
innocent  and  correct,  yet  every  word  has  its  '  cycle  '  of  associations,  and  some  of 
them  lead  the  unwary  astray.  I  had  just  been  lecturing  on  Plotinus  when 
Goodwin  asked  me  for  the  word. 


t  The  yi;««;  children  of  Horus  are   called  {Teinpelins.,    I,   41,    i)    ^TnH 

34  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1 8.  This  hymn  has  not  yet  been  found  in  the  older  MSS. 
A  text  carefully  corrected  from  the  papyri  of  the  Louvre  will  be 
found  in  M.  Lefebure's  Traduction  co/nparee  des  Hymnes  au  Soleil 
composant  le  XV^  chapitre  du  Ritual  Funeraire  Egyptien.   Paris,  1868. 

19.  'Chepera,  father  of  the  gods.'  Expressions  like  this  are 
liable  to  be  misunderstood  by  superficial  readers.  They  are  not 
meant  to  imply  that  '  father  of  the  gods '  was  the  special  attribute  of 
Chepera.  'Father  of  the  gods'  is  predicated  in  Chapter  8  of 
Sutu,  and  it  is  predicated  elsewhere  of  many  other  divinities.  As  in 
mathematics  any  point  in  space  may  be  conceived  as  the  origin  of  a 
given  line  or  surface,  so  in  Egyptian  mythology  any  god  may  be 
rightly  called  the  father  of  the  gods.  And  for  the  same  reason.  The 
Day  precedes  the  Night,  but  not  more  truly  than  Night  precedes,  or 
in  mythological  language  gives  birth  to  Day.  But  we  may  begin  at 
Daybreak,  or  at  Noon,  or  at  Sunset,  or  with  the  Sun  or  the  Moon, 
or  with  the  rising  of  the  Nile  or  any  other  natural  phenomenon 
which  obeys  an  evidently  permanent  fixed  Law. 

Chapter  XVL 

When  Lepsius  divided  the  Todtetihuch  into  165  chapters,  that 
portion  of  it  which  was  numbered  as  Chapter  16,  was  in  fact  merely 
the  Vignette  of  Chapter  15. 

It  has  been  thought  well  to  publish  with  this  translation  the 
Vignettes  from  the  great  Papyrus  La  of  Leyden,  representing  a,  the 
Rising ;  and  ^,  the  Setting  Sun.     (See  plates.) 

In  a  the  Sun  is  represented  as  rising  into  Heaven,  saluted  by  the 
six  Cynocephalous  Apes.  He  is  also  saluted  by  two  goddesses 
kneeling.  In  the  Papyrus  of  Hunefer  these  goddesses  say,  "  I  am 
thy  sister  Isis,"  "  I  am  thy  sister  Nephthys."  The  Tat  u  which  is 
between  them  is  a  symbol  both  of  Osiris  and  of  the  East,  and  in  Ba 
is  replaced  by  the  sign  4.      In  the  later  periods  the  Dawn  was 

represented  by  the  sign  j|  I'Tj  consisting  of  the  Sun  rising  out  of  the 
East,  between  Isis  and  Nephthys.      The  sign  of  Life  •¥■  dnh  (which 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  XVI. 

A. — TiiG  RisiNx;  .Sun, 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  II. 

See  Navjij.e's  "Book  of  the  ])cn(l,''  I.  PL  21. 

rLATE    V 

BOOK     OF    THE     DEAD. 

B.— The  Sun. 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum. 

See  Naville's  "  Book  of  tlie  Dead,'"  I,  Tl.  22. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  35 

primarily  means  rise  up)  rises  out  of  the  Tat,  and  with  hands  pro- 
ceeding from  it  raises  up  the  Sun. 

In  b  the  central  object  is  the  Sun  setting  in  the  West  w-      He 

is  saluted  by  three  hawk-headed  and  by  three  jackal-headed  divinities, 
the  Spirits  of  Pu  and  of  Nechen.  Below  this  scene  the  Sun  of 
Yesterday  and  the  Sun  of  To-day  in  lion  forms  are  saluted  by  Isis 
and  Nephthys. 


Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day  out  of  the  Netherworld. 

Let  the  words  be  said : 

I  am  he  who  closeth  and  he  who  openeth,  and  I  am  but  One  (1). 

I  am  Ra  at  his  first  appearance. 
I  am  the  great  god,  self-produced  ; 
His  Names  together  compose  the  cycle  of  the  gods  ; 
Resistless  is  he  among  the  gods.  (2) 

I,  who  am  Osiris,  am  Yesterday  and  the  kinsman  of  the  Morrow.  (3) 
A   scene   of  strife  arose   among   the   gods    when    I   gave   the 
command.  (4) 

Amenta  is  the  scene  of  strife  among  the  gods. 
I  know  the  name  of  the  great  god  who  is  here. 
Herald  *  of  Kft  is  his  name. 

I  am  the  great  Heron  who  is  in  Heliopolis,  who  presideth  over 
the  account  of  whatsoever  is  and  of  that  which  cometh  into  being.  (5) 

"Who  is  that  P  It  is  Osiris  who  presideth  over  the  account  of  all  that  is 
and  all  that  cometh  into  being,  that  is  Endless  Time  and  Eternity. 
Endless  Time  is  Day  and  Eternity  is  Night. 

I  am  Amsu  in  his  manifestations  ;  there  have  been  given  to  me 
the  Two  Feathers  upon  my  head.  (6) 

"Who  is  that,  and  what  are  his  Feathers  ?  It  is  Horus,  the  avenger  of 
his  father,  and  the  Two  Peathers  are  the  Urasi  upon  the  forehead  of 
his  father  Tmu.  (7) 

I  have  alighted  upon  my  Land,  and  I  come  from  my  own  Place. 

*     \  ^  ^  1"  J  '     i  ™  ^\^^    praeco7iiuvi,  praeco. 

F  2 

36  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

"What  is  that  ?    It  is  the  Horizon  of  my  father  Tmu. 

All  defects  are  done  away,  all  deficiencies  are  removed,  and  all 
that  was  wrong  in  me  is  cast  forth. 

I  am  purified  at  the  two  great  and  mighty  Lakes  at  Sutenhunen, 
which  purify  the  offerings  which  living  men  present  to  the  great  god 
who  is  there  (8). 

"Who  is  that?    It  is  Ri  himself. 

"Which  are  the  two  great  and  mighty  Lakes  ?  The  Lake  of  Natron  and 
the  Lake  of  Maat  (9). 

I  advance  over  the  roads,  which  I  know,  and  my  face  is  on  the  Land 
of  Maat. 

"What  is  that  ?  The  road  upon  which  father  Tmu  advanceth,  when 
he  goeth  to  the  Field  of  Aarru,  approaching  to  the  land  of  Spirits  in 

I  come  forth  through  the  Teser  gate. 

"WTiat  is  that  ?  This  gate  of  the  gods  is  Haukar.  It  is  the  gate  and 
the  two  doors  and  openings,  through  which  father  Tmu  issueth  to  the 
Eastern  Horizon  of  Heaven.  (10) 

0  ye  who  have  gone  before  !  Let  me  grasp  your  hands,  me 
who  become  one  of  you. 

"WTio  are  they?  Those  who  have  gone  before  are  Hu  and  Sau.  May 
I  be  with  their  father  Tmu,  throughout  the  course  of  each  day.  (11) 

1  make  full  the  Eye  when  it  waxeth  dim  on  the  day  of  battle 
between  the  two  Opponents.  (12) 

"What  is  that?  The  battle  of  the  two  Opponents  is  the  day  upon 
which  Horus  fighteth  with  Sut,  when  he  flingeth  his  filth  upon  the 
face  of  Horus,  and  when  Horus  seizeth  upon  the  genitals  of  Sut,  for 
it  is  Horus  who  doeth  this  with  his  own  fijigers. 

I  lift  up  the  hairy  net  from  the  Eye  at  the  period  of  its 
distress.  (13) 

What  is  that?  The  right  Eye  of  Ka  in  the  period  of  its  distress  when 
he  giveth  it  free  course,  and  it  is  Thoth  who  lifteth  up  the  net  from  it. 

I  see  Ra,  when  he  is  born  from  Yesterday,  at  the  dugs  of  the 

Mehurit   cows?    (14)     His   course   is   my  course,    and   conversely 

mine  is  his. 

"What  is  that?  Rfl.  and  his  births  from  Yesterday  at  the  dugs  of  the 
Mehurit  cows  ?  It  is  the  figure  of  the  Eye  of  Ea,  at  his  daily  birth.  And 
Mehurit  is  the  Eye. 

I  am  one  of  those  who  are  in  the  train  of  Horus. 

BOOK   OK   THE   DEAD.  37 

"What  is  that—'  one  of  those  in  the  train  of  Horus '  ?    Said  with  re- 
ference to  whom  his  Iiord  loveth. 

Hail,  ye  possessors  of  Maat,  divine  Powers  attached  to  Osiris,  who 
deal  destruction  to  falsehood,  ye  who  are  in  the  train  of  Hotepes- 
chaus,  grant  me  that  I  may  come  to  you.  Do  ye  away  the  wrong 
which  is  me,  as  ye  have  done  to  the  Seven  Glorious  ones,  who 
follow  after  the  Coffined  one,  and  whose  places  Anubis  hath  fixed 
on  that  day  of  '  Come  thou  hither  ' ! 

Hotepeschaus  is  the  divine  Flame  which  is  assigned  to  Osiris  for  burn- 
ing the  souls  of  his  adversaries.  I  know  the  names  of  the  Seven  Glorious 
ones  who  follow  the  Coffined  one,  and  whose  places  Anubis  hath  fixed 
on  the  day  of '  Come  thou  hither.'    The  leader  of  this  divine  company, 

'  An-ar-ef,  the  Great '  is  his  name  ;  2,  Kat-kat ;  3,  the  Burning 
Bull,  who  liveth  in  his  fire ;  4,  the  Red-eyed  one  in  the  House  of 
Gauze  ;  5,  Fieryface  which  turneth  backwards  ;  6,  Dark  Face  in 
its  hour ;  7,  Seer  in  the  Night.  (15) 

I  am  he  whose  Soul  resideth  in  a  pair  of  gods. 

It  is  Osiris,  as  he  cometh  to  Tattu,  and  there  flndeth  the  soul  of  Ra ; 
each  embraceth  the  other,  and  becometh  Two  Souls. 

The  pair  of  gods  are  Horus,  the  Avenger  of  his  Father,  and  Horus, 
the  Prince  of  the  City  of  Blindness. 

I  am  the  great  Cat,  who  frequenteth  the  Persea  tree  in  Helio- 
polis,  on  that  night  of  battle  wherein  is  effected  the  defeat  of 
the  Sebau,  and  that  day  upon  which  the  adversaries  of  the  Inviolate 
god  (16)  are  exterminated. 

"Who  is  that  great  Cat?  It  is  Ea  himself.  For  Sau  said.  He  is  the 
likeness  (Maau)  of  that  which  he  hath  created,  and  his  name  became  that 
of  Cat  (Maau).  (17) 

The  night  of  conflict  is  the  defeat  of  the  children  of  Failure  at 
Elephantine.  There  was  conflict  in  the  entire  universe,  in  heaven  and 
upon  the  earth. 

He  who  frequenteth  the  Persea  tree  is  he  who  regulateth  the  children 
of  Failure,  and  that  which  they  do. 

O  Ra,  in  thine  Egg,  who  risest  up  in  thine  orb,  and  shinest  from 
thine  Horizon,  and  swimmest  over  the  firmament  without  a  peer, 
and  sailest  over  the  sky  ;  whose  mouth  sendeth  forth  breezes  of 
flame,  lightening  up  the  Two  Earths  with  thy  glories,  do  thou 
deliver  JV  from  that  god  whose  attributes  are  hidden,  whose  eye- 
brows are  as  the  arms  of  the  Balance  upon  that  day  when  outrage 
is  brought  to  account,  and  each  wrong  is  tied  up  to  its  separate 
block  of  settlement. 

38  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  god  whose  eyebrows  are  as  the  arms  of  the  Balance  is  "he  who 
lifteth  up  his  arm."  * 

Deliver  me  from  those  Wardens  of  the  Passages  with  hurtful 

fingers,  attendant  upon  Osiris. 

The  "Wardens  of  Osiris  are  the  Powers  who  keep  off  the  forces  of  the 
adversaries  of  Bd.. 

May  your  knives  not  get  hold  of  me ;  may  I  not  fall  into  your 
shambles,  for  I  know  your  names  ;  my  course  upon  earth  is  with  Ra 
and  my  fair  goal  is  with  Osiris.  Let  not  your  offerings  be  in  my  dis- 
favour, oh  ye  gods  upon  your  altars  !  I  am  one  of  those  who  follow 
the  Master,  a  keeper  of  the  writ  of  Chepera. 

I  fly  like  a  Hawk,  I  cackle  like  the  Smen-Goose,  I  move  eternally 
like  Nehebkau.  (i8) 

Oh  Tmu  who  art  in  the  Great  Dwelling,  Sovereign  of  all  the 

gods,  deliver  me  from  that  god  who  liveth  upon  the  damned  ;  whose 

face  is  that  of  a  hound,  but  whose  skin  is  that  of  a  man  ;  at  that  angle 

of  the  pool  of  fire  ;  devouring  shades,  digesting  human  hearts  and 

voiding  ordure.     One  seeth  him  not. 

This  god  whose  face  is  that  of  a  hound  and  whose  skint  is  that  of  a 
man:  Eternal  Devourer  is  his  name.  (19) 

Oh  Fearful  one,  who  art  over  the  Two  Earths,  Red  god  who 
orderest  the  block  of  execution ;  to  whom  is  given  the  Double 
Crown  and  Enjoyment  as  Prince  of  Sutenhunen. 

It  is  Osiris  to  whom  was  ordained  the  Leadership  among  the  gods,  upon 
that  day  when  the  Two  Earths  were  united  before  the  Inviolate  god. 

The  junction  of  the  Two  Earths  is  the  head  of  the  coffin  of  Osiris 
[whose  father  is  Rat]  the  beneficent  Soul  in  Sutenhunen,  the  giver  of  food 
and  the  destroyer  of  wrong,  who  hath  determined  the  paths  of  eternity. 

It  is  Ka  himself. 

Deliver  me  from  that  god  who  seizeth  upon  souls,  who  con- 
sumeth  all  filth  and  corruption  in  the  darkness  or  in  the  light :  all 
those  who  fear  him  are  in  powerless  condition. 



*  The  god  who  lifteth  up  his  arm  is 

(J  V    \*v  ^^\^   anevi   'skin,'  according   to  Horhotep   and    the    first 

coffin  of  Mentuhotep  at  Berlin.     But  the  second  coffin  of  Mentuhotep  has  already 
0  ^^^^  \  \b>  ^^:^  atihu  '  eyebrows,'    which    afterwards    becomes    the    received 
reading.     It  is  that  of  Queen  Mentuhotep. 
J  An  interpolation  in  the  text  of  Horhotep. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  39 

This  god  is  Sut. 

Oh  Chepera,  who  are  in  the  midst  of  thy  bark  and  whose  body  is 
the  cycle  of  the  gods  for  ever ;  deliver  me  from  those  inquisitorial 
Wardens  to  whom  the  Inviolate  god,  of  Glorious  Attributes,  hath 
given  guard  over  his  adversaries,  and  the  infliction  of  slaughter  in 
the  place  of  annihilation,  from  whose  guard  there  is  no  escape.  May 
I  not  fall  under  your  knives,  may  I  not  sit  within  your  dungeons, 
may  I  not  come  to  your  places  of  extermination,  may  I  not  fall  into 
your  pits  ;  may  there  be  done  to  me  none  of  those  things  which  the 
gods  abominate  ;  for  I  have  passed  through  the  place  of  purification 
in  the  middle  of  the  Meskat,  for  which  are  given  the  Mesit  and  the 
Tehenit  cakes  in  Tanenit. 

The  Meskat  is  the  place  of  scourging  in  Sutenhunen,  the  Tehenit  is  the 
Eye  of  Horus  ....  Tanenit  is  the  resting  place  of  Osiris.  (20) 

Tmu  buildeth  thy  dwelling,  the  Lion-faced  god  layeth  the  founda- 
tion of  thy  house,  as  he  goeth  his  round.  Horus  offereth  purification 
and  Sut  giveth  might,  and  conversely. 

I  have  come  upon  this  earth  and  with  my  two  feet  taken  posses- 
sion.    I  am  Tmu  and  I  come  from  my  own  Place. 

Back,  oh  Lion  with  dazzling  mouth,  and  with  head  bent  forwards, 
retreating  before  me  and  my  might. 

I  am  Isis  and  thou  findest  me  as  I  drop  upon  my  face  the  hair 
which  falleth  loosely  on  my  brow. 

I  was  conceived  by  Isis  and  begotten  by  Nephthys.  Isis 
destroyeth  what  in  me  is  wrong,  and  Nephthys  loppeth  off  that 
which  is  rebellious. 

Dread  cometh  in  my  train  and  Might  is  in  my  hands.  Number- 
less are  the  hands  who  cling  fast  to  me.  The  dead  ones  and  the 
living  come  to  me.  I  defeat  the  clients  of  mine  adversaries,  and 
spoil  those  whose  hands  are  darkened. 

I  have  made  an  agreeable  alliance.  I  have  created  the  in- 
habitants of  Cher-abat  and  those  of  Heliopolis.  (21)  And  every  god 
is  in  fear  before  the  Terrible,  the  Almighty  one. 

I  avenge  every  god  against  his  oppressor,  at  whom  I  shoot  my 
arrows  when  he  appeareth. 

I  live  according  to  my  will. 

40  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  am  Uat'it,  the  Fiery  one.  (22) 

And  woe  to  them  who  mount  up  against  me ! 

What  is  this?  "  Of  unknown  attributes,  which  Hemen  (23)  hath 
given  "  is  the  name  of  the  Funereal  Chest.  "  The  Witness  of  that 
which  is  Hfted  "  is  the  name  of  the  Shrine. 

The  Lion  with  dazzhng  mouth  and  with  head  bent  forwards  is  the 
Phallus  of  Osiris  [otherwise  of  Ra]. 

And  I  who  drop  the  hair  which  hath  loosely  fallen  upon  my 
Ijrow— I  am  Isis,  when  she  concealeth  herself;  she  hath  let  fall  her 
hair  over  herself. 

Uat'it  the  Fiery  is  the  Eye  of  Ra. 

They  who  mount  up  against  me,  woe  to  them,  they  are  the 
associates  of  Sut  as  they  approach.  (24) 


The  seventeenth  chapter  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  in  the 
whole  collection,  and  it  has  been  preserved  from  times  previous  to 
the  Xllth  dynasty.  The  very  earliest  monuments  which  have 
preserved  it  have  handed  it  down  accompanied  with  scholia  and 
other  commentaries  interpolated  into  the  text.  Some  of  the  monu- 
ments enable  us  to  some  extent  to  divide  the  original  text  from  the 
additions,  in  consequence  of  the  latter  being  written  in  red.  But 
there  is  really  only  one  text  where  the  additions  are  suppressed, 
and  which  therefore  offers  the  most  ancient  form,  as  far  as  we  know 
it,  of  the  chapter.  This  is  the  copy  on  the  wall  of  the  tomb  of 
Horhotep.  The  sarcophagus  itself  of  Horhotep  contains  a  copy  of 
the  text  along  with  the  additions.  The  chapter  must  already  at  the 
time  have  been  of  the  most  venerable  antiquity.  Besides  these  two 
copies  of  the  chapter  we  have  those  from  the  sarcophagi  of  Hora  and 
Sit-Bastit  (published,  like  those  of  Horhotep,  by  M.  Maspero*),  two 
from  the  sarcophagi  of  Mentuhotep,  and  one  from  that  of  Sebek-aa 
(the  three  latter  published  by  Lepsius  in  his  Aelteste  Texte).  The 
British  Museum  has  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson's  copy  of  the  texts 
inscribed  on  the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhotep  of  the  Xlth  dynasty, 
and  also  a  fragment  (6636  a)  of  the  coffin  of  a  prince  named  Hornefru. 
Here  then  we  have  an  abundance  of  witnesses  of  the  best  period. 
They  unfortunately  do  not  agree.     The  progress  of  corruption  had  no 

*  Mission  archeologique  Fran^aise  au  Caire,  1 1. 


BOOK     OF     THE     D   BAD.         Chapter     XVII. 
Papyrus,  Trinity  C  ollege,  Dublin,  IV. 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 
Chapter  XVII. 

a.  Berlin  Museum.     No.  1470. 
/'.  British  Museum.     No.  9901. 

See  Naville,  "  Book  of  the  Dead,"  I,  Plate. 

BOOK   OF   TIIF.    DEAD.  4 1 

doubt  begun  long  before,  and  the  variants  are  not  simply  differences 
of  orthography  but  positively  different  readings.  The  differences 
however  are  chiefly  in  the  scholia.  Even  when  the  explanations  of 
the   text  are   identical,    the   form    differs.      The    latest   recensions 

have  retained  the  form  D  ^  \  I  ^  ;  the  ancient  added 

the  feminine   n  \\  \  1^.    ir/m/  is  thati    But  some  of 

the  ancient  texts  give  the  equivalent  words  j^  ^4°  j^»  'i"tl 
Horhotep  does  without  them  altogether.  These  words  were  evidently 
additions  not  merely  to  the  text  but  to  the  scholia. 

The  text  of  the  chapter  grew  more  and  more  obscure  to  readers, 
and  the  explanations  hitherto  given  were  so  unsatisfactory  as  to  call 
for  others.  The  texts  of  the  manuscripts  of  the  new  empire  furnish 
a  good  deal  of  fresh  matter,  much  of  which  is  extremely  ancient, 
though  the  proof  of  this  is  unfortunately  lost  through  the  disastrous 
condition  of  literature  in  the  period  preceding  the  XVIIIth  dynasty. 
The  XVIIIth  dynasty  and  its  immediate  successors  inherited  but 
did  not  invent  the  new  form  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  with  its 
succession  of  vignettes,  which  however  differing  in  detail  bear  the 
stamp  of  a  common  traditional  teaching.  The  manuscripts  of  a  later 
period  bear  witness,  with  reference  to  this  as  well  as  to  other  chapters, 
to  a  recension  of  an  authoritative  kind.  The  text  becomes  more 
certain  though  perhaps  not  either  more  true  or  more  intelligible, 
and  the  notes  and  explanations  have  here  reached  their  fullest  extent. 

It  would  take  an  entire  volume  to  give  the  translations  of  all  the 
forms  the  chapter  has  assumed.  It  must  be  sufficient  here  to  give 
the  earliest  forms  known  to  us  of  the  text  and  of  the  first  commentaries. 
These  are  printed  in  characters  which  show  the  difference  between 
text  and  later  additions ;  all  of  which,  it  must  be  remembered,  are  of 
extreme  antiquity — some  two  thousand  years  before  any  probable 
date  of  Moses. 

Explanations  or  other  interesting  matter  occurring  in  the  manu- 
scripts of  the  later  Empire  will  be  referred  to  in  the  notes. 

The  title  in  the  early  copies  is  the  simple  one  here  heading  the 
chapter.  In  those  which  begin  at  the  XVIIIth  dynasty  the  title  is 
very  like  that  given  for  the  first  chapter.  The  chief  additions  are 
that  the  deceased  person  "  takes  every  form  that  he  phases,  plays 
draughts,  and  sits  in  a  hnver,  conies /o^th  as  a  soul  living  after  death, 
and  that  what  is  done  upon  earth  is  glorified." 


42  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I.  It  would  be  difficult  for  us  to  imagine  that  the  very  remarkable 
opening  of  the  chapter  is  an  addition.  Yet  it  is  unknown  to  the 
primitive  recension  on  the  walls  of  Horhotep's  tomb,  though  found 
everywhere  else.  The  texts  however  which  contain  it  do  not  agree. 
"  I  am  He  who  closeth,  and  He  who  openeth,  and  I  am  but  One." 

'  He  who  closeth '  is  v^^r  ^  Tmu,   *  He  who  openeth '  ^^  Unen. 

As  the  god  who  closes  and  who  opens  is  one  and  the  same,  '  I  am 
but  One,'  is  a  very  natural  ending  of  the  sentence,  and  for  its  sense 
the  whole  may  appeal  to  classical,  and  higher  than  classical,  authority. 

"  Modo  namque  Patulcius  idem 
Et  modo  sacrifico  Clusius  ore  vocor."* 

"  I  am  Alpha  and  O,  the  beginning  and  the  ending,  saith  the 
Lord."  t 

The  meaning  of  the  Egyptian  is  quite  plain,  but  the  readings 
most  probably  through  the  absence  of  determinatives  in  the 
oldest  style  are  somewhat  different.     Horhotep  and  other  texts  have 

s         v\    -^^  vA  ,  apparently  as  one  word  (compounded  of  /w« 

and  U7ien\  which  may  signify  the  '  closer  and  opener,'  but  Sebek-aa  and 

later  texts  have  v        ^^\    ^  ^^v    ^^  ^-    The  papyrus  of  Nebseni 

has  ^^  ¥.^  ,  in  the  third  person,  which  does  not  alter  the  meaning, 

but  this  is  quite  an  isolated  reading.  The  later  recension,  as  represented 

by  the  Turin  Todtenbuch  and  the  Cadet  papyrus,  has  ^^  Jj,  which 

only  prominently  brings  forward,  what  is  implied  in  all  the  other 
texts,  that  the  Opener  is  a  god.|     The  absence  of  the  determinative 

after  ^^  is  no  objection  to  the  sense  'opener,'  especially  after 


>pj— u  ^.  It  is  absolutely  necessary  when  dealing  with  mythology 
to  look  to  physical  rather  than  to  metaphysical  meanings.  I  have 
sufficiently  discussed  the  meanings  of  the  word  ^^  in  my  essay  on 
the  Myth  of  Osiris  Unnefer. 

*  Ovid,  Fast,  I,  129,  130.  t  Apocalypse  i,  8. 

X  The  last  form  of  the  chapter  (as  found  in  the  hieratic  papyrus  T.  16  of 
Leyden,  and  others  in  the  British  Museum)  changes  the  opening  as  follows — "  I 
am  Atmu,  who  made  the  Sky  and  created  all  that  hath  come  into  being." 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 
Chapter  XV. 


Horus  at  the  Look-out  of  the  Ship. 

BOOK   OF    THE    DEAD.  43 

The  later  recensions  add  an  interpolation  (not  without  very  dif- 
ferent readings)  to  the  effect  that  the  Sun  made  his  first  appearance 
when  Shu  raised  the  Sky  from  the  height  of  Chemennu,  where  he 

destroyed  the  '  Children  of  Failure  '(nil    j  1        1  (m\  I. 

The  raising  of  the  Sky  by  Shu  is  very  frequently  represented  in 
pictures.  Seb  (the  Earth)  and  Nut  (the  Sky)  have  been  sleeping  in 
each  other's  arms  during  the  night ;  Shu  (Daylight  at  sunrise)  parts 
them,  and  the  sky  is  seen  to  be  raised  high  above  the  earth. 

j^  J],  Shu,  who  is  of  course  the  son  of  Ra,  is  in  consequence 

of  this  act  called    |\    Jj      An-/ieru,  'The  Lifter  up  of  the  Heaven.' 

Chemennu  is  the  geographical  name  of  the  town  called  by  the 
Greeks  Hermopolis.  The  mystical  Chemennu,  however,  is  alone 
referred  to  in  this  place.  The  word  itself  means  Eight,  and  Lepsius 
sees  here  a  reference  to  eight  elementary  deities.  (We  must  remem- 
ber that  the  passage  itself  is  an  interpolation,  of  which  there  is  no 
trace  in  the  older  texts.) 

The  '  children  of  Failure '  [  J  ^^  (^  %^ ,  J  ^"^^  /^  ,  de_^cere, 

dissolvi,deliquium*)  are  the  elements  of  darkness  which  melt  away  and 
vanish  at  the  appearance  of  Day.  This  mythological  expression  here 
found  in  an  interpolated  passage  is  met  later  on  in  a  genuine  portion 
of  the  older  text. 

2.  It  would  be  impossible  to  find  a  more  emphatic  assertion  of 
the  doctrine  of  Nomina  Numina ;  and  that  more  than  3000  years 
before  Christ. 

The  Names  of  Ra,  the  Sun-god,  are  said,  when  taken  together, 

to   compose   'the  cycle  of  the   gods.'  ]   |   !•      Or  the  names 

which  he  has  created,  to  which  he  has  given  rise,  that  is  the  names  of 
all  the  solar  phenomena,  recurring  as  they  do,  day  after  day,  to  the 
eyes  of  all  beholders,  compose  "  the  cycle  of  the  gods,"  who  are  also 
called  the  limbs  or  members  of  Ra. 

The  scholia  contained  in  the  papyri  of  the  XVIIIth  and  later 
dynasties  explain  the  text  as  follows  : — 

Jf  X    o  o  o    in    the  historical  inscriptions  isjust  like  the  Greek 

yv'ia  \t\vi'Tu,  \vro  yoinara  KUi  (plKov  rjTop, 

G  2 

44  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD, 

"  It  is  Ra  as  he  creates  the   names  of  his  limbs   (    c^    )   which 

become  the  gods  who  accompany  him." 

And  the  present  chapter  later  on  says  of  Chepera,  the  rising 
Sun,  that  the  "cycle  of  the  gods  is  his  body." 

The  god  who  has  hitherto  been  spoken  of  is  Ra.  In  glaring  con- 
tradiction to  the  whole  text,  a  later  note  states  that  the  resistless  god 

is  "the  Water,  which  is  Nu";   that  is  Heaven.       wv^  ^  Nu 

is  not  alluded  to  at  all  in  the  primitive  text,  but  the  papyrus  of 
Nebseni  already  exhibits  the  corruption  of  the  fine  passage,  "  I  am 
he  who  closeth  and  he  who  openeth,  and  I  am  but  One."  This  is 
itself  an  addition,  the  true  meaning  of  which  was  afterwards  destroyed 

by  the   interpolation   of  the  words    V\    'vaaaaa  /H  .      These   are 

ambiguous.  They  might  mean  that  the  god  was  alone  '  in  heaven,' 
or   that    he  was   alone    '  as  Heaven.'      The   papyrus  of  Ani   has 

vg^    ^^^  ,  ^'^'^  r^)     "I    ^vas    born  from    Nu."      These 

attempted  improvements  do  not  give  a  favourable  impression  of  the 
exegetical  acumen  of  Egyptian  theologians. 

But  the  mention  of  'Water'  in  the  scholionhas  nothing  whatever 
to  do  with  the  doctrine  of  Thales,  and  to  suppose  that  it  has  implies 
a  confusion  between  two  very  different  realms  of  human  thought. 

3.  '  The  kinsman  of  the  Morrow,'  literally  '  I  know  the  Morrow. 

The  word     ®      signifies  can,  ken,  and  kin. 

The  papyrus  of  Nebseni  and  all  the  subsequent  texts  give  the 
explanation  that  Yesterday  means  Osiris,  and  the  Morrow  means  Ra. 
And  the  vignette  in  the  papyrus  of  Ani  gives  the  name  of  Yesterday 
to  one  of  the  Lions  and  of  Morrow  to  the  other. 

4.  The  earliest  texts  have  either  ^°^  '  speak,'  or  |  V^  'com- 
mand.' The  meaning  is  the  same  in  both  readings.  Strife  arose 
among  the  gods  at  the  bidding  ofRa:  that  is  every  force  in  nature 

*  It  is  certain  that  from  the  earliest  times  Heaven  as  ^C\    Q     1    "^i^^Z^  "^^^ 

'  the  Great  Weeper,'  was  considered  as  the  source  of  life  to  gods  and  men.  But 
myths  must  not  lie  mixed.  One  must  not  be  considered  as  the  explanation  of 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  45 

began  its  appropriate  career  of  activity,  necessarily  coming  into  con- 
tact and  conflict  with  the  other  forces.  And  of  all  this  collision  the 
first  cause,  the  origin  of  all  activity  and  motion,  is  the  Sun. 

This  mythological  cosmology  reminds  one  of  the  saying  of 
Heraclitos  that  "  Strife  is  the  father  and  the  king  of  all  things,"  and 
the  doctrine  that  all  becoming  must  be  conceived  as  the  product 

of  warring  Opposites — TrduTU  /car   epiv  -^iveaOai. 

^^  hennu,  the  numerous 

pictures  of  which  enable  us  to  identify  it  with  the  Common  Heron 
or  Heronshaw.  The  reason  for  connecting  this  bird  with  the  Sun- 
god  has  to  be  sought  m  the  etymology  of  its  name.  J  j^  ben  is  a 
verb  of  motion,  and  particularly  of  '  going  round.'  J  ^^^^^^  benenu  is 
a  ring,  also  a  '  round  pill.'  The  Sun  therefore  is  very  naturally 
called  bennu,  an  appellative  like  KVKkoi\iKTo<s  in  the  Orphic  hymns. 

^^''^^  ^^ ,   '  of  that  which   is,  and  of   that  which  cometh  into 

being.'  Here,  as  in  many  other  places,  ^^,  which  is  a  verb  of 
motion,  and  really  signifies  'rise  up,  spring  forth,'  is  pointedly  dis- 
tinguished from  ^  ^,  that  which  (is).  So  far  from  signifying 
'  being,  that  which  is,'  it  very  much  more  nearly  corresponds  to  ^'^ 

in  the  frequent  expression  ^  \\'^^\,  'that  which  is  and  that  which 
is  not  yet.'  The  sense  of  'good  being'  so  commonly  given  to  the 
divine  name  Unnefer  is  utterly  erroneous. 

6.  The  reading  of  the  name  ^^  is  proved  by  the  numerous 
variants  of  this  passage  to  be  Amsu.  In  M.  Naville's  edition,  II, 
pi.  41,  the  name,  as  written  in  Ce,  would  seem  to  be  "li"  ^  i|  dm. 
But  I  already  in  Zeitschr.,  iStj  (p.  98)  pointed  out,  that  in  this 
manuscript  the  last  sign  ^  is  at  the  top  of  a  column,  and 
that  at  the  foot  of  the  preceding  column  there  is  a  space  where 
the  signs  \\  ,  following  "||"  ^  (as  they  still  do  in  the  next  passage), 
have  been  obliterated.  No  one  from  merely  looking  at  M.  Naville's 
copy  would  guess  that  there  was  any  interval  between  ^  and  S\  ■ 

The  god's  name  is  written  Q  ^        i]  on  a  tablet,  Denkm.  Ill, 

114  i.       And  the  name    is   also  written    ~rr   or      1 1   ,  which  are 

ligatures  of 

-j|-  and    ri 

46  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

7.  Note  that  in  this  scholion  Horus,  '  the  avenger  of  his  father,' 
calls  his  father  not  Osiris  but  Tmu.  In  the  more  recent  texts  there 
are  many  interpretations  of  the  two  Feathers.  One  is  "  his  two  Eyes 
are  the  Feathers."    But  the  favourite  one  is  "  Isis  and  Nephthys,  who 

have  risen  up  as  two  kites " 

8.  The  *^^^^  [|[j  ^  ^^  oi^  rehit,  by  whom  the  oblation  is  made, 
the  present  generation  as  contrasted  with  the  Q  ^  (j[|  |y|  pdit,  the 
past,  and  ^  ^^  (ft  ^^'^'f^"^^""^^  the  coming  generations. 

N\  if^i^ 

Mdaaait  is   supposed   to    be  nitre   or 

salt,  or  some  other  substance  used  in  the  process  of  embalming. 

The  more  recent  recensions  thus  answer  the  question  about  the 
lakes.  '■'■Eternity  is  the  name  of  one,  and  the  Great  green  one  that 
of  the  other,  the  lake  of  Natron  and  the  lake  of  Maat." 

ID.  See  the  picture  of  this  gate  on  the  Vignette,  which  shows  the 
Sun-god  passing  through.  One  of  the  later  explanations  is  that  from 
this  gate  Shu  raised  up  Heaven.     Another  is  that  it  was  the  gate  of 

the   Tuat.     Haukar,    ^JK   ^^,  r^ ,    means    "  behind   the 


Ti.  Hu  and  Sau,  sons  of  Tmu,  and  his  companions  in  the  Solar 
bark,  are,  like  so  many  other  gods,  Solar  appellatives.  |  ^  <s=  ^ 
Hu  is  the  Nourisher,  ^^  \J^  ^  ^^^^^  '  the  Knowing  One.'  The 
god  is  also  called  'the  Seer'  ^^ ,  and  'He  who  heareth'  i^  i£). 
These  names  are  not  personifications  of  the  senses  but,  as  in  all 
cases,  appellatives  expressing  attributes. 

12.  See  Note  2  on  Chapter  4. 

13.  The  Eye  ("vN  |  "^  ^^)  ^eing  the   Sun   or   Moon,   the 

I        i^$-rj)   is  that  of   obscuration  or  eclipse, 

and  the  hairy  net    (    -^     iIl  )   which   is    removed   is   the    shadow 

V/vwvvA  000/ 

which  passes  for  a  time  over  the  heavenly  body. 

48  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

17.  It  is  most  probable  that  the  Cat  became  the  representative  of 
the    Sun  because  of  the  homonymy  between   the   Egyptian  name 

A  ^  v*  IkX"  ^'^^"  °^  ^^^  animal  and  the  attributive  _^^  X^  m  »ia?<, 
'  shining  '  said  of  the  Sun.  But  the  Egyptian  scribe  gives  a  different 
etymological  explanation.  Sau  said  of  Ra  "  he  is  V  0  /naau  of  what 
he  hath  made."  Q  1  "^^y'  ^^^^  '^^  Latin  exemplar,  be  either  the  type 
or  the  prototype,  the  copy  or  the  original.  The  creatures  of  Ra 
were  made  after  his  likeness.  Sanskrit  literature,  from  the  ^atapatha 
Brahmana  down  to  the  Vishnu  Purana,  is  full  of  similar  etymologies. 
The  Egyptians  from  the  very  first  delighted  in  this  play  upon  words. 

18.  Nehebu-kau,  ^y^lJyiia^  or^JtjB^ 
is  the  son  of  Seb  and  Renenut.  The  etymology  of  the  name  is  indi- 
cated in  the  Pyramid  texts.      7\    x     j    v\  fiehbu  is  to  '  carry,  sustain, 

support '  (whence   TN.     0     jM^    nehbet   a   neck,   and   ^v\  Q     1  -o:-^ 

iiehb  a  yoke),  and  the  rest  of  the  word  is  the  plural  of  ka,  which  is 
susceptible  of  more  than  one  meaning.  It  might  signify  the  divine  or 
human /^a,  but  the  word  is  sometimes  {e.g.,  Todt.,  125,  32)  written 
\^\  'victuals.'  The  god  is  one  of  the  forty-two  judges  of  the  dead, 
and  in  some  copies  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  he  is  described  as 
coming  forth  from  his  ^  |  r— ,,  a  word  most  frequently  used  for  the 
source  of  the  Nile.  The  serpent  ^HH^,  which  is  a  most  frequent 
determinative  of  the  name,  is  an  additional  reason  for  identifying 
this  god  with  the  Nile  :  a  conclusion  which  seems  fully   justified 

by  the  Pyramid  texts,  which  speak  of  him  as  Water    a/vwv\  ,    and 


describe  him  as   \\   <^4.    a  V\  J  j*  ,  "  of  many  windings." 

(See  Pepi  I,  341  and  487.) 

19.  This  Devourer  has  the  same  functions  as  the  strange  animal 

called  ^^. fl  V\    ^^  ^  J^    Amemit  in  the  pictures  of  the  Psycho- 

Stasia.      The   later  scholia  add  that  the  Devourer  comes  from  the 
'basin  of  Punit,' the  Red  sea.   They  add   other  names, 


Mates  '  Flint,'  "stationed  at  the  gate  of  Amenta,"  and   j  <^^^ 


BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  4/ 

The  explanation  which  M.  Maspero  has  recently  given  (P.S.B.A. 

XIV,    xiA    of    the    word     \>  I    V\  ^^ ,     as    connected   with 

\^  \    k\  -    '  health,'   receives  confirmation   from    the  scholia    in 

the  papyri,  according  to  which  Thoth  not  only  delivered  the  Eye 
from  the  veil  of  darkness  which  oppressed  it,   but  carried  it  off 

■?-  I  n  '^^  ]  O  ^^  ^^  '  in  life,  health  and  strength,  with- 

out any  damage.' 

14.  Mehurit  is  explained  in  the  ancient  scholion  as  'the  Eye,' 
but  it  is  really  the  Sky,  from  which  the  Sun  is  born  daily.  The  sign 
of  plurality  after  Mehurit  (if  it  means  anything)  only  indicates  the 
daily  succession  of  the  skies  whence  Ra  is  born. 

15.  The  'coffined  One'  ■^37^-^^—'^^  is  of  course  Osiris,  as 
it  is  plainly  stated  in  the  later  scholia,  which  further  add  that  the 
'  Seven  glorious  ones'  who  follow  the  coffin,  or,  as  they  read  it,  "  their 
Lord,"  are  to  be  sought  in  the  constellation  of  '  the  Thigh  in  the 
northern  sky,'  that  is  in  the  seven  stars  of  the  Great  Bear. 

These  stars  never  set,  but  are  perpetually  revolving  round  the 
Pole.  It  is  therefore  evidently  with  the  Polar  Star  that  we  must 
identify  the  coffin  of  Osiris.  The  names  of  the  Seven  Glorious  ones 
vary  according  to  the  different  authorites.  And  these  Stars  them- 
selves receive  other  mythical  forms  ;  that  of  the  Seven  Cows  and 
their  Bull  is  recorded  in  the  148th  chapter.  Names  like  'the  Red- 
eyed  '  I— ^^— I  f^^  or  the  '  Red-haired  '   cow  rT\— 1    Ul  seem  to 

imply  double  stars.     The    '  Red-eyed '    is    said    to  abide   in     1 

[j/vwvAA     1 1     '  house  of  gauze  '  (perhaps  a  cobweb). 

The  papyri  add  the  important  note  that  the  "  day  of  Come  thou 
hither  "  !  represents  the  moment  "  when  Osiris  says  to  Ra,  Come 
thou  hither"  !  or,  as  some  read,  "  Come  thou  to  me."  The  speaker 
adds  that  he  sees  the  meeting  of  the  two  gods  in  Amenta. 

16.  B?     ^    possessor  of  completeness,  integrity,  hence 

'  inviolate.'  This  name  is  given  to  Osiris  when  restored  to  his  first 
condition  after  having  been  dismembered  and  cut  into  pieces.  The 
god  is  called  Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er  in  the  great  Harris  papyrus,  15,  3. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  49 

J   '^^  '^^  or  .  Q^  Baba,  who,  in   ch.   63,  2,  is    described  as  the 

first  born  of  Osiris.  He  is  a  terrible  god  from  whom  the  deceased 
prays  in  ch.  125,  36,  to  be  dehvered.  His  name  impHes  'one  who 
searches  or  probes  thoroughly,'  as  a  digger  or  miner.  And  such 
are  his  functions  at  the  judgment  of  the  dead. 

Instead  of  — »—  'V^  tesem^  a  *  hound,'  La  reads     1  (1  ^  '^?^ 
sau,  a  sheep. 

20.  The  \  p  ^  Mesqat  is  a  ^  ^  n  '  a  place  of  scourging.' 

'^^^  ^o''^  ™  ..£.  iLa  is  known  as  signifying  violent  treatment 
by  beating,  and  has  been  illustrated  by  Chabas  and  Goodwin.  See 
Zeitschr.,  1874,  p.  62.  In  the  72nd  chapter  the  deceased  prays  that 
he  may  not  perish  at  the  Mesqat.  A  kindred  word  (]]  P  zl  '^  Mesqa 
signifies  '  a  hide.'  We  can  understand  the  connection  between 
hipw  '  flay,  cudgel,  thrash '  and  hcp^ia  '  a  hide.'  And  we  ourselves 
have  the  familiar  phrase  of  '  giving  a  hiding.^  But  purification  as 
well  as  punishment  was  found  at  the  heavenly  mesqat.  It  is 
mentioned  in  the  Harris  Magical  papyrus  (6,  3)  simply  as  a  heavenly 
thing.  In  the  more  recent  scholia  the  purifier  is  said  to  be  Anubis, 
who  is  behind  the  chest  containing  the  remains  of  Osiris. 

After  the  scholion  which  has  just  been  translated  the  early  texts 
pass  on  to  the  i8th  chapter. 

For  the  rest  of  the  chapter  we  are  compelled  to  follow  the  texts 
of  the  papyri.  The  character  of  this  portion  differs  considerably 
from  the  former  part,  and  is  clearly  an  addition.  The  speakers 
rapidly  succeed  each  other.  "  I  am  Tmu,"  "  I  am  Isis,"  "  I  was 
conceived  by  Isis,"  "  Isis  destroyeth  what  in  me  is  wrong,"  and  finally 
"  I  am  Uat'it." 

21.  Cher-abat  and  Heliopolis  like  all  the  localities  here  mentioned 
are  in  heaven  not  upon  earth. 

22.  Uat'it  is  literally  'the  pale  one,'  a  name  of  the  Dawn.  But 
here  the  fiery  dawn  is  spoken  of,  ^ws  (piXo^epa,  7rvpc'l3po/io^. 

23.  Hemen  1  "^i^  t\^  is  a  divinity  seldom,  if  ever,  mentioned 
after  the  "  Middle  Empire."  In  the  Pyramid  texts  he  has  a  Snake 
(the  River)  in  his  hand. 




24.  The  last  line  of  the  chapter  has  sufifered  in  all  the  best  papyri. 
See  M.  Naville's  collation.  In  the  papyrus  of  Ani  the  chapter  is 
unfinished.  The  later  papyri  end  the  chapter  by  saying  that  "  it  has 
been  granted  to  the  speaker  by  those  who  are  in  Tattu  to  destroy  by 
fire  the  souls  of  his  adversaries."  This  consummation  is  already 
found  in  La. 




The  An-mdut  (i)  saith: — 

I  come  to  you,  ye  Great  Circles  of  gods  (2)  in  Heaven,  upon 
Earth  and  in  the  World  below  !  I  bring  to  you  N  void  of  offence 
towards  any  of  the  gods,  grant  that  he  may  be  with  you  daily. 

Glory  to  Osiris,  Lord  of  Restau,  and  to  the  great  gods  who  are 
in  the  World  below.  Here  is  N  who  saith  : — Hail  to  thee,  Prince 
of  Amenta,  Unneferu  who  presides!  in  Abydos,  I  come  to  thee  with 
Righteousness ;  without  sin  upon  me.  I  am  not  knowingly  a 
speaker  of  wrong ;  I  am  not  given  to  duplicity  ;  grant  me  Bread, 
the  right  of  appearance  at  the  tables  of  the  Lords  of  Maat,  entering 
in  and  going  out  of  the  Netherworld,  and  that  my  soul  may  not 
suffer  repulse  in  its  devotion  to  the  orb  of  the  Sun  and  the  vision  of 
the  Moon-god  for  ever. 




Papyrus  of  Ani. 
Introduction  to  Chapter  XVIII. 

Leyden  Papyrus. 

Chapter    XVIII.       Papyrus    Busca. 

Naville,  "  Book  of  the  Dead." 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  XVIII.     Bkugsch,  "Thesaurus,"  Vol.  V,  p.  iioo. 

Chapter  XIX.     Papyrus  du  Louvre,  440. 

E.  DE  RouGK,  "  I^tudes  sur  le  Rituel  Funtiairc,"  p.  14. 

Chapter  XIX.     Papyrus  du  Louvre,  3079. 
E.  DE  Rouge,  "Etudes  sur  Ic  Rituel  Funeraire,"  p.  13 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  5 1 

The  Se-meri-f  saiih  : — 

I  come  to  you,  O  Circle  of  gods  in  Restau,  and  I  bring  to  you  A' 
Grant  to  him  Bread,  Water,  Air  and  an  allotment  in  the  Sechit- 
hotepu  like  Horus. 

Glory  to  Osiris,  the  Lord  of  Eternity  and  to  the  Circle  of  gods  in 
Restau.  Here  is  A'' and  he  saith : — I  come  to  thee,  I  know  thy 
will,  and  I  am  furnished  with  thine  attributes  of  the  Tuat.  Grant 
me  an  abiding  place  in  the  Netherworld  by  the  Lords  of  Maat,  my 
permanent  allotment  in  the  Sechit-hotepu,  and  the  receiving  of 
cakes  before  thee. 


1.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  N  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Circle  of  gods 
about  Ra  and  about  Osiris  and  the  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Heliopolis, 
on  that  Night  of  the  Eve's  Provender {■^  and  the  Night  of  Battle 
when  there  befel  the  Defeat  of  the  Sebau,  and  the  Day  of  the 
extinction  of  the  adversaries  of  the  Inviolate  god. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Heliopolis  is  of  Tmu,  Shu  and 
Tefnut,  and  the  Sebau  who  were  defeated  and  extinguished  were  the 
associates  of  Sut  on  the  renewal  of  his  assault. 

2.  Oh  Thoth  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  A''  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou 
makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries  before  the  Great  Circle 
of  gods  in  Tattu,  on  the  Night  wherein  the  Tat  is  set  up  in  Tattu.  (4) 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Tattu  is  of  Osiris,  Isis,  Nephthys 
and  Horus  the  Avenger  of  his  Father ;  and  they  who  set  up  the  Tat 
are  the  two  arms  of  Horus,  Prince  of  Sechem.  They  are  behind 
Osiris  as  bindings  of  his  raiment. 

3.  Oh  Thoth  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  A^be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
o^ods  in  Sechem  on  that  Night  of  the  Eve's  Provender  in  Sechem. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Sechem  is  of  Horus  in  the  Dark,  (5) 
and  Thoth,  who  is  of  the  Great  Circle  of  An-arer-ef. 

The  Eve's  Provender  is  the  dawn  upon  the  Cofifin  of  Osiris. 

H  2 

52  BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD. 

4.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  iVbe  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  in  Pu  and  Tepu,  (6)  on  that  Night  of  erecting  the  flag-staffs 
of  Horus,  and  of  establishing  him  as  heir  of  his  Father's  property. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Pu  and  Tepu  is  of  Horus,  Isis, 
Emsta,  Hapi ;  and  the  pillars  of  Horus  are  erected  when  Horus 
saith  to  those  who  follow  him  "let  the  flag-staffs  be  erected  there." 

5.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  TV  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  of  the  Two  P>.egions*  of  Rechit,  on  that  Night  when  Isis  lay 
watching  in  tears  over  her  brother  Osiris. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  on  the  Two  Regions  of  Rechit  is  of 
Isis,  Nephthys,  Emsta  and  Hapi. 

6.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  N  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  in  Abydos  on  the  night  of  Hakra,  (7)  when  the  evil  dead  are 
parted  off,  when  the  glorious  ones  are  rightly  judged,  and  joy  goeth 
its  round  in  Thinis. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Abydos  is  of  Osiris,  Isis  and  Apuat. 

7.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  N  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  on  the  Highway  of  the  Damned,  (8)  upon  the  Night  when 
judgment  is  passed  upon  those  who  are  no  more. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  on  the  Highway  of  the  Damned  are 
Thoth,  Osiris,  Anubis  and  Astes.  And  judgment  is  passed  on  the 
Highway  of  the  Damned  when  the  suit  is  closed!  against  the  souls 
of  the  Children  of  Failure. 

8.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries. 

The  later  recensions  read  .     The  first  Ccff.n 

of  Mentuhotep  {Aelteste  Texte,  4,  61)  has  the  phonetic  Ij  c=^:3  J  . 

t  Literally,  "  when  the  things    ,   w  ,    are  shut  up." 


BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  53 

let  iVbe  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  at  the  Great  Hoeing  in  Tattu,  on  the  Night  of  Hoeing  in  their 
blood  and  effecting  the  triumph  of  Osiris  over  his  adversaries. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  at  the  Great  Hoeing  in  Tattu,  (9)  when 
the  associates  of  Sut  arrive,  and  take  the  forms  of  goats,  slay  them 
before  the  gods  there,  while  their  blood  runneth  down  ;  and  this 
is  done  according  to  the  judgment  of  those  gods  who  are  in  Tattu. 

9.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  TV  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou  makest 
Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  before  the  Great  Circle  of 
gods  in  An-arer-ef  on  the  Night  of  Hiding  him  who  is  Supreme  in 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  An-arer-ef  is  of  Shu,  Babai,  Ra  and 
Osiris,  and  the  Night  of  Hiding  him  who  is  Supreme  of  Attributes 
is  when  there  are  at  the  Coffin,  the  Thigh,  the  Head,  the  Heel  and 
the  Leg  of  Unneferu. 

10.  Oh  Thoth,  who  makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries, 
let  JV  be  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  even  as  thou 
makest  Osiris  triumphant  over  his  adversaries  before  the  Great 
Circle  of  gods  in  Restau  on  the  Night  when  Anubis  lieth  (10)  with 
his  hands  upon  the  objects  behind  Osiris,  when  Osiris  is  made  to 
triumph  over  his  adversaries. 

The  Great  Circle  of  gods  in  Restau  is  of  Osiris,  Horus,  and 
Isis.  The  heart  of  Horus  rejoiceth,  the  heart  of  Osiris  is  glad  and 
the  two  Parts  |  of  Heaven  are  satisfied  when  Thoth  effecteth  the 
triumph  of  IV  before  these  ten  Great  Circles  about  Ra  and  about 
Osiris  and  the  Circles  of  gods  attached  to  every  god  and  every 
goddess  before  the  Inviolate  god.  All  his  adversaries  are  destroyed 
and  all  that  was  wrong  in  him  is  also  destroyed. 

Zei  the  person  say  this  chapter^  he  will  be  ptirified  and  come  forth 
by  day,  after  his  death,  and  take  all  fori7is  for  the  satisfaction  of  his 
will,  and  if  this  chapter  be  recited  over  him,  he  will  be  prosperous  upon 
earth,  he  tvill  come  forth  safe  from  every  fire,  and  tio  evil  thing  will 
approach  hijn  :  with  undeviating  regularity  for  times  i^ifinite.  (11) 


0  1  JT  J   I   I   I  • 

54  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


The  eighteenth  chapter  is  one  of  those  found  in  the  earhest 
copies  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  on  the  wooden  coffins  of  the  '  Old ' 
and  '  Middle'  Empires  ;  the  most  complete  ancient  copy  being  on 
the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhotep  of  the  eleventh  dynasty. 

It  consists  of  a  Litany  addressed  to  Thoth,  who  is  invoked  for 
securing  the  triumph  of  the  departed  against  his  adversaries  in 
presence  of  the  gods  of  certain  localities.  Each  petition  has 
reference  to  some  mythological  event,  and  is  supplemented  by  the 
enumeration  of  the  gods  constituting  the  divine  company  presiding 
at  the  locality  named,  and  sometimes  by  a  short  comment  on  the 
myth  referred  to. 

The  order  of  petitions  is  somewhat  different  in  the  later  recen- 
sions, and  the  text  has  suffered  other  alterations. 

Copies  of  this  chapter  are  extremely  numerous,  particularly  in 
the  later  periods. 

The  chapter  really  begins  with  the  petitions  to  Thoth.  The 
preceding  portion  is,  as  far  as  I  know,  found  only  in  the  Papyrus  of 
Ani.  But  as  the  vignette  which  belongs  to  this  portion  has  a  place 
in  the  great  Leyden  Papyrus  of  Kenna,  the  text  cannot  have  been 
confined  to  a  single  manuscript.  It  is  particularly  valuable  as 
illustrative  of  the  ritual  use  of  portions  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 

I.  The  deceased  person  is  supposed  to  be  presented  to  the  gods 

by  two  priests  in  succession,  one  called  An-maut-ef  fn  |  ^  A\  k^^  , 

and    the    other    ^\  <:==>     Se-vieri-f.      Both    names    are    titles    of 

Horus,  and  it  is  the  usual  thing  for  Egyptian  priests  to  bear  divine 
titles ;  their  ritual  observances  being  dramatic  and  symbolical 
representations  of  the  actions  of  the  gods.  An-matit-ef  literally 
signifies    '  column    (support)    of    his    mother.'      Horus    is    called 

"^TV      ^    A/wvsA  0    \^  ^^"^^     '  the    An-maut-ef    of    the    Great 

Company  of  the  gods'  (Mariette,  Abydos,  I,  p.  34),  and  in  Denkmiihr, 
III,  206  ^,  he  is  called  the  An-maut-ef  of  Osiris  (cf  Abyd.  II,  54). 

Se-me7-if  signifies  *  the  Beloved  Son,'  and  the  priest  of  this 
name  in  the  funereal  rites  personified  Horus  in  his  dutiful  offices 

to   his   father  Osiris.      I   do   not    know  why    ^:v^<=:=r>    is    always 

translated  '  the  son  who  loves  him,'  instead  of  '  the  son  he  loves,' 


BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD,  55 

which  is   the   right   meaning.        j         <::ii>    is   '  the  place  which  he 

loves  '  not  '  the  place  which  loves  him.'  And  similarly  <r:=>  is 
'  the  wife  whom  he  loves,'  not  '  wh )  Icves  him.' 

2,  There   is   a   short  note  (6)  on  chapter    i,    upon   the  word 

1  ,   but  the  present  seems  to  be  the  suitable  place  for  a 

more  extended  notice  of  this  feminine  word,  which  is  a  collective 
noun,  and  never  found  in  any  other  sense. 

The  ancient  form  A  A  O^^  Jj  i    renders  it  more  than  probable 

that  0   is  not  phonetic  in  the  later  form,  but  that  as  in   \  „    Aa/, 

originally  \  (whence  the  Coptic  KOT",  KCJOTG,  a  circle,  a  round 
vessel,  to  go  round),  it  is  ideographic  of  roundness.  This  concept 
is  certainly  to  be  found  in  the  word  H  ^,  ihe  Coptic  XUJX  ,  a 
head  (or  rather  top  of  the  head),  as  in  the  Latin  vertex,  akin  to 
vortex,  from  the  same  root  as  vertere.  The  sign  \  ,  which  in  later 
texts  often  appears  as  the  determinative,  has  its  origin  in  the  cursive 
form  of  +  carelessly  written.  Instead  of  "-h — i  we  also  find  |J, 
which  is  certainly  not  phonetic  but  ideographic  of  enclosure,  as  in 
the  word  ()  <ci  1^  y  a  wall,  paries,  epKOf.  This  word  occurs  already 
in  the  Pyramid  Texts  under  the  form  |,|,q.  See  Pepi  I,  571, 
which  M.  Maspero  renders  '  la  Grande  E?iceinie  d'On.'  The  evident 
etymological  relationship  to  the  Coptic  XCDX  has  led  some  scholars 
to  translate  the  Egyptian  word  as  signifying  chiefs,  princes.  But 
though  the  lexicons  give  dux  and  priticeps  as  meanings  of  the 
Coptic  word,  these  are  but  secondary  applications  of  head.  We 
have  to  enquire  why  X(A3X  means  head,  or  top  of  the  head.  And 
the  reason  is  its  roundness,  as  indicated  by  the  ideographic  signs 


The  old  Egyptian  word  \  \  O^  i  invariably  implies  an  as- 
sociation of  persons,  and  this  is  why  in  consequence  of  its  etymology 
I  translate  it  as  '  Circle  of  gods.'  It  is  synonymous  {cf.  chapter  41, 
note  8)  with  ©^1. 

3.  The  Eve's  Provender.  Later  authorities  read  ,  w'^,  T  \\  ^  /i  ' 
the  '  Provender  of  the  altars,'  but  this  is  a  corruption  of  the  ancient 

56  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

T  *^^  V^"""^'  ^^'h'ch  had  probably  ceased  to  be  intelligible. 

I  I  I 

According  to  this  pantheistic  system  the  deceased  through  his  identi- 
fication with  the  Sun  absorbed  and  consumed  all  that  came  in  his 
way.  And  this  is  expressed  in  somewhat  brutal  style.  Men  and 
gods   disaj^pear   before   Unas,    he   makes   his    breakfast    at    dawn 

r\       — ,  upon  great  gods,  his  dinner  upon  gods  of  middling 


quality  ^\,  and   'hi5  supper  at   even'  ('^®JQ^%T^ 

upon   the  mmor   deities,  <crr>o.      I  is    the  ancient  dialectic 

variant  of  ,   ^  ■■^,   which    however  is   really  the  older  form.      This 

word  which  means  '  things '  has,  like  the  Latin  res,  a  wide  applica- 
tion.    It  frequently  means  J'ro/>erfj,  estate,  and  sometimes  suit. 

4.  On  the  last  day  of  the  month  of  Choiak  the  great  solemnity  of 
setting  up  the  Tat  W  as  the  symbol  of  Osiris  was  observed  down  to 
the  latest  periods.  The  tablets  of  Pasherenptah,  high  priest  of  Ptah 
at  Memphis,  speak  of  this  great  dignitarj'  as  the  king's  second  or 
deputy  in  '  Raising  the  Tat.'  But  Brugsch  has  published  a  picture 
{Thesaurus,  V,  1190),  copied  by  Dr.  Erman  from  a  tomb  of  the 
XVIIIth  dynasty,  in  which  Amenophis  III  himself  helps  to  raise 
the  Tat,  and  the  queen  Ti  and  the  royal  princesses  take  part  in  the 
ceremony.  The  procession  is  described  as  marching  four  times 
round  the  sanctuary  of  Ptah-Seker-Osiris.     See  Plate  IX. 

5.  On  Horus  in  the  Dark,  or  Blindness,  or  Invisibility  .<2>- ,  see 

my  note,  Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  June,  1886. 

6.  Pu  and  Tepu  are  named  together  in  the  earliest  texts  as  one 
locality,  which  is  recognised  by  Brugsch  as  the  metropolis  of  the 
northern  nome  called  by  the  Greeks  ^Oevon]^. 

7.  The  feast  of    '  ^    derives  its  name,  as  Goodwin  supposes 

with    great    probability,    from    the    words     [^  V\  ^ « <rr>  W 

ha-k-er-a,    '  Come   thou  to   me,'   said   of  a  legendary  incident  like 
that  mentioned  at  the  end  of  note  15  on  chapter  17.      The  early 

papyri  read  j~[]  V\  QA  but  this  is  no  objection,  the  sign   g7\ 

being  here  the  determinative  of  the  entire  group  which  gives  its 
name  to  the  feast. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  57 

8.  \^^  <=i  Vik  =^  I  literally  the  dead,  that  is  those  who  have  died 
'  the  second  death.' 

9.  The  vignette  is  given  by  M.  Naville  from  the  tracing  taken  by 
Lepsius  of  the  now  lost  Papyrus  Busca.  It  represents  '  the  Great 
Hoeing  in  Tattu.'  The  long  text  at  Dendera  (Mariette,  torn.  IV, 
pi.  39)  contains  directions  to  be  observed  on  the  festival  com- 
memorative of  the  ancient  myth.     Two  black  cows  are  put  under  a 

yoke  of  [1    I  Q  cun  wood,  the  plough  is  of  tamarisk  wood  and  the 

share  of  black  bronze.  The  plougher  goes  behind,  with  a  cow  led 
by  a  halter.  A  little  child  with  the  lock  ^  attached  to  its  head  is  to 
scatter  the  seed  in  the  field  of  Osiris,  a  piece  of  land  of  which  the 
dimensions  were  given  in  the  text  (now  imperfect).  Barley  is  sown 
at  one  end,  spelt  at  the  other,  and  flax  between  the  two.  And  the 
Cher-heb  in  chief  recites  the  Office  for  the  Sowing  of  the  Field. 

10.  The  older  texts  have     n.     «^j^  lie,  the  later  ones     ^     lay. 

11.  In  the  formula  ^  ^^-^  ''q^j  5  ^^^  '^  "the  measuring  line 
used  by  builders,  and  em  ses  signifies  'ad  amussim,'  'nach  der 
Schnur,'  'au  cordeau,'  'according  to  the  line,'  hence  'with  the 
strictest  accuracy.'  Hibbert  Lectures,  1879,  p.  121.  '  According  to 
the  line  of  Maat '  means  'with  undeviating  regularity.' 


Chapter  of  the  Crown  of  Triumph. 

Thy  Father  Tmu  hath  prepared  for  thee  this  beautiful  Crown  of 
Triumph,  the  living  diadem  which  the  gods  love,  that  thou  mayest 
live  for  ever.  Osiris,  Prince  of  Amenta,  maketh  thee  to  triumj^h 
over  thine  adversaries.  Thy  Father  Seb  hath  decreed  that  thou 
should  be  his  heir,  and  be  heralded  as  Triumphant,  Horus  son  of 
Isis  and  son  of  Osiris,  upon  the  throne  of  thy  Father  Ra,  through 
the  defeat  of  thine  adversaries.  He  hath  decreed  for  thee  the  Two 
Earths,  absolutely  and  without  condition  (i).  And  so  hath  Atmu 
decreed,  and  the  Cycle  of  the  gods  hath  repeated  the  glorious  act  of 
the  triumph  of  Horus  the  son  of  Isis  and  the  son  of  Osiris  foi  ever 
and  ever. 


58  BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD. 

Osiris,  the  Prince  of  Amenta,  the  Two  Parts  of  Heaven  united, 
all  gods  and  all  goddesses  who  are  in  heaven  and  upon  earth  join 
in  effecting  the  Triumph  of  Horus  the  son  of  Isis  and  son  of 
Osiris  over  his  adversaries  before  the  Great  Circle  of  gods  in 
Heliopolis,  on  the  Nig/it,  etc. 

Horus  repeateth  the  proclamation  four  times.  All  the  adversaries 
fall  and  are  overthrown  and  slaughtered. 

N  repeateth  the  proclamation  four  times,  and  all  his  adversaries 
fall  and  are  overthrown  and  slaughtered. 

Horus  son  of  Isis  and  son  of  Horus  repeateth  an  infinite  number 
of  festivals,  and  all  his  adversaries  fall  down,  are  overthrown  and 
slaughtered.  Their  abode  is  transferred  to  the  slaughtering  block 
of  the  East,  their  heads  are  cut  away,  their  necks  are  crushed,  their 
thighs  are  lopped  off,  they  are  given  to  the  great  Annihilator  who 
resideth  in  the  Valley  (2)  that  they  may  not  ever  escape  from  under 
the  custody  of  Seb.  (3) 

This  chapter  is  said  over  a  consecrated  croum  placed  z/poti  the  face 
of  the  person,  and  thou  shalt  put  incense  upon  the  flame,  for  N  {the 
deceased),  effecting  his  triufnph  over  ail  his  adversaries,  whether  Dead 
or  Living,  that  he  may  become  one  of  the  followers  of  Osiris.  And 
there  shall  be  given  to  him  drink  and  food  in  presence  of  this  god 
Thou  shall  say  it  at  dawn  twice  ;  A  great  protection  is  it:  ivith 
undeviating  regularity  for  times  ififnite. 


The  nineteenth  chapter  is  a  very  recent  recension  of  the 
eighteenth.  The  MSS.  containing  it,  as  far  as  we  know,  are  not 
older  than  the  Greek  period.  It  derives  its  origin  from  the  piactice 
of  placing  garlands  or  floral  crowns  upon  the  mummies.  1  he 
mummy  of  Aahmes  I,  the  first  king  of  the  eighteenth  dynasty,  whtn 
found  "portait  au  cou,"  M.  Maspero  writes,  "  une  guirlande  de  jolies 
fleurs  roses  de  Delphinium  orientate."  Remains  of  such  crowns  are 
to  be  found  in  our  Museums.  For  farther  details  I  must  refer  to  an 
excellent  paper  entitled  La  Couronne  de  la  Justification,  by  Dr. 
]*ieyte  of  Leyden,  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Transactions  of  the 
Oriental  Congress  held  at  Lc\den  in  1884;  and  see  Plate  VHI. 



^j^.    This   adverbial  expression   is  apparently   con- 

nected with  Xj]-jj.  ^'^^^ .  and  I  therefore  understand  it  in  the  sense  of 
f'lTTOTo^itv^,  praecisi,  absolutely,  without  condition. 


^      the   Valley   of    Darkness    (Todt.,   130,   6)   and 

X  -JI-. 

Death,  "  whose  secrets  are  absolutely  unknown  "  '   '^''  '     . ^ 

^  D\\\     %    %2 

(148,  2). 

3.  That  is  they  shall  remain  interred  for  ever. 


The  twentieth  chapter  is  entitled  Another  Chapter  of  Cro7on  of 
Triut}iph,  but  it  is  simply  a  tabulated  form  of  chapter  18,  with 
the  Rubric.  Let  the  person  say  this  Chapter,  and  purify  himself  with 
water  of  natron,  he  7vill  come  forth  by  day  after  death,  and  take  all 
forms  according  to  his  wish,  afid  escape  from  the  fire.  With  un- 
deviating  regularity  for  times  infinite.  The  earliest  example  of  this 
tabulated  form  of  the  chapter  is  found  on  the  Berlin  Sarcophagus 
of  Mentuhotep. 

DiJMicHEN  ;    Tempelinschriften,  LXXV, 

I   2 

6o  COOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  whereby  the  month  of  a  person  is  given  to  him  in  the 


Hail  to  thee,  Lord  of  Light,  who  art  Prince  of  the  House  which 
is  encircled  by  Darkness  and  Obscurity.  I  am  come  to  thee  glori- 
fied and  purified. 

My  hands  are  behind  thee;  thy  portion  is  that  of  those  who  have 
gone  before  thee,  (i) 

Give  me  my  mouth  that  I  may  speak  whh  it  \  and  guide  (2)  my 
heart  at  its  hour  of  Darkness  and  Night. 


The  oldest  papyrus  containing  this  chapter  is  that  of  Ani,  and 
the  translation  is  based  upon  it.  But  the  text  differs  both  from 
those  written  on  the  very  ancient  coffins  of  Pleru  and  Set-Bastit, 
copied  by  M.  Maspero,*  and  from  the  later  texts. 

The  second  paragraph  seems  to  be  spoken  by  the  god,  the  first 
and  third  being  from  the  deceased. 

"  My  hands  are  behind  thee  "  is  a  formula  implying  protection. 

On  the  coffins  the  invocation  is  addressed  not  to  "  Osiris,  Lord 

of  Light "  or  "  Radiant  One  "  ^^37  ^m-. ,  but  to  the  <=s='     \r    ^  , 

"  one  whose  head  is  clothed  with  radiant  white,  of  the  House  of 
Darkness  and  Obscurity." 

Instead  of    l^fCj^    "obscurity"  the  coffin  has   [t]  "^ 

without   a   determinative,    but   JTj   I  (1  [     ^'      shows  what   the  word 

This  ancient  text  continues — "  Come  thou  to  me,  glorified  and 
purified  ;  let  thy  hands  [here  the  text  is  obliterated],  shine  thou  with 

thine    head 

ft    ^^,^ ^1,  „^::=^)-      Give    me    my    mouth    that 

*  Mission   Archeologique   Fraiifaise,    II,    p.     216    and    223.       The    text    is 
unfortunately  incomplete  on  both  coffins. 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  XV.       Papyrus  of  Ani. 

Chapter  XXVIII. 
Papyrus,  Leyden,  T.  i6. 



Chapter  XXVIII. 
Nicholson,  "  Egyptiaca." 

Chapter  XXII.      Tomb  of  Bekenrenef. 

Lepsius,  "  Denkmaler,"  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  267. 

Chapter  XXIII.      Tomb  of  Bekenrenef. 

Lepsius,  "  Denkmaler,"  Al>th.  Ill,  Bl.  260. 

Chapter  XXII.     Papyrus  of  Ani. 


Chapter  XXIII. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  9900. 

Chapter  XXIV.     Papyrus  of  Ani. 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 


Chapter  XXII. 


Sarcophagus  of  Seti  I. 

Chapter  XXVII. 

Chapter  XXIII, 

Lepsius,  "  Todtenbuch," 
17,  Vignette. 

Chapter  XXVII. 

Papyrus,  Mus^e  du 
Louvre,  III,  36. 

Chapter    XXVII. 

Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Papyrus  of  Ani. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  6 1 

I  may  speak  with  it,  and  guide  me  on  the  glorious  roads  which 
are  in  heaven," 

The  Turin  text  is  very  corrupt,  and  parts  of  it  are  incapable  of 

2.  "  Let  me  guide,"  according  to  the  Ani  Papyrus,      But  the 

later  (hieratic)  texts  have  the  second  person 
which  is  more  correct. 


'=^^.  V^    A 


Another  Chapter  whereby  the  Mouth  of  a  person  is  givsn  to 
him  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  shine  forth  out  of  the  Egg  which  is  in  the  unseen  world,  (i) 
Let  there  be  given  my  mouth  that  I  may  speak  with  it  in  presence 
of  the  great  god,  Lord  of  the  Tuat.  Let  not  my  hand  be  repulsed 
by  the  Divine  Circle  of  the  great  god. 

I  am  Osiris,  the  Lord  of  Restau,  the  same  who  is  at  the  head  of 
the  Staircase.  (2) 

I  am  come  to  do  the  will  of  my  heart,  out  of  the  Tank  of 
Flame,  which  I  extinguish  when  I  come  forth.  (3) 


This  is  one  of  the  chapters  of  which  the  text  certainly  belongs 
to  the  earliest  epoch.  It  is  one  of  those  copied  by  Wilkinson  from 
the  coffin  (2)  of  Queen  Mentuhotep.  In  the  Papyrus  of  Ani  it  is 
followed  by  chapter  21  as  its  conclusion,  and  both  chapters  are 
appended  to  chapter  i,  before  the  rubric  belonging  to  that  chapter. 

I.  The  Egg  in  the  unseen  world  is  the  globe  of  the  Sun  while 
yet  below  the  horizon.  It  is  only  through  a  mistranslation  of 
chapter  54,  2  that  the  Indian  notion  of  a  '  Mundane  Egg '  has 
been  ascribed  to  the  Egyptians. 

The  17th  chapter  addresses  "Ra  in  thine  Egg,  who  risest  up 
in  thine  orb,  and  shinest  from  thine  Horizon." 


2.  See  the  picture  of  Osiris  at  the  head  of  the  Staircase,  which 
is  here  given  (see  Plate  XI)  from  the  alabaster  sarcophagus  of  Seti  I 
in    the    Soane    Museum.       Similar    pictures    are    given    on    other 

sarcophagi.   The  gods  on  the  stairs  are  called  c^  i,  -  h  ^\  ^, 

'the  Divine  Circle  about  Osiris.' 

The   'Staircase  oi  the  great  god'  c£L1       A  at  Abydos,  is 

frequently  mentioned  on  the  funeral  stelae. 

3.  The  Tank  of  Flame.  See  chapter  i,  note  15.  The  red 
glow  of  the  Sky  disappears  after  the  Sun  has  risen,  he  is  therefore 
said  to  "  extinguish  the  Flame  "  after  he  has  come  forth.  The  same 
notion  is  expressed  in  the  myth  according  to  which  Horus  strikes 
off  the  head  of  his  mother. 


Chapter  'whereby  the  Mouth  of  a  fersoti  is  opened  for  him  in  the 


He  saith :  Let  my  mouth  be  opened  by  Ptah,  and  let  the 
muzzles  which  are  upon  my  mouth  be  loosed  by  the  god  of  my 
domain,  (i) 

Then  let  Thoth  come,  full  and  equipped  with  Words  of  Power,* 
and  let  him  loose  the  muzzles  of  Sutu  which  are  upon  my  mouth, 
and  let  Tmu  lend  a  hand  to  fling  them  at  the  assailants. 

Let  my  mouth  be  given  to  me.  Let  my  mouth  be  opened  by 
Ptah  with  that  instrument  of  steel  (2)  wherewith  he  openeth  the 
mouths  of  the  gods. 

I  am  Sechit  (3)  Uat'it  who  sitteth  on  the  right  side  of  Heaven  : 
I  am  Sahit  encircled  by  the  Spirits  of  Heliopolis.t 

And  all  the  Words  of  Power,  and  all  the  accusations  which  are 
uttered  against  me — the  gods  stand  firm  against  them  :  the  cycles  of 
the  gods  unitedly. 

*   ^  U  ^  ^  ^1  [.  +  Tmu,  Shu  and  Tefnut. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  63 


1.  Osiris.    On  the  sense  of     j -/|       ,  literally  'the  god  of  t>e 

domain,'  see  the  articles  of  M.  Naville  and  Professor  Piehl,  Zeitschr.. 
1880,  146  ;  1881,  24  and  64.  I  hold  with  Dr.  Piehl  that  the  domain 
meant  in  this  formula  is  Abydos,  and  that  the  god  is  Osiris. 

2.  The  word    here  translated   *  steel  'is      1  (    "^  ,    upon  which 

see  M.  Deveria's  dissertation,  "  Le  Fer  et  I'Aimant "  in  the  Melanges 
(T Archeologie  Egyptienne  et  Assyrienne,  tome  I,  p.  2. 

A  description  of  the  Ceremonies  of  the  Opening  of  the  Mouth 
as  performed  at  the  tomb  will  be  found  in  the  Introduction  to  this 

3.  The  name  of  this  goddess  is  phonetically  written  1  Siit 
in  the  Pyramid  texts  of  Unas  (1.  390),  where  the  Murray  Papyrus 
and  other  texts  have  the  ordinary  y  .  The  reading  Sechemet 
is  indefensible.     Cf.  Froc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  XII,  p.  365. 


Chapter  ichereby  the  Words  of  Forcer  ate  brought  to  a  Person  in  the 


I  am  Chepera,  the  self-produced,  on  his  Mother's  thigh.  (1) 
The    speed    of    bloodhounds    is    given    to    those   who   are    in 

Heaven,*  and  the  mettle  of  hyaenas(2)  to  those  who  belong  to  the 

Divine  Circle. 

Lo,  I  bring  this  my  Word  of  Power,  and  I  collect  this  Word  of 

Power  from  every  quarter  in  which  it  is,  more  j^ersistently  (3)  than 

hounds  of  chase  and  more  swiltly  than  the  Light. 

O  thou  who  guidest  the  Bark  of  Ra,  sound  is  thy  rigging  and 
free  from  disaster  as  thou  passest  on  to  the  Tank  of  Flame. 

Lo,  I  collect  t  this  my  Word  of  Power  from  every  quarter  in 
which  it  is,  in  behalf  of   every   person  whom  it  concerneth,    more 

Nil.  T    <--=>i 

64  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

persistently  than  hounds  of  chase  and  more  swiftly  than  Light  ;  the 
same  (4)  who  create  the  gods  out  of  Silence,  or  reduce  them  to 
inactivity  ;  the  same  who  impart  warmth  to  the  gods. 

Lo,  I  collect  this  my  Word  of  Power  from  every  quarter  in  which 
it  is,  in  behalf  of  every  person  whom  it  concerneth,  more  persistently 
than  hounds  of  chase  and  more  swiftly  than  the  Light. 


This  is  another  of  those  chapters  of  which  the  antiquity  is 
proved  by  the  coffins  of  Horhotep  and  Queen  Mentuhotep.  And 
even  in  the  early  times  to  which  these  coffins  belong  it  must  have 
been  extremely  difficult  to  understand.  In  the  translation  here 
given  I  have  adhered  as  closely  as  possible  to  the  oldest  texts,  but 
these,  as  the  variants  show,  are  not  entirely  trustworthy. 

1.  Thigh.  This  is  the  usual  translation,  which  accords  with  the 
frequent  pictures  of  the  goddess  Nut,  as  the  Sky,  with  the  divine 
Scarab  in  the  position  described.*  But  V\  <^:>  ^  signifies  that 
which  r/^« J,  from  ^  ^  udr.^  ran,  fugere ;   and  the  noun  {the 

runner)  is  often  applied  to  running  water.  It  is  the  geographical 
name  of  a  river  or  canal.  M.  Naville  has  already  pointed  out  that 
in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  it  has  for  variants  \  ^  /wwv^  and  f  1  c^  A^^/w^ , 
of  which  bath  is  a  fair  translation. 

2.  The  names  of  these  two  animals  (especially  of  the  second) 
vary  greatly  in  the  texts.  But  if  we  wish  rightly  to  understand  the 
sense  of  the  chapter,  we  must  bear  in  mind  that  it  is  not  the  animals 
themselves  that  are  meant,  but  the  characteristics  implied  by  the 
names  of  the  animals.  And  as  the  Sanskrit  vrias,  the  Greek  XvKoy-, 
the  old  Slavonic  vlnhu,  the  Gothic  v/d/s,  and  our  own  wo//,  signify 

the  robber,  so  does  the  Egyptian  ^^  \\\  /s,  whether  signifying 

wolf,  wolfho2ind,  or  bloodhound,  indicate  sj>efd. 

The  names  of  the  second  animaZ  in  the  earlier  texts,  whethtr 

they  stand  for  hyaenas    j  ft  ^^   v'^ttK'  °^  ^'^^  other  animals  of  the 

chase  I    ]  C    \j\\,  imply  either  sj)ecd  or  ferocity.      And  what  must 

*  See  also  in  Plate  XI  the  Vignette  frcm  chr.ptcr  17  in  the  Turin  and  all  the 
later  papyri. 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  65 

we  understand  under  the  latter  term  ?  We  must  look  to  the  context. 
It  is  of  a  god  speaking  of  himself  and  of  his  attributes.  He  is  proud 
of  them,  and  certainly  does  not  wish  them  to  be  taken  in  a  bad 
sense.  Nor  is  it  necessary  that  we  should  do  so.  We  have  only  to 
remember  what  we  learnt  at  school. 

Cicero  {de  Sen.,  10,  ^t,)  contrasts  the  'ferocitas  juvenum,'  the 
high  pluck  of  the  young,  with  the  'infirmitas  puerorum,'  and  the 
'  gravitas'  and  '  matuntas '  of  later  periods  of  life. 

Livy  uses  the  term  ferox,  in  the  same  sense  as  Cicero. 

What  we  have  to  understand  of  the  Egyptian  expression  is, 
'  mettlesome,  of  high,  unbridled  spirit.' 

In  the  later  texts  the  Bennu  bird  has  been  substituted  for  the 
beasts  of  the  chase. 

'•^■^^^j  but  all  the  earlier  ones  give 

another  word        ^.^w^    or        /^^^ .     This  is  often  used  in  a  bad 

sense,  when  spoken  of  the  enemy ;  but  it  merely  implies  tenacity, 
pertinacity,  obstinacy,  which  are,  of  course,  very  bad  things  in 
opposition,  but  in  themselves  virtues  of  a  high  order.* 

The    word    is   used   as    a    name   for   the    divine   Cynocephali 

JD  V  ^^  '     ^^°  appear  at  sunrise  over  the  Tafik  of  Fla?ne. 

I  S ^^  m\  I ;  ^he  same   who  bringeth   into  being  the  gods  out  of 
Silence,  or  i-educeth  them  to  inactivity. 

In  addition  to  this  interesting  utterance  of  Egyptian  theology, 

I    ^    ^h  as  the  origin  of  the 

we  have  to  note  the  idea  of  Silence 

gods,  or  powers  of  nature.      The  notion  was  also  current  in  the 

Greek  world.      The  writer  of  the  Philosophiimena  (VI,   22)  speaks 

of  1]  vf.ivovfiivr]   eKelvi^   Trapa   ro'i's  "EWijffi   2(7?y.        It    was    from    this 

source  that  the  early  Gnostic  Valentinus  borrowed  this  item  of  his 
system.  St.  Irenaeus  {Haeres,  II,  14)  charges  him  with  having 
taken  it  from  the  theogony  of  the  comic  poet  Antiphanes. 

*  Columella  speaks  of  the  "contumacia  pervicax  boum." 



Chapter  ivhereby  a  person  remetfibereth  his  name  in  the  Netherworld. 

Let  my  name  be  given  to  me  in  the  Great  House.  Let  me 
remember  my  name  in  the  House  of  Flame  (i)  on  the  Night 
wherein  the  Years  are  counted  and  the  Months  are  reckoned,  one 
by  one. 

I  am  He  who  dwelleth  in  Heaven,  and  who  sitteth  on  the 
Eastern  side  of  Heaven  :  and  if  there  be  any  god  who  cometh  not 
in  my  train,  I  utter  his  name  at  once. 

I.  Every  Egj'ptian  Temple  being  symbolical  of  Heaven,  had  its 
Great  House  in^^^lTT]  and  its  House  of  Flame  €72^"^         'iq'-^' 

as  most  sacred  adyta  at  the  extremity  opposite  to  the  entrance. 
The  former  occupied  the  central  position,  like  the  Ladye  Chapel  in 
our  cathedrals,  and  the  latter  stood  by  the  side  of  it. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  (i)  is  given  to  a  person  in  the  Netherworld. 

He  saith  :  Heart  *  mine  to  me,  in  the  place  of  Hearts  !  Whole 
Heart  t  mine  to  me,  in  the  place  of  Whole  Hearts  ! 

Let  me  have  my  Heart  that  it  may  rest  within  me ;  but  (2)  I  shall 
feed  upon  the  food  of  Osiris,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  mead  of 
amaranthine  flowers.  (3) 

Be  mine  a  bark  for  descending  the  stream  and  another  for 

I  go  down  into  the  bark  wherein  thou  art. 

Be  there  given  to  me  my  mouth  wherewith  to  speak,  and  my 
feet  for  walking ;  and  let  me  have  my  arms  wherewith  to  overthrow 
my  adversaries. 

'  \J  db,  'heart.'  t  2v\  '^''^">  '  whole  heart.' 

POOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  6/ 

Let  two  hands  from  the  Earth  open  my  mouth  :  Let  Seb,  the 
Erpa  of  the  gods,  part  my  two  jaws ;  (4)  let  him  open  my  two  eyes 
which  are  closed,  and  give  motion  to  my  two  hands  which  are 
powerless :  and  let  Anubis  give  vigour  to  my  legs,  that  I  may  raise 
myself  up  upon  them. 

And  may  Sechit  the  divine  one  lift  me  up,  so  that  I  may  arise  in 
Heaven  and  issue  my  behest  in  Memphis. 

I  am  in  possession  of  my  Heart,  I  am  possession  of  my  Whole 
Heart,  I  am  possession  of  my  arms  and  I  have  possession  of  my 
legs.  (5) 

[I  do  whatsoever  my  Genius  willeth,  and  my  Soul  is  not  bound 
to  my  body  at  the  gates  of  Amenta.] 


I.  The  Egj'ptian  texts  have  two  names  for  the  Heart,       phoneti- 
cally WTitten    [       =0"  ab,    and    -^^  O"    also   written    R  "^  O"    and 

f  I  -ill  Ci     w  AW 

^^.  t^  katu*  The  two  words  are  commonly  used  synony- 
mously, but  they  are  sometimes  pointedly  distinguished  one  from 
the  other.     Etymologically  [I    j m"  ^'^  is  connected  with  the  sense 

of  lively  motion   [1   J  ^  ab,  like  the  Greek  Kuphla,  Kpattrj  (8ia  to 

avavarw^    aaXeveaOai)    with     Kpacdio     and     Kpatatvw,        Other    Indo- 

European  names,  our  own  heart,  the  Latin  cor  {cord-is),  the  Sanskrit 
hrd,  and  the  corresponding  Slavonic  and  Lithuanian  names  have 
the  same  origin. 

From  the  orthography  of  =^  ^  it  seems  to  have  been  connected 

o  W 

in  popular  opinion  with  its  position  in  the  anterior  part  of  the  body. 
And  from  various  uses  of  the  word  it  appears  to  denote  not  merely 
the  heart,  but  the  heart  with  all  that  is  attached  to  it,  especially  the 

lungs  which  embrace  it.     It  is  for  instance  to  the  -^^  ^  that  air  is 

o  W 
conducted  according  to  the  medical  Papyri.      And  it  is  not  im- 
probable  that    0^  ^  I    and    [  «  ^  T  (^  >    organs  of  respiration,  are 
closely  connected  words. 

*  This  variant  already  occurs  on  the  coffin  of  Amamu. 

K    2 

63  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

But  perhaps  the  best  argument  may  be  found  in  the  Vignettes  of 
chapter  28,  where  the  two  lungs  are  actually  drawn  as  in  the  hieratic 
papyrus  (PL  2)  published  by  Sir  Charles  Nicholson.  In  others  (as 
Leyden,  T.  16)  even  the  larynx  is  visible.     (See  Plate  X.) 

The  Italian  word  corata  is  immortalised  through  its  occurrence 
in  a  memorable  passage  in  Dante  {Inf.,  XXVIII),  but  for  want  of 
a  better  English  term  than  the  butcher's  technical  \\or6. pluck*  I  use 
the  expression  whole  heart. 

2.  Btit,  [    I.     This  is  the  most  frequent  reading  both  in  the 

AAAAAA        I  « 

earhest  and  in  the  latest  papyri.  But  some,  texts  have  simply  ^^^^^^^ , 
which  is  certainly  a  mistake,  and  others  omit  the  conjunction  before 
the    verb.       The    sense    is    not    much    affected    by    this    omission. 

[1  1  signifies  if  not,  unless,  until,  but,  but  surely.     Cf.  the  Semitic 

X.   The   7nead  of  attiaranihine  flowers.     ©  v\   I  [   \\  vl    kaiu 

is  the  name  of  a  plant  which  frequently  occurs  in  the  medical 
prescriptions.      It  is   also    mentioned   among    the  aromatic  plants 

(  X  ^\  °°°  W  I  required  in  the  sacred  laboratory  of  Dendera. 

One  of  the  kinds  is  named  kaiu  of  the  Oasis    VN  C3      I    .     It  is 

Jl    I    rv-^'^ 

identified  with  the  Coptic  KIOUOT,  amara^ithus.  In  several  copies 
of  this  chapter  the  name  of  the  plant  is  followed  by  the  geographical 
determinative  'j'T'  ,  which  is  really  implied  in  the  context.  Was 
this  mythological  'mead  of  amaranth'  suggested  by  the  Oasis  and 
its  vegetation  ? 

4.  This  sentence  is  a  repetition  (in  other  words)  of  the  preceding 
one.  On  the  title  Erpd,  see  Tratis.  Sac.  Bibl.  Arch.,  XII,  359. 
My  chief  difficulty  about  understanding  it  as  compounded  of  <=::=> 


and  „, D ,  and  signifying  keeper  of  the  Pat,  that  is  of  the  deceased 

(human  beings),  is  that  Seb  is  essentially  the  Erpd  of  the  gods. 
Erpd  is  one  of  those  titles  which  cannot  be  translated  without 
perverting  the  sense  of  the  original. 

*  In  late  Latin  coralhivt,  whence  the  Romanic  forms  corajhe,  corata,  coraiella, 
corce,  cctaaille.     In  Carin  h  LcJicrcns  we  find  "la  coraille  del  cuers." 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  69 

5.  This  passage  is  a  very  frequent  formula  not  only  in  the  Book 
of  the  Dead,  as  the  papyri  give  it,  but  in  other  texts  of  the  same 
nature;  see,  e.g.,  Aelteste  Texte,  34,  14.  The  next  passage  included 
in  [  ]  is  an  addition  to  the  original  text.  It  occurs  however  in 
some  excellent  MSS. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  is  not  taken  from  him  in 

the  Netherworld. 

O  ye  gods  who  seize  upon  Hearts,  and  who  pluck  out  the  Whole 
Heart ;  and  whose  hands  fashion  anew  the  Heart  of  a  person  accord- 
ing to  what  he  hath  done ;  lo  now,  let  that  be  forgiven  to  him  by 
you.  (i) 

Hail  to  you,  O  ye  Lords  of  Everlasting  Time  and  Eternity  ! 

Let  not  my  Heart  be  torn  from  me  by  your  fingers. 

Let  not  my  Heart  be  fashioned  anew  according  to  all  the  evil 
things  said  against  me. 

For  this  Heartof  mine  is  the  Heartof  the  god  of  mighty  names  (2), 
of  the  great  god  whose  words  are  in  his  members,  and  who  giveth 
free  course  to  his  Heart  which  is  within  him. 

And  most  keen  of  insight  {3)  is  his  Heart  among  the  gods. 
Ho  to  me  !  Heart  of  mine ;  I  am  in  possession  of  thee,  I  am  thy 
master,  and  thou  art  by  me ;  fall  not  away  from  me ;  I  am  the 
dictator  to  whom  thou  shalt  obey  in  the  Netherworld. 


I.  There  is  a  great  difference  here  as  in  so  many  other  places 
between  the  MSS.  of  different  periods.     I  long  ago  translated  the 

wywv    of  the    Todtenbuch  by  non   ignoretur  a 

vobis,  M.  de  Rouge,  after  me,  by  non  renuatiir  a  vobis.  But 
M.  Naville  pointed  out  the  fact  that  in  some  of  the  oldest  MSS. 
the  particle  ^  did  not  occur.  It  now  appears  that  the  particle  is 
not  found  in  any  of  the  older  MSS.,  and  I  have  also  found  it 
omitted  in  hieratic  papyri.  The  passage  therefore  must  be  trans- 
lated differently,  and  this  is  possible  through  a  slight  change  in  the 

70  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

interpretation  of   ®  f^  from  ignorare  to  ignoscere ;  ignoscatur  illi  a 
vobis.    The  pronoun  I  ^  which  in  the  older  texts  follows 


refers  to  '  what  he  hath  done '  of  the  last  clause. 

2.   The  god  of  mighty  names  is  Thoth,  and  the  later  texts  read 
"  For  this  is  the  Heart  of  the  great  god  who  is  in  Hermopolis." 

%    °  °jp  v\  '=     ' , ^     R.  .      According   to   another   reading 

new,  fresh,  young,  vigorous. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  is  not  taken  from  him  in  the 


0  Lion-god ! 

1  am  Unbu(i),  and  what  I  abominate  is  the  block  of  execution. 
Let  not  this  Whole  Heart  of  mine  be  torn  from  me  by  the  divine 

Champions  (2)  in  Heliopolis  ! 

O  thou  who  clothest  (3)  Osiris  and  hast  seen  Sutu  : 

0  thou  who  turnest  back  after  having  smitten  him,  and  hast 
accomplished  the  overthrow  : 

This  Whole  Heart  of  mine  remaineth  weeping  over  itself  in 
presence  of  Osiris. 

Its  strength  proceedeth  from  him,  it  hath  obtained  it  by  prayer 
from  him. 

1  have  had  granted  to  it  and  awarded  to  it  the  glow  of  heart  at 
tlie  hour  of  the  god  of  the  Broad  Face,  and  have  offered  the 
sacrificial  cakes  in  Hermopolis. 

Let  not  this  Whole  Heart  of  mine  be  torn  from  me.  (4)  It  is 
I  who  entrust  to  you  its  place,  and  vehemently  stir  your  Whole 
Hearts  towards  it  in  Sechit-hotepit  and  the  years  of  triumph  over  all 
that  it  abhors  and  taking  all  provisions  at  thine  appointed  time  from 
thine  hand  after  thee. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  J  \ 

And  this  Whole  Heart  of  mine  is  laid  upon  the  tablets  (5)  of 
Tmu,  who  guideth  me  to  the  caverns  of  Sutu  and  who  giveih  me 
back  my  Whole  Heart  which  hath  accomplished  its  desire  in  presence 
of  the  divine  Circle  which  is  in  the  Netherworld, 

The  sacrificial  joint  and  the  funereal  raiment,  let  those  who  find 
them  bury  them.  (6) 


1.  Unbu,  ^^  Jiv'^  ^^  ^"^^  °^  ^^^  names  of  the  solar  god, 
the  offspring  {Todt.^  42,  19)  of  Nu  and  Nut.  As  a  common  noun 
the  word  unbu  means  the  Hawthorn  or  some  other  kind  of  flowering 

bush.    This  god  is  called   4"    1^1^^^^%  'the  golden  Unbu' 

in  the  Pyramid  Texts  (Teta  39).  We  have  no  means  of  determining 
the  exact  sense  of  this  word,  which  as  an  appellative  expresses  an 
attribute  possessed  both  by  the  Sun  and  by  the  fruit,  foliage,  or 
other  parts  of  the  tree. 

2.  Divine  Champions.  Q/^  ^^  [  [  ^  3  \  in  the  earlier 
papyri,  [I  ^^^  ^^^zz:^  ^  I  in  the  later  ;  and  sometimes  both  readings 
occur  in  the  same  MS.  Such  determinatives  as  t  certainly  do  not 
denote  very  pugnacious  qualities  in  the  divine  Champions. 

3.  Clothest.  1  \>  is  a  word  of  many  meanings,  and  the  context 
generally  determines  which  is  the  right  one.    In  the  present  instance 

we  have  no  such  help.     Some  of  the  more  recent  MSS.  give      1 1  , 
the  determinative  of  clothitig. 

4.  M.  Pierret  here  breaks  off  his  translation  of  the  chapter,  with 
the  note  :  "  La  fin  de  ce  chapitre  est  absolument  inintelligible ;  les 
variantes  des  manuscrits  hieratiques  ne  I'eclaircissent  pas." 

Like  many  other  portions  of  the  book  this  chapter  is  hopelessly 
corrupt,  and  the  scribes  did  not  understand  it  better  than  we  do. 
They  have  probably  mixed  up  different  recensions  without  regard  to 

grammatical  sense.    The  deceased  addresses  gods  in  the  plural  ,.^^^  , 

but  immediately  afterwards  we  have  the  singular  suffix  '^^ — a.  . 

72  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

5.  Tablets  ox  records.  ^  o'vNc.i  .  See  Z?//.r<r/^r.,  1867, 
50.  The  word  already  occurs  in  the  Pyramid  Texts,  Pepi  I,  364,  in 
the  sense  of  memory^  ^vwv^  ^  s==5  v\  ' 
'his  memory  for  man  and  his  love  for  the  gods.' 

But  there  is  another  word,  ^  0  Y\ilU  {Benkm.,  Ill,  65  a), 
which  signifies  a  stand  upon  which  objects  are  placed. 

6.  The  last  words  of  the  Chapter  were  extremely  puzzling  to  the 
scribes  of  the  later  periods,  who  altered  them  in  ever  so  many  ways. 

The   older   MSS.    read   -^  ^  \  J[  "tT  '^  ms^TVt  °  _^ 
<— ^  H^t::^-     And  this  is  borrowed  from  an  ancient  text,  which 

may  be  found  on  the   sarcophagus   of  Horhotep,   line   338.     The 

variants  ^/^wv  j, ,  ^^AAAA  "^^  of  the  papyri,   and  ZTl    of  the 

sarcophagus  show  that  it  is  the  sacrificial  joint  which  is  meant,  and 
not  a  verb  as  the  scribes  of  a  later  period  thought.     For  this  verb 


they  had  to  discover  an  object  and  accordingly  we  find  -w,^^  j\ 

9    V\  1  '  I  trod   tAei'r  caverns.^     n     1 M  S  was   in  like 

XJriTTDIIJ.  .         ^  .X«J. 

nner    co 

chapter  29. 

manner    converted   into   a   verb.      See    the   introductory   note   to 


Chapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  may  fiot  be  taken  from  hi?n 

in  the  Netherworld. 

Back  thou  Messenger (i)  of  thy  god!  Art  thou  come  to  carry 
off  by  violence  (2)  this  Whole  Heart  of  mine,  of  the  Living.  (3)  But 
I  shall  not  surrender  to  thee  this  Heart  of  the  Living.  The  gods 
have  regards  to  my  offerings  and  fall  upon  their  faces,  all  together, 
upon  their  own  earth. 


The  two  most  ancient  copies  of  this  chapter  are  found  upon  the 
coffins  of  AniamUj  Plate  XXX,  and  of  Horhotep,  Mission  Arch. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  'ji 

Franfaise  au  Caire,  t.  i,  p.  157,  lines  335-337.  The  papyrus  of  Ani 
is  the  only  one  of  the  early  period  in  which  it  occurs.  None  of  these 
texts  is  perfect.  A  part  of  the  text  of  Amamu  has  been  destroyed, 
but  there  remains  enough  to  show  that  Horhotep  has  omissions. 
And  in  the  text  of  Ani  the  word  ^?\  has  slipped  in  from 

the  28th  chapter,  and  is  entirely  out  of  place  where  it  now  stands. 

The  scribes  of  a  later  period  had  to  exercise  their  ingenuity  on 

the  subject.     They  changed  V^  hentu  into  []  T  r 

hena,  and  this  being  itself  a  disagreeable  word,  they  prefixed  to  it 
a  negative  ^-''-^  or  (I  ^ 

1.  Messenger,    \    \J  \t  Vir?   ^  word  used  here  and  elsewhere  in 
religious  texts  in  the  same  sense  as  Tji^"^  an  angel,  ambassador  of 

God.     The  later  texts  have     |  ^  ^^3:7  '  every  god,'  by  the  change 
of  v_^  into  \ — y . 

2.  By   violence,    ^A  <ci  yCA  |  .      Cf.    \       1  v/  v  ^ 

'  _M^  nn      ^1         -^     A    xl   I    1  n  ^  L=Z1 ' 
Harris  Papyrus,  500,  z'erso. 

3.  The  Living     \      ^    Ix    \>  ^  ^  I    ^"d  saved,   in  opposition 

to  the  Dead  and  damned.     This  plural  form  is  a  mere  sign  of  a 
common  noun. 


Another  Chapter  of  the  Heart ;  upon  Carnelian. 

I  am  the  Heron,  the  Soul  of  Ra,  who  conduct  the  Glorious  ones 
to  the  Tuat. 

It  is  granted  to  their  Souls  to  come  forth  upon  the  Earth  to  do 
whatsoever  their  Genius  willeth. 

It  is  granted  to  the  soul  of  the  Osiris  N  to  come  forth  upon  the 
Earth  to  do  whatsoever  his  Genius  willeih. 


74  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Certain  chapters  having  reference  to  the  Heart  were  written 
upon  gems*  and  served  as  amulets,  the  26th  upon  Lapis-lazuH,  the 
27th  upon  green  Felspar,  the  30th  upon  Serpentine,  and  the  fore- 
going chapter  upon  Carnelian. 

M.  Naville  has  called  this  chapter  29B,  as  marking  its  natural 
place  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  It  is  not  often  found  in  the  Papyri. 
M.  Naville  found  one  copy  in  the  Berlin  Papyrus  of  Nechtuamen, 
and  another  traced  by  Lepsius  in  Rome  from  a  papyrus  now  lost. 
A  third  copy  will  be  found  in  the  papyrus  of  Anif  in  the  British 
Museum.  It  differs  from  the  two  others  in  "  conducting  the  gods  to 
the  Tuat,"  and  by  omitting  some  words  for  which  there  was  no  room 
in  the  space  provided. 


CJiapter  whereby  the  Heart  of  a  person  is  not  kept  back  f?-om  him 

in  the  Netherworld. 

Heart  mine  which  is  that  of  my  Mother, 

Whole  Heart  mine  which  was  that  of  my  coming  upon  Earth, 

Let  there  be  no  estoppel  against  me  through  evidence ;  let  not 
hindrance  be  made  to  me  by  the  Divine  Circle ;  (1)  let  there  not  be 
a  fall  of  the  scale  (2)  against  me  in  presence  of  the  great  god,  Lord 
of  Amenta. 

Hail  to  thee.  Heart  mine ;  Hail  to  thee,  Whole  Heart  mine, 
Hail  to  thee.  Liver  (3)  mine  ! 

Hail  to  you,  ye  gods  who  are  on  the  side  lock,  conspicuous  by 
your  sceptres,  (4)  announce  my  glory  to  Ra  and  convey  it  to 

[And  lo,  though  he  be  buried  in  the  deep  deep  Grave,  and 
bowed  down  to  the  region  of  annihilation,  he  is  glorified  there  (5).] 

*  See  a  charming  article  by  Professcr  Ebers  in  the  Zeitschrifl  of  1S80,  entitled 
"  Einige  inedita." 
t  PI.  33- 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  75 


Heart  mine  which  is  that  of  my  Mother, 

Whole  Heart  mine  which  is  that  of  my  birth, 

Let  there  be  no  estoppel  against  me  throu<j;h  evidence,  let  no 
hindrance  be  made  to  me  by  the  divine  Circle;  fall  thou  not  against 
me  in  presence  of  him  who  is  at  the  Balance. 

Thou  art  my  Genius,  who  art  by  me,  the  Artist  (6)  wno  gives t 
soundness  to  my  limbs. 

Come  forth  (7)  to  the  bliss  *  towards  which  we  are  bound  ; 

Let  not  those  Ministrants  (8)  who  deal  with  a  man  according  to 
the  course  of  his  life  (9)  give  a  bad  odour  to  my  name. 

Pleasant  for  us,  pleasant  for  the  listener,  is  the  joy  of  the 
Weighing  of  the  Words. 

Let  not  lies  be  uttered  in  presence  of  the  great  god.  Lord  of  the 

Lo  !  how  great  art  thou  [as  the  Triumphant  one.  (10)] 


This  chapter  is  found  not  only  on  papyri  but  upon  innumerable 
scarabs.  The  differences  of  text  are  very  great,  but  the  principal 
ones  may  be  considered  as  represented  by  M.  Naville's  30A  and  300. 
They  branch  off  from  each  other  after  the  mention  of  the  Balance. 

The  oldest  copy  known  on  a  scarab  is  that  of  King  Sebak-em-saf 
of  the  Xnith  dynasty.  It  is  in  the  British  Museum  (No.  7876)  and 
has  been  described  by  Dr.  Birch  in  his  studyt  of  the  "  Formulas 
relating  to  the  heart."  "This  amulet,"  he  says,  "is  of  unusual 
shape ;  the  body  of  the  insect  is  made  of  a  remarkably  fine  green 
jasper  carved  in  shape  of  the  body  and  head  of  the  insect.  This  is 
inserted  into  a  base  of  gold  in  shape  of  a  tablet  ....  The  legs  of  the 
insect  are  ....  of  gold  and  carved  in  relief ....  The  hieroglyphs 
are  incised  in  outline,  are  coarse,  and  not  very  legible." 

I.   The  Divine  Circle,  ||  |      ^  J^  1.     This  word  on  the  scarab  of 

Sebak-em-saf  is  written  ^  1 ,  which  shows  that  h-i— 1  (a  wall 


t  Zeilschr.,  1870,  p.  32. 
L  2 

^6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

of  enclosure)  is  ideographic  of  the  whole  word.  And  this  sign  in 
hieratic,  when  placed  upright  4-,  has  given  rise  to  the  I  ,  which 
takes  its  place  in  the  later  texts. 

2.  Fall  of  the  scale,         *^,  .-r-^  =  the  Coptic  piKI  ItO'Jf  JUL^.cyi 
or  the  Greek  /ioTT)}  -rod  ^vyoi'. 

3.  Liver ;  This  seems  to  be  the  real  meaning  of     M    j=l  • 

4.  These  gods  are  mentioned  in  the  Pyramid  Texts  in  a  passage 
closely  resembling  this  one  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  "  They  bring 
to  Unas  (line  479)  the  four  Glorious  ones  who  are  on  the  side  lock 
of  Horus ;  who  stand  upon  the  Eastern  side  of  Heaven,  and  who 

are    conspicuous    through   their   sceptres  1)    ^N     111-      They 

announce  to  Ra  the  glorious  name  of  Unas,  and  proclaim  (  1  ^;s^  y)' 
cf.  OTO),  epOYCo)  Unas  to  Neheb-kau."  The  text  of  Teta  is 
very  imperfect  in  this  place. 

The  word     f]  ]  appears   to   have  the   sense  of  insignire, 

designare.  This  sense  is  a  key  to  every  passage  in  which  the  word 

5.  The  few  early  copies  of  this  paragraph  are  too  fragmentary 
and  too  contradictory  to  furnish  a  restoration  of  the  text,  which 
must  have  meant  something  like  what  is  expressed  in  this  translation. 

6.  The  Artist,  Q  1\  y  c^ '  which  is  here  a  common  noun 
rather  than  a  proper  name. 

7.  The  deceased  addresses  his  heart,  and  thereupon  speaks  in 
the  first  person  plural,  we  ;  that  is  you  and  I. 

8.  The  Mifiistrants.  The  ^  I  (  [h  '  ^^'^^^  ^'S^  ofificials  in  the 
Egyptian  court,  but  here  they  minister  to  Osiris  in  the  Netherworld. 
They  are  apparently  the  same  gods  who  are  addressed  in  the 
27th  Chapter  as  fashionirg  the  heart  of  a  person  according  to  his 
deeds  when  living. 

9.  The  determinative  O  shows  that  .1 .1  is  here  to  be  taken 
in  the  sense  of  the  duration  of  human  life,  and  the  pronominal 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  "jj 

suffixes    M+i    or   is,^^      show   whose   life   is   spoken    of.     The   latter 

suffix  has   reference   to  Mf^JVi-   which   is   accordinglv  to   be 

g >  ^  o  r 

translated    in    the    singular.      The    plural    sign    merely   indicates  a 
common  or  collective  noun. 

ID.  As  the   Triumphant  one.     So  Aa^  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni. 

0^=1  /       I 
Another  authority  (B.M.  7865)  quoted  by  Dr.  Birch  has  / 

like  Ra,  the  Triumphant  One. 

The  formula  "How  great  art  thou"!  occurs  in  other  primitive 
texts ;  cf.  Aelteste  Texte,  PI.  5,  lines  7  and  8.  In  line  8  it  occurs 


Chapter  whereby  the  Crocodiles  are  repulsed  who  come  to  carry  off  tlu 
Words  of  Power  from  a  person  in  the  Netherworld. 

Back,  in  retreat !  Back,  Crocodile  Sui !  Come  not  against  me, 
who  live  by  the  Words  of  Power,  (i) 

I  utter  (2)  that  Name  of  the  great  god,  who  granteth  that  two  of 
his  Messengers*  should  come  ;  the  name  of  one  is  Batta  (3),  and  the 
name  of  the  other  is  Thine  Aspect  is  Fixed  Lata.  (4) 

Heaven  determineth  (5)  its  hour  ;  my  Word  of  Power  determineth 
all  that  which  concerneth  it ;  and  my  mouth  determineth  my  Word 
of  Power.  I  eat,  and  my  teeth  are  like  flint,  and  my  grinders  are 
like  the  Cliff  of  Tuf.  (6) 

O  thou  who  art  sitting  (7)  with  a  watchful  eye  against  this  my 
Word  of  Power ;  do  not  thou  carry  it  off,  O  Crocodile  who  livest  by 
thine  own  Word  of  Power. 


This  chapter  is  but  rarely  found  in  the  more  ancient  collections. 
It  was  on  the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhotep,  but  M.  Naville  gives  the 
readings  of  only  two  early  papyri.  The  later  recensions  add  a  text 
which  we  shall  find  later  on  in  chapter  69,  and  which  has  no 
connection  whatever  with  the  present  chapter. 

*  See  chapter  29,  note  i. 

^8  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1.  The  Words  of  Power  are  supplied  to  the  deceased  by  Thoth 
in  chapter  23. 

2.  The  Turin  text  and  those  which  agree  with  it  read  "  Do  not 
thou  utter,"  as  if  the  Crocodile  were  about  to  use  the  Word  of  Power. 
I  read  l\  \  "^  e^^.     The  \  was  first  corrupted  into  |^,  and  (j  |^ 
was  farther  improved  into  [\  ^  — o^  ,  which  in  its  turn  necessitated 
the  addition  of  a  suffix  of  the  second  person. 

3.  This  name  was  changed  in  the  later  texts  to  the  more  familiar 

one  of  the  divine  Ape  J  ^^  Beni'f. 


4.  Fixed  Law,  '—^  or  — ^  ^yT\  '  ^^^  central  idea  of  theology 
in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  that  of  Regularity,  whether  in  per- 
manence or  change.  Those  things  alone  are  divine  -which  abide 
unceasingly  or  which  recur  in  accordance  with  undeviating  rule. 

0       (^ 

5.  Determineth.     The  word    ■^    r-      ^  here,  as  in  other  places, 

has  the  sense  of  circumscribing,  as  in  a  circuit     -^    Q,  prescribing 
the  limits,  fixing  and  determining. 

6.  The  Cliff  of  Tiif  ^_  ©,  literally  'his  cliff,'  namely  of  Anubis, 
in  allusion  to  his  frequent  title  "q  ^^  . 

7.  Sitting.  Here  I  follow  Pc  and  the  papyri  generally  in  reading 
/5A  .     The  scribe  of  Ca  seems  to  have  been  thinking  of  — « —  vX 

Jzl  1   \^  XZ>C  of  a  well-known  magic  text  (Unas,  320). 


Chapter  whereby  the  Crocodiles  are  repulsed  who  come  to  carry  off  the 
Words  of  Power  from  the  glorified  in  the  Nethern'orld. 

Osiris  standeth  up  upon  his  feet;  (i)  his  company  of  gods  raise 
him  up. 

O  Son  who  conversest  with  thy  father,  do  thou  protect  this  Great 
one  from  these  four  (2)  crocodiles  here  who  devour  the  dead  and 
live  by  the  Words  of  Power. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  79 

I  know  them  by  their  names  and  their  way  of  living,  and  it  is  I 
who  protect  his  own  father  from  them. 

Back,  thou  Crocodile  of  the  \\'est,  who  livest  on  the  Setting 
Stars.  (3)  What  thou  execratest  is  upon  me.  Thou  hast  devoured 
the  head  of  Osiris,  but  I  am  Ra.  (4) 

Back,  thou  Crocodile  of  the  East,  who  livest  ujDon  those  who 
devour  their  own  foulness.  AVhat  thou  execratest  is  upon  me.  I 
have  come,  and  I  am  Osiris. 

Back,  thou  Crocodile  of  the  South,  who  livest  upon  impurities. 
What  thou  execratest  is  upon  me.  Let  not  the  red  flame  be  upon 
thee.     For  I  am  Septu.  (5) 

Back,  thou  Crocodile  of  the  North,  who  livest  upon  that  which 
lieth  between  the  hours  (6).  What  thou  execratest  is  upon  me. 
Let  not  thy  fiery  water  be  inflicted  upon  me.     [For  I  am  Tmu.  (7)] 

All  things  which  exist  are  in  my  grasp,  and  those  depend  upon 
me  which  are  not  yet. 

I  am  arrayed  and  equipped  with  thy  Words  of  Power,  O  Ra; 
with  that  which  is  above  and  with  that  which  is  below  me. 

I  have  received  increase  of  length  and  depth,  and  fulness  of 
breathing  within  the  domain  of  my  father,  the  Great  one. 

He  hath  given  to  me  that  beautiful  Amenta  in  which  the  living 
are  destroyed.  But  strong  is  its  possessor  though  he  faint  in  it 

My  face  is  unveiled,  and  my  heart  is  in  its  place. 
The  Urseus  is  upon  me  daily. 

I  am  Ra,  who  protecteth  himself,  and  no  evil  things  can  over- 
throw me. 


This  chapter  is  in  even  worse  condition  than  the  one  which 
precedes  it.  There  are  a  few  scraps  of  it  on  a  coffin  at  St.  Peters- 
burg which  M.  Golenischeff  assigns  to  the  earliest  period.  The 
only  early  MS.  which  is  of  any  use,  Ba^  the  Berlin  papyrus  of 
Nechtuamon,  is  here  in  a  very  mutilated  condition,  as  may  be  seen 
on  referring  to  M.  Naville's  edition. 

I.  Osiris  sia7ideth  up  vpo)i  his  feet.  So  Ba ;  but  the  coffin  at 
St.   Petersburg  lends  its  support  to  the  text  of  Bekenrenef  (of  the 

8o  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

26th  Dynasty),  which  opens  the  chapter  with  the  name  of  a  crocodile 
"^^  "^=5  y      o     -ss=>.     ''  Let  the  Great  one  fall  upon  his 

belly  " ! 

2.  The  ancient  text  had  only  four  crocodiles,  and  only  four  are 
mentioned  in  the  text  of  Bekenrenef.  The  Turin  text  speaks  of 
eight ;  two  for  each  of  the  cardinal  points.  But  the  Saitic  text 
already  has  two  invocations  instead  of  one  for  each  crocodile. 

3.  The  sense  of  this  myth  is  obvious.  Every  star  which  sefs  is 
supposed  to  be  swallowed  by  the  Crocodile  of  the  West.     It  was 

stated  in  note  t,  to  chapter    1:5   that   the  /  are  stars* 

Besides  the  [1     ®    "^^^  ^^  '=^^  AA  Jr  '  the  stars  which  set  and 

the  [  r- —  1  v,L^  -7f  I  the  circumpolar  stars,  whose  navigation 

I  8       s,    CUOK  is  continuous,  there  are  the  I  ®  ^  fi  1 

whose  name  is  very  significant.  8  n  ^  and  9  have  the  sense  of 

turning  back,\  and   the  only  stars  whose  apparent  motion   is  ever 
retrograde  are  iht  planets. 

All  these  stars  are  supposed  as  divinities  to  aid  in  the  navigation 
of  the  Bark  of  Ra.  The  Egyptians  could  not  have  had  a  correct 
planetary  theory  (which  only  became  possible  through  Kepler),  but 
they  understood  at  least  that  the  motions  of  the  planets  were  regular, 
and  that  they  depended  upon  the  Sun.  Eudoxus  is  reported  to 
have  derived  the  data  for  his  theory  from  his  Egyptian  instructors. 

4.  Instead  of  Ra  the  name  of  Sut  is  found  in  the  later  texts. 

Bekenrenef  has   I    L 
T  ii 

*  1  ®  MV-  "^'^  ^s  a  feminine  noun  and  proper  nan.e  occurb  in  tl.e 
Pyramid  Texts  (Unas,  644). 

t  Bnigsch  has  produced  excellent  evidence  for  the  supposition  that       1    if  TT 

or  ^  signifies  Ihe  nuo  (timings  of  the  Sun,  that  is  at  the  solstices,  TT  Q 


being  the  southern  solstice  and 


the  northern. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  8 1 

Septu,     PA     °    %^  J,  A  ^,  the 'armed,'  one  of  the  Solar 

appellations,  already  found  in  the  Pyramid  texts  {Unas,  281).  He 
appears  in  chapter  130,  7,  in  connection  with  the  block  of  execution. 

6.  The  text  is  here  hopelessly  corrupt.     M.  Pierret  has  '  offrande,' 

which  he  most  probably  derives  from qJI  or   a  J  C^3)  >  ^ 

reading  found  in  some  papyri.  But  Ba,  our  oldest  authority,  has 
-g"^  Mn-.'^ind  Bekenrenef  has  — j-^  D  ^  (jf] .  The  Turin  copy  has  ]  ; 
and  the  context  does  not  help  us.  Of  these  four  readings  (and  there 
are  probably  others  which  I  do  not  know)  that  of  Bekenrenef  seems 
to  me  the  best ;  but  -  -"  has  so  many  possible  applications  that  I 
will  not  venture  to  suggest  one. 

7.  [I  am  Tmu.]  These  words  are  not  in  Ba,  but  they  occur  m 
all  other  copies,  and  the  omission  of  the  divine  name  which  stops 
the  crocodile  is  an  evident  fault. 

The  chapter  ends  here,  and  what  follows  is  an  addition  for  which 
our  earliest  authority  is  that  of  Bekenrenef.  But  even  this  text  is 
already  corrupt,  and  requires  to  be  corrected  by  more  recent  ones. 


Chapter  whereby  all  Serpents  are  kept  back. 

Oh  serpent  Rerek,  advance  not !  Here  are  the  gods  Seb  and 

Stop  !  or  thou  shalt  eat  the  rat  which  Ra  execrateth,  and  gnaw 
the  bones  of  a  putrid  she-cat. 


This  chapter  is  often  found  in  coffins.  There  is  a  chapter  much 
resembling  it  in  the  tomb  of  Horhotep  (line  364),  at  least  as  regards 
the  opening  words.  It  addresses  Rerek  and  tells  him  that  Shu  and 
another  deity  are  coming,  and  that  the  speaker  is  Horus.  No 
allusion,  however,  is  made  to  the  dead  rat  and  cat.  These  typify 
the  impurities  and  abominations  to  which  the  damned  are  liable  in 
the  world  to  come. 


82  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  whereby  a  person  is  not  devoured  by  the  dweller  in  the 

shi'ine.  (i) 

O  Urgeus  !  I  am  the  Flame  which  shineth,  and  which  openeth 
out  eternity,  (2)  the  column  of  Tenpua  (3)  [otherwise  said — the 
column  on  which  are  blossoming  plants.] 

Away  from  me  !  I  am  the  Lynx  goddess.  (4) 


I.  It  is  not  possible  to  say  what   is   here   actually   meant   by 

H/     ^^  ^•"^^'      Every  word  almost  in  this  tiny  chapter  was  a 

puzzle  to  the  Egyptian  scribes,  who  altered  the  text  in  a  hundred 

ways.     The  Turin  text  provides  against  the  persons  being  bitten  by 

the  Eater  of  the  head,  - 


,  instead  of  -  h 

^  as  even  Bekenrenef  has  it. 


2.  Open   out  Eternity  "XJ^ ^^  \.      This   is   the   oldest   and 

D  X      ^1 
most  approved  reading  even  in  later  times.     But  in  Ee  the  flame 

'  shineth  on  the  brow  of  the  Glorified  ones.' 

3.  A  quite  unknown  deity  and  most  probably  a  mere  blunder. 
The  MS.  which  contains  it,  Ca,  suggests  another  reading  Tenpua  with 

'^ ,  the  determinative  of  plants.  This  not  proving  satisfactory, 
-wvAAA  (j[  ^  -I  vl  renpit  was  substituted.  But  all  this  was  mere  con- 
jectural emendation. 

4.  The  Lyjix  goddess,  ^^  c-^^  )Ny  \)^   Maftit.        The  name  of 

this  deity  is  generally  translated  l,ynx,  and  it  is  certainly  applied  to 
an  animal  of  the  feline  species  closely  resembling  the  cat.      But  the 

notion  expressed  by  the  name  is  that  of  swift  speed  ^^  \  -A. 

(See  Diimichen,  Rec.  lY,  100,  where  this  verb  is  in  parallel  with 
others  of  the  same  sense.) 

This  deity  is  again  mentioned  in  the  39th  chapter  as  taking  part 
in  the  conflict  with  the  dragon  of  darkness,  and  it  is  named  in  the 
strange  magic  formulae  already  found  in  the  Pyramid  texts.     She  is 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  8^ 

called  -^  c:^:^^  L-f  ,  (Teta  310),  and  she  apparently 
defends  the  deceased  (td.,  1.  303)  against  two  serpent  divinities,  one 
of  whom  at  least,  rj|  ^''^^^  ^  T'eser-tepu  (praedaro  capite),  is 
known  to  us  as  one  of  the  forty-two  assessors  of  Osiris  {Todtenbuch, 


Chapter  whereby  the  person  is  not  devoured  by  a  Serpent  in  the 


Oh  Shu,  here  is  Tattu,  and  conversely^  under  the  wig  (i)  of 
Hathor.     They  scent  (2)  Osiris. 

Here  is  the  one  who  is  to  devour  me.  They  wait  apart.  (3) 
The  serpent  Seksek  passeth  over  me. 

Here  are  wormwood  bruised  (4)  and  reeds. 

Osiris  is  he  who  prayeth  that  he  may  be  buried. 

The  eyes  of  the  Great  One  are  bent  down,  and  he  doth  for  thee 
the  work  of  cleansing;  (5)  marking  out  what  is  conformable  to  law 
and  balancing  the  issues.  (6) 


The  translator  of  this  chapter  cannot  pretend  to  do  more  than 
give  an  accurate  meaning  to  each  word.  The  true  sense  of  the 
chapter  must  have  been  lost  when  the  earliest  copies  known  to  us 
were  written. 

I.    Wig,  ^^^7^  ^^ .    The  head-dress  of  the  gods  is  one  of  the 

mythical  forms  of  representing  the  light  cloud  at  sunrise  or  sunset, 
in  which  the  deity  is  pileatiis. 

2.  Scent,  ^  /  V\  £S  •  The  Egyptian  word  is  also  used  for 
nursifig,  putting  to  sleep,  probably  through  influencing  the  breathing 
The  tiose  as  a  determinative  is  used  in  the  different  senses  of  the 

M  2 

84  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

3.   They  wait  apart.     The  early  MSS.  do  not  agree  here  in  a 
single  word,  and  they  defy  translation.     The  later  MSS.  are  scarcely 

H -     ~~ 

less  discordant.        ® 

is  to  alight,   rest,   and  this  must  also 

—^ AAAAAA  -Tl  I  /VVWVA 

be  the  meaning  of  ®  >^a^ .  r-pi  ^^,  1  is  connected  with  ^  ID  . 
ne^  in  the  sense  of  dispersitig,  separatittg. 

4.  Bruised,  or  trodden.  There  being  no  rational  context  it  is 
impossible  to  fix  the  sense  of  a  word  like  ^  ^  Si  .Jl.  which  may 
mean  either  guard  or  bruise  by  beating  or  treading  dozcm. 

5.  Cleansing  o      ^  or  ~?"P  r      n.     The  result  of  the  process 

is  certainly  deansittg,  but  the  operation  itself  is  generally  supposed 
to  be  luashing.     This  agrees  with  the  Coptic  p^^T  a  fuller,  of 

which  the  old  Egyptian  form  is  ~1~^  r      n .     But  pZ^^T  has  also 

the  sense  of  beating,  and  the  operation  is  in  many  countries  thought 
to  be  one  of  the  most  important  duties  of  washerwomen.  With 
this  sense  of  the  word  I  would  connect  the  names  Rechit  given  to 
Isis  and  Nephthys,  as  signifying  'mourners.'  Compare  the  Greek 
TvirTcaOai  Tiva,  KOTrreaOai  Tiva,  to  vioum  a  pcrsoti,  and  the  Latin 

6.  Balancing   the  issues  ^\        |)  J-,  - 1  ^  ^       .     The  first  of 

these  words  is  unambiguous.  -^  f\  ^§\  J\  signifies  literally  '  stand- 
ing,' like  status,  or  o-/y/'o-(?,  and  like  those  words  also  signifies 
position,  situation,  condition,  circumstances,  and  also  the  point  at 
issue,  the  question  to  be  decided. 

A  well  known  passage  in  Cicero's  Topics  (93,  c.  35)  may  be 
quoted  here  :  "  Refutatio  accusationis,  in  quae  est  depositio  criminis, 
Graece  <n('iat<i  dicitur,  Latine  status  appelletur  :  in  quo  insistit,  quasi 
ad  repugnandum  congressa  defensio." 

Perhaps  the  passage  in  chapter  30  B,  in  which  "  the  divine 
ministrants  are  said  to  deal  with  a  man"  according  to  his  - 1 T:  0 
may  have  reference  to  the  circumstances  of  his  life. 

Chapters  like  this,  however  worthless  in  themselves,  contain 
small  fragments  highly  illustrative  of  the  ideas  of  the  Egyptians  at 
an  extremely  remote  period. 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  XXVIII. 
Papyrus,  Brocklehurst,  II. 

Chapter  XXVIII. 

Papyrus,  Mus^e  du 

Louvre,  III,  93, 

Chapters  XXVI — XXIX. 
Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum,  22. 

Chapter  XXX. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  III,  93. 

Chapter  XXXI. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter  XXXIII. 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  IV. 

Chapter  XXX\  1. 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  IV. 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  XXXVI. 
Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum,  2. 

Chapter  XXXVIII. 
Papyrus,  Mus^e  du  Louvre, 
Cat.  des  Medailles. 

Chapter  XXXVII. 
Papyrus,  Cairo,  Bulaq,  21. 

M  T7'kl 


Chapter  XXX\  111. 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  V. 

Chapter  XXXIX.     Saqara,  Grab  24. 

Lepsius,  "Denkmaler,"  Abtb.  Ill,  Bl    266. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  85 


Chapter  whereby  the  Apshait  is  kepi  ba  ck. 

Away  from  me,  thou  with  parted  lips  !  I  am  Chnemu,  the  Lord 
of  Shennu,  who  am  bringing  the  words  of  the  gods  to  Ra.  And  I 
announce  the  news  to  Nebes. 


The  insect  called  T}T}T   V\  [  [   O   dpsai  or     ~d     (J  V~l 

dpsdit  is  difficult  of  identification.  It  is  certainly  not  a  tortoise  as 
was  formerly  thought,  but  looks  rather  like  the  voracious  Blatta 
orientalis.  The  form  in  Le  is  peculiar,  but  I  have  met  it  in  a  later 
papyrus.      The  last  word  of  the  chapter  is  doubtful.      The  most 

.•ecent  papyri  have  '^^'-^  'their  Lord,'  which  gives  a  very  good 

sense,  but  even  the  Turin  copy  has       |       '  her  Lord  '  which  agrees 

—# — 

with  the  oldest  papyrus.    Bekenrenef  has  j)  Nebes,  a  lion-headed 



Chapter  whereby  the  Merta  goddesses  are  kept  back. 

Hail  ye  Pair  of  goddesses  Merta,  Sister  Pair,  Merta  !  (i)  I  inform 
you  of  my  Words  of  Power. 

It  is  I  who  rise  up  from  the  Sektit  boat.     I  am  Horus  the  son  of 
Isis,  and  I  am  come  to  see  my  father,  Osiris. 


,  iCi  -<2>- 

Merta  signifies  two  eyes. 

The  Pair  of  goddesses  consists  of  Isis  and  Nephthys  §  ' 

Rehetd,  as  the  word  is  written  at  Denderah. 

86  BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  whereby  07U  Uveth  by  the  breath  of  air  in  the  Nether- 
worldf  and  keepeth  back  Merta. 

I  am  the  god  in  Lion  form ;  the  heir  of  Ra  and  Tmu  in  Chem- 
mis,  (i)  the  Master  in  their  halls. 

Those  who  are  in  their  cells  (2)  accompany  me  as  guides.  I 
have  made  my  way  and  gone  round  the  heavenly  Ocean  on  the  path 
of  the  Bark  of  Ra,  and  standing  on  the  girders*  of  the  Bark  of  Ra. 

I  utter  his  words  to  the  men  of  the  present  generation  f  and  I 
repeat  his  words  to  him  who  is  deprived  of  breath.  (3) 

I  spy  out  for  my  father  Ra  at  sunset,  compressing  my  mouth,  (4) 
and  feeding  upon  life. 

I  live  in  Tattu,  and  I  repeat  my  life  after  death  like  the  Sun 


There  are  two  recensions  of  this  chapter,  and  both  are  found  in 
the  papyrus  Lb.  They  are  called  by  M.  Naville,  38A  and  38B.  The 
latter  is  that  adopted  as  canonical  by  all  the  manuscripts  of  a  later 
date,  and  is  the  one  here  translated.  The  other  recension  is  longer, 
and  contains  passages  which  are  also  found  in  other  chapters,  to 
which  it  accordingly  furnishes  important  variants.  It  may  possibly 
be  older  than  those  chapters. 

I.  In  Chemtnis.     The  name  of  the  place  where  Isis  gave  birth  to 

Horus  is  in  the  Pyramid  texts  written  ^R\  'HTP  ISQ  ®  (Pepi  I,  428), 

and  )^  \\     w    (jMerenra  I,  683),  ah-hebit  or  hebit-ah;  but  simply 

hebit  in  the  texts  of  the   eighteenth  dynasty,  as  in  the  annals   of 
Thothmes  III  (Mariette,  Karnak,  pi.  16,  line  47),+  or  in  the  divine  and 


I  I  I   ■ 

t  T/ie  men  of  the  present  generation ,  the  Rehit. 


%  Here  the  king  is  compared  to  the  god  called     ®     ^  ^ 
and  in  the  next  line  1  ^ .    And  Thothmes  IV  [Denkm. ,  HI,  63)  is  compared 




"^F.       It  is  certain  therefore    that  the  sign  "STP   is  here   only  an 
ideogram   of  ®  J    \I/  ' 

not  of  the  ancient  ^^  \[K .  From  the 
eighteenth  dynasty  at  least,  and  for  a  time  belonging  to  a  period  of 
unknown  length  between  the  sixth  and  the  eighteenth  dynasties,  and 

for  ever  afterwards,  the  name  of  the  place  was  ®      J^  ^  W*  -^^^'^^ 

where,  as  the  Tablet  of  the  Dream  says 
(Mariette,  Mon.  div.,  pi   7). 

2.   In  their  cells  •'  -  r  Y 




I  ,wwvN     Here  t8A 
INI  ^ 

in  their  shrines,  followed   in 

some  papyri  by  11   11    v^  ^^  9^1^  V^    "'•'■  fi^^ternize  with  Horus 
and  Sut." 

3.  Deprived  of  breath,  '  the  dead.'  In  38A,  the  privation  of 
breath  is  mentioned  but  in  a  different  connection.  But  the  text  of 
the  passage  is  uncertain.     Here  as  in  chapter  41,  O   ^^^    C^  Q  ^^ 

[  (,  <:::i 7  iJ]  'the  Breathless  one'  is  Osiris. 

4.   Co7npressing  my  mouth:  \        (/  is  the  ancient  reading, 

_        _  r\  c^  V— n       I 

::^>,  as  in  the  more  recent  texts.   The  same  observation 



applies  to  the  name  of  the  god  in  chapter  125,  15. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Serpent  Rekrek  is  repulsed  in  the  Nether- 

Back!  down  with  thee,   stabber  (i)  from  Apepi !     Drown  in  the 
lake  of  Heaven,  in  the  spot  where.n  thy  father  ordered  that   thy 

88  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

murder  should  be  carried  out.  Away  from  this  birth-place  of  Pa, 
the  god  encompassed  by*  his  terrors. 

I  am  Ra,  encompassed  by  his  terrors. 

Back!  the  dark  demon  and  the  sword  which  he  maketh  to  flash  ! 

Ra  flingeth  down  thy  words  ;  thy  face  is  twisted  round  by  the 
gods ;  thy  whole  heart  is  torn  out  by  the  Lynx  goddess ;  chains  are 
flung  upon  thee  by  the  Scorpion  goddess ;  and  slaughter  is  dealt 
upon  thee  by  Maat. 

The  gods  who  are  on  the  roads  overthrow  thee. 

Apep  falleth  down,  the  enemy  of  Ra. 

0  thou  who  removest  the  bolt  from  the  East  of  Heaven  at  the 
stormy  voice  of  bellowings,  and  openest  the  gates  of  the  Horizon 
before  Ra :  he  cometh  forth  fainting  from  the  wounds. 

1  am  a  doer  of  thy  will,  I  am  a  doer  of  thy  will,  O  Ra. 

I  have  done  well,  I  have  done  well ;  I  have  done  to  the  satis- 
faction of  Ra. 

And  I  raise  shouts  of  acclamation  at  thy  success  at  fettering,  O 
Ra.      Apep  is  fallen  and  is  in  bonds. 

The  gods  of  the  South,  the  North,  the  West  and  the  East  bind 
him  ;  their  bonds  are  upon  him. 

Aker  (2)  overthroweth  him,  and  the  lord  of  the  ruddy  sky  doth 
bind  him. 

Ra  is  satisfied ;  Ra  is  satisfied ;  Ra  maketh  his  progress 

Apep  falleth  ;  Apep  goeth  down  ;  the  enemy  of  Ra.  And  more 
grave  for  thee  is  the  proof  (3)  than  that  sweet  proof  through  the 
Scorpion  goddess,  which  she  practised  for  thee,  in  the  pain  which 
she  suffered  ....  (4). 

Be  thou  emasculate,  O  Apep,  enemy  of  Ra ;  be  thou  repulsed 
whom  Ra  hateth  ;  look  behind  thee  :  a  chopper  is  over  thy  head  to 
divide  it  into  two  parts,  and  those  who  are  above  thy  head  assail  it. 
Thy  bones  are  broken,  thy  limbs  are  severed  under  the  direction  of 
Aker,  O  Apep,  enemy  of  Ra. 

Thy  boatmen  [O  Ra],  succeed  in  measuring  out  thy  path,  and 
a  journey,   with   which   thou  art   satisfied ;   a  progress,   a    progress 

"'■    ~|r  ^\    ci  between,  in  the  midst  of,  sui-roiinJcd  liy. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  89 

towards  home ;   and  the  progress  which  thou   hast  made  towards 
home  is  a  fair  progress. 

Let  no  evil  hindrances  come  forth  against  me  from  thy  mouth 
in  what  thou  doest  towards  me. 

I  am  Sutu,  who  causeth  the  storms  and  tempests,  and  who  goeth 
round  in  the  Horizon  of  Heaven,  hke  to  one  whose  heart  is  veiled. 

Tmu  saith  :  Let  your  countenances  be  raised  up,  ye  soldiers  of 
Ra,  and  drive  back  Nebtu  in  presence  of  the  Divine  Circle. 

Seb  saith  :  establish  those  who  are  upon  their  thrones  in  the 
middle  of  the  Bark  of  Chepera ;  seize  your  shields  and  spears,  and 
hold  them  in  your  hands. 

Hathor  saith  :  Seize  your  daggers. 

Nut  saith  :  Come  and  drive  back  Nebtu,  who  cometh  against 
him  who  dwelleth  in  his  shrine,  and  maketh  his  voyage  in  solitary 
guise  :  the  Inviolate  god,  the  resistless  one. 

O  ye  gods  in  your  Divine  cycles,  who  travel  round  the  lake  of 
Emerald,  come  and  defend  the  Great  one  who  is  in  the  shrine  from 
which  all  the  Divine  cycle  proceedeth.  Let  glory  be  ascribed  to 
him,  and  let  honour  be  given  to  him.  Oh  then,  proclaim  him  with 

Nut  saith,  the  mother  of  the  gods  :  He  cometh  forth  and  findeth 
his  path,  and  maketh  captures  of  the  gods ;  he  hath  the  first  place 
in  the  two  houses  of  Nut. 

Seb  standeth  still,  the  great  cycle  of  the  gods  is  in  terror,  Hathor 
is  under  terror,  and  Ra  is  triumphant  over  Apep. 


The  extreme  uncertainty  of  the  text  is  such  that  no  translation  at 
present  can  be  other  than  conjectural. 

I.  Back^  down  with  thee,  Stabler .  The  first  word  is  clear 
enough  ;  not  so  the  two  next. 

Are  we  to  read    1  J  ^^^a^ ,   J    I  "^p^  or     I  J  t  ^  ?  for  each  of 

M.  Naville's  authorities  gives  a  different  word.     The  last  of  these 
readings  has  some  support  in  a  subsequent  passage,  but  almost  all 

copies   have     1   J  ^^^—ir  •     There   has   evidently   been   a   confusion 

between  P  J  and  J  P ,    and    the   determinative  '^y^  of  the  latter 


go  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

word  has  been  transferred  to  the  first.  I  believe  that  the  true  word  is 
P  J  -wwvA  which  is  used  in  the  ancient  forms  of  conjuration  (see  the 
texts  of  Unas,  304,  311,  542,  545,  554,  eU.).     It  is  always  used  in 

expressions  of  /yt'ng  down  or  falling  dowfi  1  B?  "y^  — h —  J  a^/w^^  , 
(I  *>  — H —  I  /v«,^^/sA ,  and    it    is    also    found   in   parallelism   with 

(J  /wvwx  without  a  determinative  is  susceptible  of  different  mean- 
ings, and  the  very  recent  texts  have  it  written  with  the  determinative 
of  motion  jTii  or  A-,  as  significant  of  retreat.  But  the  oldest  de- 
terminative in  this  place  is  ^^ /I ,  and  this  inclines  me  to  identify  the 

word  with  [j/vww^  \\,  and  translate  it  'stabber.'     But  this  is  mere 

conjecture.     See  note  5  on  chapter  40. 

2.  Akar.  The  older  MSS.  differ  hopelessly  from  each  other  as 
to  the  name  of  the  god. 

In  order  to  understand  the  nature  of  the  god 

Akar,  we  have  to  imagine  a  tunnel  starting  from  the  spot  where  the 
sun  sets,  and  extending  through  the  earth  as  far  as  where  the  sun 
rises.  Each  end  of  the  tunnel  has  a  sphinx-like  form.  A  human- 
headed  lion  stands  at  the  entrance  and  also  at  the  terminus.  It 
is  through  the  paws  of  this  double  sphinx  that  the  galley  of  the 
Sungod  enters  on  the  Western  horizon  and  comes  out  on  the 

In  the  picture  Plate  XV,  taken  from  the  tomb  of  Rameses  IV, 

^  I  ,  Fair  Entrance,  is  written  at  one  end  of  the  tunnel;  <=>  T  , 

A  AO  V\    0 

Fair  Exit,  at  the  other.    As  the  solar  bark  could  not  be  represented 

inside  the  dark  tunnel,  it  is  placed  above. 

3.   The  proof .     Lit.  the  taste,  |  tepit,  with  the  tongue  as  a 

determinative,  in  the  sense  of  a  probe.  The  hand  of  an  Egyptian 
hero  is  said  to  taste  his  enemy.  In  the  Bremner  Papyrus  the 
god  tastes  Apep  four  times.  The  same  conception  is  found  in  the 
Homeric  poems, 

aX\'  076,  daaaov 
r^/evffofieO'  aWi'jXiov  xe^Kij/jeaii/  e^/x^crjffiv.* 

though  in  Greek  the  taste  comes  generally  to  the  patient  rather  than 
to  the  agent. 

*  Iliad,  20,  258. 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  XXXIX.    Saqara.    Grab  24. 

Lepsius,  Denkmdler,  Abth.  Ill,  131.  265. 

Chapter  XXXIX. 
Papyrus  Musee  du  Louvre,  93. 

Chapter  XL.     Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  No.  IV. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  9 1 

4.  This  passage,  which  would  be  most  interesting  if  we  could  only 
get  it  accurately,  is  wretchedly  corrupt.  It  is  impossible  from  the 
variants  to  oi)tain  a  text  grammatically  intelligible.  The  Scorpion 
goddess  is  Isis. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Eater  of  the  Ass  is  kept  back. 

Back,  serpent  Haiu,  (i)  whom  Osiris  execrateth.  May  Thoth 
cut  off  thy  head,  and  may  there  accrue  to  me  whatsoever  property 
proceedeth  from  thee  [according  to]  what  was  decreed  against  thee 
by  the  Company  of  the  gods  for  the  accomplishment  of  thy  slaughter. 

Back,  thou  whom  Osiris  execrateth,  from  the  Neshemet  galley, 
which  saileth  towards  the  south  with  favourable  breeze. 

Pure  are  ye,  all  ye  gods  who  overthrow  the  enemy  of  Osiris. 

The  gods  upon  the  larboard  utter  loud  acclamation. 

Back,  thou  Eater  of  the  Ass,  whom  the  god  Chas,  (2)  who  is  in 
the  Tuat,  execrateth. 

Know  me  !  {Repeated  four  times). 

"  Who  art  thou  ?  " 
I  am * 

Down  upon  thy  face  !  (3)  thou  who  art  eating  at  my  sanctuary. 

I  am  the  Season,  which  cometh  at  its  own  will. 

'*  Come  not  against  me ;  thou  who  comest  without  being  called, 
and  who  art  unknown." 

I  am  the  master  of  thine  utterance,  and  the  check  upon  thy 
pride.  (4) 

O  Ha-as,  whose  horns  (5)  Horus  doth  cut :  by  my  children,  the 
cycle  of  gods  in  Pu  and  Tepit,  thou  art  severed  from  thy  fold  and 
thy  fold  is  severed  from  thee. 

And  he  who  cutteth  thee  oif  cometh  forth  as  the  Eye  of  Horus  ; 
thou  art  kept  back  and  assailed,  and  stopped  (6)  by  the  breath  of  my 

*  There  is  a  lacuna  here  in  the  only  MS.  containing  the  text.  The  dialogue 
continues  through  the  next  line  of  the  original. 

N  2 

92  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

0  thou  god  who  devourest  all  wrong,  and  carriest  off  with 
violence; (7)  there  is  no  wrong  in  me,  my  tablets  (8)  are  free  from 
wrong.  Let  me  not  suffer  violence  before  the  Divine  Circle  ;  let 
not  disaster  be  hurled  upon  me. 

1  am  he  who  giveth  or  taketh  according  to  thy  behest. 
Let  not  iVbe  seized,  let  him  not  be  devoured.  (9) 

He  is  Possessor  of  Life,  and  Sovereign  Lord  (10)  on  the  Horizon. 


The  translation  of  this  chapter  is  based  upon  the  important 
papyrus  T  5  of  Leyden,  known  as  Lb.  This  is  the  only  MS.  which 
contains  the  whole  chapter.     All  other  copies  begin  after  the  sixth 

line.     The  usual  chapter  begins  in  Lb  with  a      []  n     ^°^,    which  is 

the  ordinary  way  of  indicating  a  various  reading.  But  the  difference 
of  reading  applies  rather  to  a  mere  paragraph  than  to  the  whole 
chapter.     In  this  case  we  should  expect  ^^  or  something  equivalent. 

The  Eater  of  the  Ass  is  a  Serpent,  but  who  is  the  Ass  ? 

Here,  as  in  each  case  of  mythological  name,  the  animal  is  not 
meant,  but  something  which  is  connoted  by  it.  The  name  of  the  ass 
is  given  to  it  in  consequence  of  one  of  its  characteristics.  It  is 
^"^^  ^  f=iii-  But  this  is  one  of  the  seventy-five  names  of  the 
Sun-god  in  the  Solar  Litany.*  And  he  derives  this  appellation  from 
his  fructifying  power. 

But  if  the  Ass  is  the  Sun,  who  is  the  Eater  of  the  Ass  ?  This 
must  be  Darkness  or  Eclipse  of  some  kind. 

1.  Haiu,  the  serpent  who  devours  the  sun,  is  undoubtedly  the 
same  as  nil  'j  _^  "^^^^i  Haiii^  the  serpent  who  in  the  Pyramid  texts  is 
ordered  to  lie  down  (Unas,  545,  &c.),  and  cease  from  his  attacks. 

2.  The  god  C has,  ^^^* 

3.  The  usual  chapter  begins  here.  The  text  of  Lb  has  generally 
been  followed,  but  in  some  places  later  authorities  have  been 

4.   Pride  or  boastings,   wwvx    ^^.    O  dnta,    "glory,"    cf.   glorior. 
The  speaker  addresses  his  adversary  as  being  a  miles  gloriosus. 

*  Naville,  La  Litanie  du  Soleil,  p.  49  and  55,  with  the  plates  corresponding. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  93 

/VSAAAA         [  <^  Qj.     I  V^ 

^    W      1     o      _M-lll  i^   ^   JT 

by  a  viper,  are  t 

I  . 

lose  of  the 

The  horns  here  spoken  of,  as  possessec 
deadly  Cerastes,  which  are  spines  projecting  from  the  arched  eye- 
brows of  the  creature.  See  picture  in  Long's  Egyptiati  Antiquities 
of  British  Museum,  II,  p.  316,  copied  from  the  great  French  work. 

But  the  Sun-god  is  also  called  in  his  Litany*  ^3:^  (J  vS\  | 

-    -    III  .  ^--JTi 

.     And  a  picture  of  the  godf  under  the  name 

exhibits  him  as  characterized  by  a  pair  of  hooked  weapons, 
suggested  apparently  by  the  mandibles  of  a  beetle. 

6.  Stopped.      There   are   three   important   variants   here   <=:>, 

r—r-l  AAAAAA  \  f\ 

<=:^,   and     ^   .      And    the    last   of  these   is   possibly   a   corrupt 
reading  from  M-  •      The    first   two   are   synonymous.      <:z:r> 

C  ■;- 

may  in  certain  contexts  mean  destroy,  but  it  only  signifies  '  bring  to 
a  limit,  to  an  end,  stop,'  like  the  tg/^  in  lep-fxa,  ter-min-o.  It  is  used 
in  many  cases,  such  as  the  staunching  of  blood,  where  no  destruction 
is  intended.      ^^  s=>  ^  1   j]  r^^^  is  stop  in  thy  place. 

7.  There  is  a  picture  in  De7ikm.,  Ill,  279,  of  the  god  who  carrieth 

off  with  violence   \^^  a'      m  "     '^"''  ''^  ^^  ^  mummied  form 

holding  the  Tdni  sceptre. 

8.  Tablets,  \\^    ifi  I  •     These  are  the  tablets  on  which  Thoth 

has  written  down  the  evidence  taken  at  the  Weighing  of  the  Words, 
the  examination  at  the  Psychostasia.  They  are  mentioned  again  at 
the  end  of  Chapter  41. 

9.  Here  I  follow  the  general  authority  of  the  later  texts. 

I  o  Sovereign  Lord  (,   K  f§  •     This   word   is   closely  connected, 

and  was  so  from  the  first,  with  S-^  '  seize.'  The  best  commentary 
upon  it  may  be  derived  from  the  legal  terms  usucapio,  saisine,  seisin. 
The  Sovereign  Lord  of  Egypt  is  in  our  current  legal  phrase  '■'■seized 
of  the  Two  Earths,"  that  is  of  the  whole  Universe,  North  and  South. 

*    In  the  64th  invocation. 

t  Lefebure  Tombeau  de  Seti  I,  pi.  XVII. 

94  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  whereby  one  avoideth  the  Slaughter  which  is  carried  out 

ifi  the  Netherworld. 

0  Tmu,  let  me  be  glorified  in  presence  of  the  god  in  Lion  form, 
the  great  god ;  that  he  may  open  to  me  the  gate  of  Seb. 

1  prostrate  mj'self  to  earth  to  the  great  god  who  is  in  the  Nether- 
world, Let  me  be  introduced  into  the  presence  of  the  company  of 
gods  who  preside  over  those  who  are  in  Amenta. 

O  thou  who  art  at  the  gate  of  Tebat ;  god  with  the  Red  Crown,  (i) 
who  art  in  Amenta ;  let  me  feed,  let  me  live  by  the  breath  of  air  and 
accompany  the  great  Cleaver,  (2)  and  the  Bark  of  Chepera. 

Let  me  speak  to  the  divine  Boatman  at  the  gloaming,  let  me 
enter  in  and  let  me  go  out ;  that  I  may  see  who  is  there ;  that  I  may 
raise  him  up  and  speak  my  words  to  him. 

O  Breathless  one  :  (3)  Let  me  live  and  be  saved  after  death. 

0  thou  Bearer  ofpeace  offerings,  who  openest  thy  mouth  for  the 
presentation  of  the  tablets,  (4)  for  the  acceptation  (5)  of  the  offerings 
and  for  the  establishment  of  Maat  upon  her  throne;  let  the  tablets  be 
brought  forward,  and  let  the  goddess  be  firmly  established. 

1  am  Osiris,  the  great  god,  the  eternal  king,  who  numbereth  his 
seasons  and  who  lifted  up  his  right  arm,  who  judgeth  the  great  ones 
and  giveth  mission  to  the  gods  of  the  great  Circle  (6)  which  is  in  the 


The  most  noteworthy  difference  between  the  older  recension  of 
this  chapter  and  that  of  the  Saitic  and  later  periods  is  that  in  the 
latter  the  god  addressed  at  the  opening  is  Osiris  Unneferu,  who  is 
identified  with  Tmu.  In  the  older  recensions  the  identification  may 
be  seen  in  another  way.  Tmu  is  the  god  invoked,  and  in  answer  he 
says  that  he  is  Osiris,  the  great  god. 

I.   God  with  the  Red  Crown  1^  cj]   is      11     \l^\J^  ,  one  of 

the  titles  of  Osiris  with  the  ^  crown.  See  Plate  XV  from  Lefebure, 
Tombeau  de  Seti  7,  part  IV,  pi.  34.  This  litle,  derived  from  the 
crown   "'^''^y ^  is  Net-td  or  Nait-td.      It  was  borne  by  the  high 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 


Tomb  of  Rameses  IV.       (Musee  Guimet,  Vol.  XV,  Flatea/.) 
Chapter  XV.     Notes  3  and  9. 

Tomb  of  Rameses  IV.       (Musee  Guimet,  Vol.  XV,  Plate  40.) 


Tomb  of  Rameses  IX.        (Musee  Guimet,  Vol.  XVI,  Plate  6.) 
Chapter  XLI.     Note  i. 

Chapter  XLVII. 

Leyden  Papyrus,  No.  16. 

Tombeau  de  Seti  I. 
(Musee  Guimet,  Vol.  IX,  Plate  34. 

















S)     '<^- 
















BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  95 

priest  at  Coptos  (Brugsch,  Diet.   Geogr.,  pp.   1374,   1377),  and  the 
King  of  Egypt  derived  his  title    Is^   from  the  Crown  \J  of  the 

North  which  he  wore  as  representing  Osiris,  or  rather  the  heir  of 
Osiris,  Horus. 

2.  The  great  Cleaver,     n«=^  "^^f  ^  ,  the  name  of  the  god  who 

cleaves  his  path  through  the  sky. 

3.  Breathless  one,  S  "^  (](  Q  |  o  (  (  ^  ^  Osiris. 

4.  Thoth  is  the  person  here  addressed,  and  the  speaker  is  Osiris. 
The  tablets  are  those  containing  the  evidence  at  the  trial  at  the 

5.  Acceptation  j-r  ^^.   (  j  J>eka,   besides  the  physical  sense  of 

comprehendere,  'to  lay  hold  of  with  the  hands,  has  that  of  'taking 
in,  embracing  with  the  mind,'  and  perhaps  '  setting  forth  in  words.' 

6.  On  the  Sarcophagus  of  Seti  (Bonomi,  pi.  3.  D),  and  the  other 
copies  of  the  same  text,  there  is  a  picture  of  these  A  \  ^"^     ^ 

1 1  Vihli})-     '^^'^^  is   the  title  written  over  them.    But  the  text 

D    D 

peaks  of  them  as  ^  -Ji  1  ^  -J|. 



Chapter  whereby  one  hindereth  the  slaughter  which  is  wrought  at 
Sutenhenen.  (i) 

Land  of  the  Rod,  of  the  White  Crown  of  the  Image,  and  the 
Pedestal  of  the  gods. 

I  am  the  Babe.  (2)     {Said  Four  Tifues.) 

0  Serpent  Abur !  (3)  Thou  sayest  this  day,  "  The  Block  of 
Execution  is  furnished  with  what  thou  knowest,"  and  thou  art  come 
to  soil  (4)  the  Mighty  One. 

But  I  am  he  whose  honours  are  abiding. 

1  am  the  Link,  (5)  the  god  within  the  Tamarisk,  (6)  who 
connecteth  (7)  the  Solar  orb  with  Yesterday.      {Four  Times.) 

I  am  Ra,  whose  honours  are  abiding. 

I  am  the  Link,  the  god  within  the  Tamarisk. 

g6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

My  course  is  the  course  of  Ra,  and  the  course  of    Ra  is  my 

My  hair  is  that  of  Nu,  (8) 

My  two  eyes  are  those  of  Hathor, 

My  two  ears  those  of  Apuat, 

My  nose  that  of  Chenti-chas, 

My  two  hps  those  of  Anubis, 

My  teeth  those  of  Selkit, 

My  neck  that  of  Isis,  the  Mighty, 

My  two  hands  those  of  the  Soul  most  Mighty,  Lord  of  Tattu, 

My  shoulders  those  of  Neith,  Mistress  of  Sais, 

My  back  is  that  of  Sut, 

My  phallus  that  of  Osiris, 

My  liver  is  that  of  the  Lords  of  Cher-abat, 

My  knees  those  of  the  most  Mighty  one, 

My  belly  and  my  back  are  those  of  Sechit, 

My  hinder  parts  are  those  of  the  Eye  of  Horus, 

My  legs  and  thighs  those  of  Nut, 

My  feet  those  of  Ptah, 

My  nails  and  bones  those  of  the  Living  Uraei, 

There  is  not  a  limb  in  me  which  is  without  a  god.  And  Thoth 
is  a  protection  to  my  flesh. 

I  shall  not  be  grasped  by  my  arms  or  seized  by  my  hands. 

Not  men  or  gods,  or  the  glorified  ones  or  the  damned;  not 
generations  past,  present,  or  future,  shall  inflict  any  injury  upon  me. 

I  am  he  who  cometh  forth  and  proceedeth,  and  whose  name  is 
unknown  to  man. 

I  am  Yesterday,  "  Witness  of  Eternity "  is  my  Name :  the 
persistent  traveller  upon  the  heavenly  highways  which  1  survey.  I 
am  the  Everlasting  one. 

I  am  felt  and  thought  of  as  Chepera.     I  am  the  Crowned  one. 

I  am  the  Dweller  in  the  Eye  and  in  the  Egg. 

It  is  an  attribute  of  mine  that  I  live  within  them. 

I  am  the  Dweller  in  the  Eye,  even  in  its  closing. 

I  am  that  by  which  it  is  supported. 

I  come  forth  and  I  rise  up  :  I  enter  and  I  have  life. 

I  am  the  Dweller  in  the  Eye  ;  my  seat  is  upon  my  throne,  and  I 

sit  conspicuously  upon  it. 

I  am  Horus,  who  steppeth  onwards  through  Eternity. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  97 

I  have  instituted  the  throne  of  which  I  am  the  master. 

As  regards  my  mouth  :  whether  in  speech  or  in  silence,  I  am 
right  and  fair. 

As  regards  my  attributes :  I  hasten  headlong,  I  the  god  Unen,* 
with  all  that  pertaineth  to  me,  hour  proceeding  from  hour,  the  One 
proceeding  from  the  One,  in  my  course. 

I  am  the  Dweller  in  the  Eye  ;  no  evil  or  calamitous  things 
befall  me. 

It  is  I  who  open  the  gates  of  Heaven  ;  it  is  I  who  am  master  of 
the  throne,  and  who  open  the  series  of  births  upon  this  day. 

I  am   he  Babe,  who  treadeth  his  path  of  Yesterday. 

I  am  "This  Day"  to  generation  of  men  after  generation. 

I  am  he  who  giveth  you  stableness  for  eternity,  whether  ye  be  in 
heaven  or  upon  earth ;  in  the  South  or  in  the  North,  in  the  West  or 
in  the  East — and  the  fear  of  me  is  upon  you. 

I  am  he  who  fashioneth  with  his  eye,  and  who  dieth  not  a  second 

A  moment  of  mine  belongeth  to  you,  but  my  attributes  belong  to 
my  own  domain. 

I  am  the  Unknown  one,  but  the  gods  of  Ruddy  Countenance 
belong  to  me. 

I  am  the  Gladsome  one,  and  no  time  hath  been  found,  but 
served  to  create  for  me  the  Heaven  and  the  increase  of  Earth,  and 
the  increase  of  their  offspring. 

They  sever  and  join  not — they  sever  my  name  from  all  evil 
things,  according  to  the  words  which  I  say  unto  you. 

It  is  I  who  rise  up  and  shine  forth ;  strength  proceeding  from 
strength  (9),  the  One  proceeding  from  the  One. 

There  is  not  a  day  devoid  of  that  which  belongeth  to  it;  for  ever 
and  for  ever  (10). 

I  am  Unbu,t  who  proceedeth  from  Nu,  and  my  mother  is  Nut. 

0  thou  who  hast  set  me  in  motion  (11)!  for  I  was  motionless,  a 
mighty  link  within  the  close  of  Yesterday  ;  my  present  activity  is  a 
link  within  the  close  of  my  hand. 

1  am  not  known,  but  I  am  one  who  knoweth  thee. 

I  am  not  to  be  grasped,  but  I  am  one  who  graspeth  thee. 
[Oh  Dweller  in  the  Egg  !     Oh  Dweller  in  the  Egg  !] 

*  Another  reading  is  Unneferu. 
t  See  note  i  on  chapter  28. 

98  BOOK   OF   THE  DEAD. 

I  am  Horus,  Prince  of  Eternity,  a  fire  before  your  faces,  which 
inflameth  your  hearts  towards  me. 

I  am  master  of  my  throne  and  I  pass  onwards.  The  present 
time  is  the  path  which  I  have  opened,  and  I  have  set  myself  free 
from  all  things  evil. 

I  am  the  golden  Cynocephalus,  three  palms  in  height,  without 
legs  or  arms  in  the  Temple  of  Ptah(i2);  and  my  course  is  the 
course  of  the  golden  Cynocephalus,  three  palms  in  height,  without 
legs  or  arms  in  the  Temple  of  Ptah. 

Let  these  words  be  said — Ababak  ter-ek  (13). 


This  chapter  is  in  itself  most  interesting,  and  it  is  one  of  the 
most  important  as  illustrative  of  Egyptian  mythology.  It  is  impos- 
sible at  present  to  explain  every  detail,  but  the  general  drift  of  the 
chapter  is  not  to  be  mistaken.  And  the  same  drift  is  to  be  recog 
nised  in  the  whole  course  of  Egyptian  religious  literature  from  the 

The  speaker  throughout  identifies  himself  with  the  divinity  whose 
manifestation  is  the  Sun  ;  he  is  not  the  Sun  of  this  or  that  moment 
but  of  Yesterday,  To-day  and  of  all  eternity,  the  "  One  proceeding 
from  the  One." 

1.  Sutenhenen.     The  later  texts  say  the  "Netherworld." 

2.  The  Babe  ®  [  [  6j)  ^  ,  an  appellative  applied  to  the  rising  Sun. 
See  Brugsch,  Rev.  II,'pl.  7 1, 3,  where  this  babe  is  compared  to  the  Lotus 
coming  forth  from  the  great  stream  y  [ 

I       ^V       I   AA/VvAA 


The   word   signifies  that   which   is    "  hfted   up,"    "  un   eleve," 

3.   Serpent  Ab-ur   [     ]  ^^  "^^  o^  0  .     The    two    important 

MSS.  Ca  and  Pb  seem  to  imply  a  female  personage,  but  as  the  verb 
in  connection  with  the  name  is  masculine  the  final  o^  cannot  be 
meant  for  a  feminine  ending,  and  it  is  peculiar  to  those  two  MSS. 
Ab-ur  "  the  very  thirsty,"  as  the  appellative  of  a  viper,  recalls  that 
of  the  ct^ydv,  whose  bite  caused  intense  thirst.     But  it  may  have 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  99 

originated  in  the  fact  that  these  reptiles  are  in  the  habit  of  lying  in 
wait  by  the  water  side  for  the  sake  of  the  animals  who  come  there  to 

4.   To  soil:    %   (    '  C3   ^^  *^^  *yP^  °^  ^^^  word  in  the  earlier 
texts.     The  late  ones  have  the  well  known  (,  =;*i-=^Q. 


5.   The  Link  V    Iwl"   -^'^ot^^i"  ^PP^lI^tive  of  the  Sun  god, 

applied  to  Tmu  and  Horus  in  the  oldest  texts.     The  notion  of 

is  that  of  concatenation,  connecting,  combining,  fastening,  binding,  setting 
tn  order  together,    avv-ra^fia,    avvTa^i<i,   as  in  — h—  ^^/   9    v\  Q^ 

nectere  coronam.  Hence  its  occurrence  in  words  signifying  'the  ver- 
tebral column,'  'a  row  of  teeth,'  'a  chain  of  hills,'  'a  body  of  troops' 
(^avvTa-ifia  linrewv  OX  Trt^wv),  or  their  'captains,'  literary  'composition' 

v\  -wvAA^  11  j  <;;;^~>  (Pap.  Prisse  V,  6),  and  the  seven 

divine  V  S()  '   "'    ffvpTaffffovje^,  the  first  authors  of  artistic 

composition.     See  note  to  chapter  71. 

6  The  god  within  the  Tamarisk.  The  rising  sun  under  his 
various  names  is  frequently  represented  as  being  in  a  tree  or  bush, 
which  partly  conceals  him.  This  is  a  mythological  way  of  treating 
the  light  cloud  or  mist  which  so  commonly  accompanies  the  sun's 
first    appearance.       Tamarisk   is    only   a  provisional  translation  of 

(1  \\.     The  god  Apuat,  who  is  identical  with  Osiris,  is  said 

in  the  Pyramid  Texts  {Unas  107,   Teta  66)  to  come  forth  from  the 

7.    Who  connecteth.    This  I  believe  to  be  the  sense  of  T  v\ 

if  the  next  word  is  (_  ^AAAAA .    But  the  text  is  quite  uncertain. 

T  <=:=>  ^  is  a  rope  or  cable  (Bonomi,  Sarc.   II,  c,   34),  and  like 

the  Latin  copula  or  the  Semitic  '^^H?  Jj^^  has  the  sense  of  tie, 
bond,  connection* 

*  "  J.A~i-    non   moAo  funem,    sed   et  in  Alcorano  saepe /oedus  significat." 
Gesenius,  Thesaur  in  voc.  '^3,^. 

O  2 

100  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

When  the  prince  of  Tennu  {Berlin  Pap.  i,  Una  31)  proposed  a 
family  alHance  to  Senehat,  he  said  to  him  T  _  9  VQi  Ue-toi 

avec  moi!     And  he  gave  him  his  daughter  to  wife. 

In  the  expression  T  [  [  <^^^i    nefrit  signifies   continuously, 

connectedly,  and  the  sense  of  until  is  only  completed  by  the  addition 
of  the  preposition  <czr>  . 

Instead  of  [  ^^^    '  the  Solar  orb,'  some  MSS.  read  [  O , 

[1  0  V^  Yr\  )  t  ^AAA-v^  "^J^  5  or  [  wwvA  5  5  ^^^d  in  each  of  these  cases 

T  must  be  understood  as  an  adjective  raised  to  the  comparative 

degree  by  the  preposition  <r>  :  "  More  beautiful  [my]  splendour 
(colour,  hair  or  veil)  than  Yesterday."  None  of  these  readings  seem 
very  attractive. 

8.  Here  follows  the  identification  of  the  limbs  of  the  deceased 
person  with  those  of  various  gods.  There  are  many  similar  texts 
belonging  to  all  the  periods  of  the  Egyptian  religion.  For  the 
Pyramid  Texts,  see  e.g.  Unas,  line  218  &c.,  ib.  line  570,  &c.,  PeJ>i  /, 
line  565,  &c.  Compare  the  Coffin  of  A?namu,  pi.  XXIV,  line  11,  &c., 
Naville,  Litanie  de  Rd,  p.  96,  and  Golenischeff,  Metternichstele,  lines 


9.  Strength      \         ^ :  : ,   literally    a  wall  or  tower,  like  the 

J  fV\f\rw^  ^£LJ    ,.22.     J_-L 

Ti^-biriri  of  Ps.  XI,  4. 

10.  ^.^.^.^^    j^  ^  '  continuously,  continuously.' 

11.  The  interjection  ^^  seems  to  imply  that  a  second  person 
is  addressed.  The  passage  would  otherwise  be  translated,  "  I  have 
set  myself  in  motion,"  which  would  be  more  consistent  with  the 
doctrine  contained  in  this  chapter. 

12.  All  the  more  recent  copies  have  J  0  '  ^^^  Sanctuary 
of  Ptah  at  Memphis. 

13.  Ababa-k  ter-ek.  This  is  only  one  of  the  readings  of  a  formula 
which  had  soon  become  utterly  unintelligible  to  the  copyists. 
Hieratic  copies  like  Louvre  3079,  published  by  M.  de  Rouge,  B.M. 
10,257  (Rollin)  and  Leyden,  T.  16,  record  several  conjectural  emen- 
dations, to  which  modern  scholars  might  add  others,  were  they  so 



Chapter  whereby  the  head  of  a  person  is  not  severed  from  him  in 
the  Netherworld. 

I  am  a  Prince,  the  son  of  a  Prince ;  a  Flame,  the  Son  of  a 
Flame,  whose  head  is  restored  to  him  after  it  hath  been  cut  off. 

The  head  of  Osiris  is  not  taken  from  him,  and  my  head  shall 
not  be  taken  from  me. 

I  raise  myself  up,  I  renew  myself,  and  I  grow  young  again. 

I  am  Osiris. 


An  early  recension  of  this  chapter  is  found  in  the  tomb  of 
Horhotep  {Miss.  Arch.  II,  p.  159),  and  an  apparent  reference  on 
the  Coffin  of  Amamu. 

Chapter  whereby  one  dieth  not  a  second  time. 

Let  the  Cavern  of  Putrata  (i)  be  opened  for  me,  where  the  dead 
fall  into  the  darkness,  but  the  Eye  of  Horus  supporteth  me,  and 
Apuat  reareth  me  up.  I  hide  myself  among  you,  O  ye  Stars  that 
set  not.  My  front  is  that  of  Ra,  my  face  is  revealed,  according  to 
the  words  of  Thoth  ;  my  heart  is  in  its  place,  my  speech  is  intelligent. 

I  am  Ra  himself,  I  am  not  to  be  ignored,  I  am  not  to  be 

Thy  father  liveth  for  thee,  O  Son  of  Nut !  I  am  thy  son  Horus, 
I  see  thy  mysteries,  and  am  crowned  as  King  of  the  gods.  I  die 
not  a  second  time  in  the  Netherworld. 

I.   Putrata  or  All  t=t.    This  name  has 

disappeared  in  nearly  all  the  MSS.  It  is  mentioned  in  the  Pyramid 
Texts  {Pepi  /,  332,  Merira  635)  as  a  lake  traversed  by  the  glorified 

I02  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Chapter  whereby  one  escapeth  corruption  in  the  Netherworld. 

Here  is  the  Osiris  iV.,  motionless,  motionless  like  Osiris;  motion- 
less his  limbs  like  Osiris — let  them  not  remain  motionless,  let  them 
not  corrupt.  They  move  not,  they  stir  not :  be  it  done  for  me  as  for 
Osiris.     I  am  Osiris. 


Chapter  whereby  he  that  is  living  is  not  destroyed  in  the  Nether- 

Oh  ye  recent  offspring  of  Shu,  who  dawn  after  dawn  is  possessor 
of  his  diadem  at  sunrise;  ye  future  generations  of  men,  my  springing 
forth*  is  the  springing  forth  of  Osiris. 


This  chapter  is  addressed  to  the  m  ¥^^V^^  v)  ^^"^^^"^^^^ 
who  are  known  from  other  quarters  to  be  human  beings,  as  the 
younglings  of  the  god  Shu.  But  the  reference  is  not  to  men  who 
have  yet  lived  upon  the  earth.  They  are  spoken  of  as  men  of  a 
future  generation.  Queen  Halshepsu  on  her  obelisk  when  speaking 
of  them  connects  them  with  the  period  of  1 20  years,  that  is  as  if  we 
said  "men  of  the  next  century."  Before  their  appearance  upon  the 
earth  they  circle  round  the  Sun,  and  the  glorified  dead  hold  con- 
verse with  them  (chapter  124,  6). 

The  Egyptians,  like  many  other  ancient  nations,  held  the 
doctrine  of  the  preexistence  of  souls.  They  held  it  not  like 
philosophers  or  poets,  but  as  an  article  of  their  popular  and  tradi- 
tional creed. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Seat  of  a  person  is  not  taken  from  him  in  the 

Chair  and  Throne  of  mine,  which  are  coming  to  me  and  circhng 
round  to  me  ;  divine  ones  ! 

•  The  Day-spring. 


Chapter  XLVII. 

BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  L. 

Chapter  L. 

Papyrus  of  Ani. 

Chapter  LVII. 

Nicholson  Papyrus. 
(.Egyptiaca,   Plate  5.) 

Papyrus  of  Ani. 

Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9949 
Chapter  LXI. 

Chapter  LVIII. 

Papyrus  of  Ani. 

Chapter  LXIV. 


Papyrus  du  Louvre,  iii,  93. 

Papyrus  du  Louvre,  in,  93. 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD.       Chapter  LXVIII. 

Lanzone  ^Diz.  Egiz.). 

Papyrus  du  Louvre,  iii,  93. 




1  L^v           nr 



la               \ 


IK         Sif 

Saquara.       Lepsius  (Denkin.,  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  264). 

Lanzone  {Diz.  Egiz.). 

Leyden  Sarcophagus. 

Wilkinson  (Mat.  Iliirog., 
Plate  23). 

\M  A 




Lepsu's  (Todt.,  Plate  21). 

Lepsius  (Todt.,  Plate  23). 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  103 

I  am  a  noble  Sahu  (i),  grant  that  I  may  become  one  of  those 
who  follow  the  great  god. 

I  am  the  Son  of  Maat,  and  wrong  is  what  I  execrate. 
I  am  the  Victorious  one. 


I.  Sdhti  fi  ^  Q  1    is  not  a  mummy,  as  it  is  sometimes 

rendered,  but  a  living  personality  in  mummied  form. 

are  identical  with  X  and  XI  respectively. 


Chapter  zvliereby  one  cometh  not  to  the  divine  Block  of  Execution, 

The  four  (i)  fastenings  of  the  hinder  part  of  my  head  are 

He  who  is  in  heaven  it  was  who  made  firm  the  fastening  for  him 
who  was  fainting  upon  his  two  haunches  on  that  day  when  the  fleece 
was  shorn. 

The  fastenings  of  the  hinder  part  of  my  head  were  fastened  by 
Sutu  and  the  company  of  gods  in  his  first  triumph.  Let  there  be  no 
disaster.     Preserve  me  safe  from  him  who  slew  my  father. 

I  am  seized  of  the  'Two  Earths.' 

The  fastenings  of  the  hinder  part  of  my  head  were  fastened  by 
Nu,  on  the  first  time  of  my  beholding  the  Law  in  virtue  of  which 
the  gods  and  their  symbols  (2)  come  into  existence. 

I  am  the  Heedful  one,  and  become  the  executioner  for  you,  ye 
great  gods  (3). 


The  antiquity  of  the  chapter  is  proved  by  its  occurrence  on  the 
second  coffin  of  Mentuhotep ;  but  its  condition  there  is  such  that 
no  one  can  read  it  who  is  not  already  familiar  with  it  from  other 
sources.  It  begins,  Aelteste  Texte,  p.  22,  line  34,  and  goes  on  till 
the  red  letters  at  hne  50.  The  text,  in  spite  of  its  importance,  is 
very  inaccurate. 

I04  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1.  The  four  fastenings.  The  number /?z^r  is  only  found  in  the 
oldest  copies.  The  later  copies  have  a  different  text.  It  is  im- 
possible  to  say  what  kind  of  fastening  is  meant.  — *—  might  be  a 
ligament  or  a  vertebra — though  more  probably  the  latter.  But  it 
might  be   a  combination   of  several   pieces.      ^{jT  ^^^  ^    is  the 

occiput,  and  this  suggests  the  hypothesis  of  cervical  vertebrae.  But 
the  number  of  these  is  not  four  but  seven.  Of  these  three  are 
peculiar ;  the  Atlas  which  supports  the  head,  the  Axis  upon  which 
the  head  turns,  and  the  Vertebra  prominens  with  its  long  spinal 
process.  But  see  the  Vignette  of  chapter  42  from  Pd  where  four 
vertebrae  are  figured. 

2.  Symbols^    or    symbolical  representations,     1    ■    1  ^v\  ^^  1     or 

■^\\\  ^ 

3.  The  Heedful  one  ^^^^,  perhaps  ^^_^^.  Unas  584, 
Pepi  I,  199  and  667. 


Chapter  whereby  one  goeih  not  headlong  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  execrate,  I  execrate,  I  do  not  eat  it. 

That  which  I  execrate  is  dirt.  I  eat  it  not,  that  I  may  appease 
my  Genius. 

Let  me  not  fall  into  it ;  let  me  not  approach  it  with  my  hands, 
let  me  not  tread  upon  it  with  my  sandals. 


The  Chapters  numbered  51  and  52  are  not  found  in  the  most 
ancient  papyri,  but  the  substance  of  them  and  their  formulas  are 
met  with  on  the  ancient  coffins*  and  in  the  Pyramid  texts.  See,  for 
instance,  Unas  189,  Teta  68,  with  M.  Maspero's  note  on  the  latter 
text.  I  do  not,  however,  believe,  as  M.  Maspero  does,  that  these 
texts  convey  the  idea  "  so  frequent  [!]  among  half-civilised  peoples, 

*  There  is  a  chapter  in  Lepsius,  Alteste  Texte,  p.  34,  with  the  same  title  as 
chapter  51,  but  the  contents  are  different. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  105 

of  another  life  in  which  the  deceased  will  have  nothing  to  eat  and 

drink  but  excremental  matter."    That  the  ft    1 '  ^  which  I  translate 

/\     000 

'  dirt '  and  ^  '~s~'  '  lye  '  are  of  this  nature  is  quite  certain,  but  they 

are  objects  of  abhorrence  to  the  Sun-god,  like  the  dead  rat  and  the 
putrid  cat  in  chapter  ^;^,  because  he  is  a  consuming  fire,  and  "  what- 

soever he  findeth  upon  his  path  he  devoureth  it,"  A^   1 1    f\    ^"^ 

JL>  1  \^  Unas  515.     It  is  only  natural  then  that  the 

deceased  who  is  identified  with  the  Sun-god  in  these  texts  should 
express  his  execration  of  such  offensive  matter.  He  is  not  afraid 
of  being  limited  to  this  food,  his  fear  springs  from  the  opposite 


Chapter  whereby  o?ie  eateth  not  dirt  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  execrate,  I  execrate,  I  do  not  eat  it. 

That  which  I  execrate  is  dirt.  I  eat  it  not,  that  I  may  appease 
my  Genius  (i). 

Let  it  not  fall  upon  me ;  let  me  not  approach  it  with  my  hands, 
let  me  not  tread  upon  it  with  my  sandals. 

Henceforth  let  me  live  upon  corn  (2)  in  your  presence,  ye  gods, 
and  let  there  come  one  who  bringeth  to  me  that  I  may  feed  from 
those  seven  loaves  which  he  hath  brought  for  Horus  and  upon  the 
loaves  for  Thoth. 

"What  willst  thou  eat?"  say  the  gods  to  him. 

Let  me  eat  under  the  Sycamore  of  Hathor  the  Sovereign,  and 
let  my  turn  be  given  to  me  among  those  who  rest  there. 

And  let  me  manage  the  fields  in  Tattu  and  prosper  in  Helio- 

And  let  me  feed  upon  the  bread  of  the  white  corn  and  upon  the 
beer  of  the  red  barley. 

And  let  the  forms  (3)  of  my  father  and  of  my  mother  be  granted 
to  me  ;  the  gate-keepers  of  the  stream. 

Let  room  be  thrown  open  for  me,  let  the  path  be  made,  and  let 
me  sit  in  any  place  that  I  desire. 


I06  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


(i)  Here,   as   in   the  corresponding   passage  in    the  preceding 

chapter  and  in  several  other  places,  the  later  texts  often  read    ' — '  , 
which  is  a  serious  error. 

(2)  The  unintelligible  (I     ^     QA  of  the  later  texts  should  be  cor- 
rected to     0       6     {Alieste  Texte  42,  lines  50,  54  and  67).     The 

— H — °  °   °  r\ 

error  may  be  traced  to  a  form  of  the  word  with  the  prothetic  (_  . 

There  are  several  words  varying  in  their  applications  which  may  be 
traced  to  the  same  origin. 

0  seser   '  spica '   a   point,    hence   an   ear  of  corn,   and 

H —       6 

0    *^~~^ ,     0    ''^~~^  '  spiculum,'  an  arrow,  a  javelin,  are  very  clearly 
-H — ^=^^    — H — < — m. 

connected,  and  the  notion  in  both  is,  as  in  the  Hebrew  l^lb^,  that 
of  'shooting  iorih,' proferre, protendere. 

— M —  "^t?^ ,  a  term  applied  to  horned  animals,  has  surely  nothing 

to  do  with  the  Coptic  cyptX?  of  Leviticus  xv,  19.     It  refers  to  the 
pointed  weapons  presented  by  the  beasts. 

H     ^  is   'put  forward'  in   the  way  of  speech,  and  may  be 

command  or  prayer,  or  simple  statement. 

IS    *^^~^  the  builder's  line  is  something  '  stretched  out '  pro/a 
— ♦.—    Q. 

tu7n,  protensuin. 

And  with  reference  to  walls,  buildings,  and  the  like,     ^ 

H I      ^      I 

may  always  be  translated  by  proferre,  protendere. 

(3)  The  forms,   f  J^||    "^t  f  J^|>   ^s  in   the  Turin 

Todtenbuch.  There  is  a  most  interesting  text  but  unfortunately 
imperfect  on  the  Leyden  Coffin  M.3  (M.  PI.  13).  The  deceased  is 
told  that  on  arriving  at  the  mysterious  gate  he  will  find  his  father 

and  his  mother,  ''^^  U  ^^      -^ .      This  is  followed  by   "1  H  and 

then  apparently  by  ^^^  but  the  middle  sign  is  almost  entirely 
effaced.     This  would  mean  '  at  the  resurrection  of  thy  body.' 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  107 

Chapter  7vhereby  one  is  not  made  to  eat  dirt  or  to  drink  lye. 

I  am  the  sharp-horned  Bull,  who  regulateth  the  sky,  the  Lord  of 
the  risings  in  heaven ;  the  great  Giver  of  Light,  who  issueth  from 
Flame ;  the  Bond  of  Time,  richly  supplied  with  years ;  the  god  in 
Lion  form,  to  whom  is  given  a  march  of  Glory. 

I  execrate,  I  execrate,  I  do  not  eat  that  which  my  Genius 

Let  it  not  enter  into  my  stomach,  let  it  not  approach  to  my 
hands,  let  me  not  tread  upon  it  with  my  sandals. 

Let  me  not  drink  lye,  let  me  not  advance  headlong  in  the 

I  am  the  possessor  of  bread  in  Heliopolis,  who  hath  bread  in 
Heaven  with  Ra,  and  bread  upon  earth  with  Seb. 

It  is  the  Sektit  boat  which  hath  brought  it  from  the  house  of  the 
great  god  in  Heliopolis. 

I  am  gladdened  in  my  very  entrails,  and  am  associated  with  the 
divine  mariners,  who  circle  round  to  the  East  of  Heaven.  I  eat  as 
they  eat,  and  I  feed  upon  what  they  feed.  I  eat  bread  from  the 
house  of  the  Lord  of  offerings. 

Whereby  one  eateth  not  dirt. 

I  execrate,  I  execrate  !  I  do  not  eat  it.  s 

Dirt  is  what  I  execrate ;  I  do  not  eat  it. 

I  execrate  lye,  I  do  not  drink  it. 

Let  me  not  approach  it  with  my  fingers,  let  me  not  tread  upon  it 
with  my  sandals. 

Seb,  the  father  of  Osiris,  hath  ordained  that  I  should  not  eat  dirt 
or  drink  lye,  but  my  father  hath  four  times  said  that  I  should  eat  of 
the  red  corn. 

There  are  seven  loaves  in  Heaven  at  Heliopolis  with  Ra,  and 
there  are  seven  loaves  upon  earth  with  Seb,  and  there  are  seven 
loaves  with  Osiris. 

P  2 

I08  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

It  is  the  god  of  the  Sektit  galley,  and  of  the  Maatit  galley,  who 
hath  brought  them  to  me  at  Heliopolis. 

I  shout  with  joy,  and  my  Genius  shouteth  with  joy,  because  I 
am  in  Heliopolis,  and  I  live  in  excellent  condition  before  Ra,  on  the 
day  when  bread  is  presented  in  Heliopolis. 


Chapter  53A  is  taken  from  the  papyri  of  the  older  period,  53B 
is  a  still  older  text  from  the  Coffin  of  Horhotep. 


Chapter  whereby  air  is  given  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  am  the  god  in  Lion-form  (i),  the  Egg  in  the  Great  Cackler, 
and  I  watch  over  that  great  Egg  which  Seb  hath  parted  from  the 
earth  (2);  my  Life  is  the  Life  thereof,  and  the  same  is  true  of  my 
advance  in  life  and  of  my  breathing  of  the  air. 

I  am  the  god  who  keepeth  opposition  in  equipoise  (3)  as  his  Egg 
circleth  round.  For  me  dawneth(4)  the  moment  of  the  most 
mighty  one,  Sut. 

O  ye  gods  who  are  pleasant  through  the  alternate  successions  of 
the  Earth,  who  preside  over  sustenance  and  who  live  in  the  Blue  (5), 
do  ye  keep  watch  over  him  who  abideth  in  his  Nest ;  the  Infant  god 
who  cometh  forth  towards  you. 


The  text  here  followed  is  that  of  Pa  which  is  much  preferable  to 
that  of  Ani.  There  is  a  far  older  text,  that  of  Horhotep,  line  344 
and  sqq.,  but  it  is  too  inaccurate  to  serve  as  the  basis  of  a  transla- 
tion.    It  is  however  very  valuable  for  other  purposes. 

(i)  The  god  in  Lion  form.  These  words  are  not  in  Horhotep, 
the  chapter  beginning  as  in  later  texts  "  Oh  Tmu  let  there  come  to 
me  the  air  which  is  in  thy  nostrils."     The  word  for  air  is  written 


^— i  (lines  344  and  346)  as  in  other  places. 


(2)  It  is  a  mistake  to  speak  of  a  mundane  egg,  of  which  there  is 
no  trace  in  Egyptian  mythology.     Seb,  the  great  cackling  goose, 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD,  109 

lays  the  golden  egg,  which  is  the  Sun ;  but  \J  does  not  mean 

'  lay  upon  the  earth,'  but  '  divide,  separate  from  the  earth,'     The  egg 
springs  from  the  back  of  Seb. 

(3)  Who  keepeth  opposition  in  equipoise.  This  sense  may  be 
inferred  from  Pa,  but  is  made  very  clear  by  the  JI,  ^  ll\, 
of  Horhotep.  The  equilibrium  of  forces  is  maintained  by  the  revo- 
lution of  the  Sun, 

(4)  Dawneth,  J  t_J  /j( .  Horhotep ;  whose  text  breaks  off 
without  a  word  on  Sutu. 

(5)  The  Blue,     ^      11^^^^  'lapis  lazuli.'     The  French  Vazur 

H ^    O    O    O 

exactly  corresponds  to  the  Egyptian,  for  the  word  azure  is  derived 
from  lazulum. 

Ancients  and  modern  differ  greatly,  as  is  well  known,  from  each 
other  as  to  the  impressions  derived  from  colour.  It  seems  strange  to 
read  in  the  tale  of  the  Destruction  of  Mankind  that  the  '  hair  of  Ra 
was  of  real  chesbet,'  that  is  '  dark  blue.'  But  we  have  an  exact  paral- 
lel to  this  in  Greek.  Kvavof  is  lapis  lazuli  in  Theophrastus,  who 
even  mentions  the  artificial  lapis  made  in  Egypt.  But  in  the 
Homeric  poems  the  hair  of  Hector  (//.,  22,  401),  and  the  hair  and 
beard  of  Odysseus  {Od.,  16,  176),  as  well  as  the  eyebrows  of  Zeus 
(//.,  I,  528;  17,  209)  are  described  as  Kvaveai. 


Another  chapter  whereby  air  is  given. 

I  am  the  Jackal  of  jackals,  I  am  Shu,  who  convey  breezes,  in 
presence  of  the  Glorious  one  (i),  to  the  ends  of  the  sky,  to  the  ends 
of  the  earth,  to  the  ends  of  the  filaments  of  Cloud  (2). 

I  give  air  to  those  Younglings  as  I  open  my  mouth  and  gaze 
with  my  two  eyes. 


1,  The  Glorious  one.    This  is  the  most  usual  reading.    Fa  has  Ra, 

2,  Filaments  of  Cloud.     Cloud  is  the  sense,  not  the  translation  of 

no  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

i  I  v"^'  °^'  ^^  ^*  ^^  ^^^°  written,  ("^iJirf^  8  S  Ml,  which  is  the 
name  of  some  tree  or  shrub  which  has  not  been  identified.  The 
filaments  [)  ^  or  j  ^^ ,  which  are  among  its  characteristics,  point 
in  this  context  to  the  long  fibrous  forms  presented  by  the  cirrus 



Another  chapter  of  breathing. 

Oh  Tmu  !  give  me  that  delicious  air  which  is  in  thine  own 

It  is  I  who  hold  that  great  station  which  is  in  the  heart  of 

I  watch  over  that  egg  of  the  Great  Cackler,  my  strength  is  the 
strength  thereof,  my  life  is  the  life  thereof,  and  my  breath  is  the 
breath  thereof. 


Chapter  for  breathing  air  and  command  of  water  in  the  Nether 

Let  the  Great  One  (i)  be  opened  to  Osiris;  let  the  two  folding 
doors  of  Kabhu  (2)  be  thrown  wide  to  Ra. 

O  thou  great  Coverer  (3)  of  Heaven,  in  thy  name  of  Stretcher  (4) 
[of  Heaven],  grant  that  I  may  have  the  command  of  water,  even  as 
Sut  hath  command  of  force  (5)  on  the  night  of  the  Great  Disaster : 
grant  that  I  may  prevail  over  those  who  preside  at  the  Inundation, 
even  as  that  venerable  god  prevaileth  over  them,  whose  name  they 
know  not.     May  I  prevail  over  them. 

My  nostril  is  opened  in  Tattu,  and  I  go  to  rest  in  Heliopolis, 
my  dwelling,  which  the  goddess  Seshait  (6)  built,  and  which  Chnum 
raised  on  its  foundation. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  Ill 

If  the  Sky  is  at  the  North  I  sit  at  the  South ;  if  the  Sky  is  at  the 
South  I  sit  at  the  North  ;  if  the  Sky  is  at  the  West  I  sit  at  the  East ; 
and  if  the  Sky  is  at  the  East  I  sit  at  the  West. 

And  drawing  up  my  eyebrows  (7)  I  pierce  through  into  every 
place  that  I  desire. 


This  chapter  and  the  following  are  recensions  and  combinations 
of  extremely  ancient  texts. 

The  first  portion  of  the  present  chapter  follows  the  ancient  text 
of  Horhotep.  Even  at  that  early  period  two  recensions  were  in 
existence,  and  are  copied  one  after  the  other.  The  translation  here 
given  is  the  nearest  possible  approach  to  the  original  text. 

The  second  portion  (beginning  with  My  nostril)  dates  from  the 
papyri  of  the  Theban  period,  though  we  must  depend  upon  later 
authorities  for  the  entire  Section. 

1.  The  Great  One   <c:r>  J4   urit — Heaven. 

2.  KabJm  Zl  )  X    \^  v'^'wvva,  literally  the  Cc(?/ (water)  is  another 
name  for  the  Sky,*  and  is  here  in  parallelism  with  the  Great  One. 

3.  Coverer  Q       /.   r^ ,    a  name   applied   both   to   the   Nile,  as 

covering  the  land  during  the  inundation,  and  to  the  Sky  as  the 
covering  above  us.  Cf.  my  paper  on  Nile  Mythology,  P.S.B.A., 
November,  1890. 

4.  Stretcher  |  "^ ,  which  I  consider  as  a  nasalised  (per- 
haps   the   original)   form   of    D  ])    stretch.      The   papyri   read 

^  at    pet   '  Cleaver    of   the   Sky,'   but    the   word  at. 

without  the  determinative  ^'=:=>-,  may  also  mean  stretch,  as  in  the 
expression   >oC  ■g' )  -^  )  • 

5.   Force    ^     _^'"'    f(     |^  ^,  like  the  Latin  z;zV,  may, 
but  need  not,  be  of  a  criminal  nature.     The  name  of  the  goddess 

•  The   name   occurs  repeatedly  in  the  Pyramid  Texts,  and  even  the  very 
expression    i-^-^^-^  I  I  IV    ^■■?*  Unas,  375,  and  the  Litany  at  Pepi  I,  631. 

112  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

^  ®  J)  in  this  place  is  a  manifest  blunder  of  the  more  recent 


6.  The  goddess  Seshait  ^f^  ^  commonly  but  erroneously  called 

Safcli,  through  an  error  against  which  Lepsius  {Aelt.  Texte,  p.  3) 
and  Brugsch  {Zeiischr.,  1872,  p.  9)  have  both  spoken.  The  real 
name  of  the  goddess,  as  I  have  elsewhere*  shown  by  actual  variants, 

is  fl  czsa  "^N,  ^  ^  Seshait  (Teta,  1.  268)  or  fl  "^^^  ^  (Louvre, 


A.  97).    She  is  so  called  from  the  root  r-3-1 ,  ^^  Ti[o] ,  writing,  that 
being  one  of  her  occupations. 

7.   Drawing  up  my  eyebrows  I  <=^\^  rn  0  i  .V  ^^^^ 

scornful  pride,  superciliously,  like  the  Greek  ras  ocppv'i  avaavav. 



Chapter  for  breathing  air  and  command  of  water. 

Let  the  door  be  opened  to  me  1 

Who  art  thou  ?     What  is  thy  name  ? 

I  am  One  of  You  ! 

Who  is  with  thee  ? 

It  is  the  Merta. 

Turn  away  then  (i)  front  to  front,  on  entering  the  Meskat.  (2) 

He  grants  that  I  may  sail  to  the  Abode  of  those  who  have  found 
their  faces. 

Collector  of  Souls  is  the  name  of  my  Bark,  Bristler  of  Hair  is  the 
name  of  the  Oars,  Point\  is  the  name  of  its  Hatch,  Right  and 
Straight  the  name  of  the  Rudder. 

The  picture  of  it  is  the  representation  of  my  glorious  journey 
upon  the  Canal. 

Give  me  jars  of  milk  and  cakes  and  flesh  meat  at  the  House 
of  Anubis. 

If  this  chapter  is  known  he  entereth  after  having  gone  out. 

*  On  some  Religious   Texts  of  the  Early  Egyptian   Period  in    Trans,  Soc 
Bibl.  Arch.,  Vol.  IX,  p.  303. 
+  All  this  part  is  corrupt. 




The  58th  and  122nd  chapters  are  reproductions  of  the  same 
text,  the  earliest  copy  known  being  that  of  Ani. 

1.  Turn  away  then.  Merta  as  we  have  seen  is  the  name  given  to 
the  goddess  pair  Isis  and  Nephthys.  It  is  therefore  not  possible  to 
account  for  the   masculine  pronoun   ^^     as  having  reference  to 

Merta.      ^^  must  be  taken  in  the    sense  of  ideo,  idcirco,  then, 

2.  Meskat,  or  according  to  another  reading  Meschenit. 


Chapter  for  breathing  air  and  command  of  water. 

Oh  thou  Sycomore  of  Nut,  give  me  of  the  water  and  of  the  wind 
which  are  within  thee. 

It  is  I  who  hold  that  abode  which  is  in  Heracleopolis,  I  watch 
over  that  Egg  of  the  Great  Cackler.  My  strength  is  the  strength 
thereof,  my  life  the  life  thereof,  and  my  breath  the  breath  thereof. 


On  the  mythological  tree  in  heaven  which  produces  both  wind 
and  tvater,  that  is  the  rain-cloud,  see  my  Egyptian  Mythology, 
particularly  with  reference  to  Mist  and  Cloud,  in  Trans.  Soc.  Bibl. 
Arch.,  Vol.  VIII.  i- 

The  same  kind  of  imagery  is  still  current  in  Europe.  German 
authorities  tell  us  about  the  '  Wetterbaum,'  which  in  some  places  is 
called  '  Abraham's  Tree,'  in  others,  '  Adam's  Tree.'  The  Yggdrasill 
myth  is  supposed  to  have  the  same  origin.  The  Rainbow  is  the 
heavenly  Mountain  Ash  of  a  well  known  Swedish  and  Esthonian 
riddle.  The  water  from  heaven  w-as  supposed  in  Egypt  to  be 
especially  refreshing  for  the  dead-. 


Another  Chapter. 

Let  the  doors  of  Heaven  be  open  to  me,  let  the  doors  of  Kabhu 
be  thrown  wide  to  me ;  by  Thoth  and  by  Hapi,  the  great  Coverer  of 
Heaven,  at  daybreak. 


114  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Grant  ye  that  I  may  have  the  command  of  water  even  as  the 
mighty  Sut  had  the  command  of  his  enemies  on  the  Day  of  Disaster 
to  the  Earth.  May  I  prevail  over  the  Long-armed  ones  in  their 
corners,  *  even  as  that  glorious  and  ready  god  prevaileth  over  them, 
whose  name  they  know  not.  May  I  prevail  over  the  Long-armed 


V  Another  Chapter. 

I,  even  I,  am  he  who  proceedeth  from  the  Weeper  (i),  and 
whose  attribute  is  Overflowing.  (2)  I  (3)  have  the  command  of  it  as 


I.  The  great  Weeper  is  primarily  Heaven,  and  it  is  so  in  this 
place.  The  Nile  god  who  proceeds  from  it  also  bears  the  same 

Jn     '^^        AAAAAA 
0        ^^  AW^. 

3.  /.  The  original  is  in  the  third  person ;  in  reference  to  "  he 
who  proceedeth,"  &c. 

Chapter  LXH. 
Chapter  whereby  water  is  drank  in  the  JVetherworld. 

Let  the  Great  One  be  opened  to  Osiris ;  let  the  Kabhu  be  thrown 
wide  to  Thoth,  the  Coverer,  Lord  of  the  Horizon  in  his  name  of  the 
Divider  of  the  Earth. 

May  I  have  command  of  the  w-ater  even  as  the  might  of  Sutu 
had  over  his  enemies. 

It  is  I  who  traverse  the  Heaven  : 

I  am  Ra  : 

I  am  the  god  in  Lion  form  : 

I  am  the  Steer;  (i) 

I  eat  the  haunch,  and  pierce  through  the  joint.! 

*  The  four  cardinal  points;  the  Eastern  and  the  Western   '^  ^— R  >  ^"d 

the  Southern-and  the  Northern 

1=^         a^ 

t  The  sacrificial  offerings  C^V  and  "^^3 . 


I  go  round  the  Sechit-Aarru. 

There  hath  been  assigned  to  me  Eternity,  without  end. 
And  lo  !  I  am  the  Heir  of  Endless  Time,  and  my  attribute  is 


I.    The  Steer ^      4?  ^V^*^^^^^  5^  smau,  a  solar  title  frequent  in 
the  Pyramid  texts.     His  mother.  Heaven,  is  called    1  j^  7r% 

<::i=>,  or  (as  the  name  is  written  Teta  359)     I 
She  is  called  the  Spouse  on  the  Mountain       U        ,   and  by  a  play 

upon  words 

The  usual  meaning  of     I  Vv    ]U  jJi   like  that  of  the  Greek  x^o7 

or  the  Hebrew  fc^tLH  ,  is  the  light  green  shoot  of  plants  in  spring, 

and  this  is  the  key  to  the  sense  of  the  proper  name.  The  goddess 
Demeter  had  a  temple  at  Athens  under  the  name  of  Chloe,  and  it  is 
in  allusion  to  this  that  Sophocles  calls  her  ei-xKoos  {Oed.  Col.  1600). 

This  Egyptian  goddess  was   ^"^^^  J©,   a  principal  deity  at 

Enchebit,  she  had  the  White  Crown  and  the  wig  with  two  plumes. 
She  is  described  as  having  drooping  dugs,  and  as  suckling  her  son. 
Cf.  with  this  information  from  Unas  the  whole  chap'-er  beginning 
with  line  283  of  Pepi  I. 


Chapter  whereby  one  is  not  burnt  with  fire,  but  drinketh  water  in 
the  Netherworld. 

0  Bull  of  Amenta  !  let  me  be  borne  to  thee  ! 

1  am  that  Rudder  of  Ra,  wherewith  he  conveyeth  the  Ancient  (i) 

I  am  not  burnt,  I  am  not  consumed. 

I  am  Babai,  the  eldest  son  of  Osiris,  who  striketh  the  eye  of 
every  god  (2)  in  Heliopolis. 

1  am  the  Heir,  the  primary  power  of  motion  and  of  rest  (3). 

Q  2 

ii6  EOOK  OF  thf:  dead. 

I  have  made  firm  my  name,  and  have  preserved  it  that  I  may 
have  Hfe  through  it. 

Chapter  whereby  otie  is  twt  boiled  in  water. 

I  am  that  ready  Rudder  wherewith  Ra  conveyeth  the  Ancient 
ones,  and  I  raise  the  effluxes  (4)  of  Osiris  to  the  Tank  from  flames 
impassable  ;  a  wrecked  one,  (5)  but  not  to  be  consumed. 

I  lie  helpless  as  a  dead  person,  (6)  and  I  arrive  at  the  lair  of  the 
Lion  who  defieth  slaughter,  ...  (7)  following  the  road  by  which  I 
set  out. 


The  Chapters  63A  and  63B  are  united  into  one  in  the  later  MSS. 
without  any  other  division  than  ^^^,  indicative  of  a  different 
reading.  None  of  the  early  papyri  contains  both  chapters.  The 
text  of  63B  is  extremely  corrupt,  and  without  rational  interpretation. 

T.  /  am  that  Rudder  of  Ra,  7vherewith  he  conveyeth  the  Ancient 
ones.      This  passage  is  twice  found  in  Horhotep    (311   and  329), 

the  word  for  Rudder  being  written    ^\     Tk     C  ^^-t^  . 

2.  Who  striketh  the  eye,  [  -^-^  \  .  The  peaceful  determina- 
tive may  perhaps  be  intended  to  diminish  the  force  of  the  very 
expressive  \  in  the  verb  of  striking.  But  I  believe  that  this 
passage  may  fairly  be  illustrated  by  the  words  of  Lucretius  IV, 
324  and  following  : — 

Splendida  porro  oculi  fugitant  vitantque  tueri, 
Sol  etiam  caecat,  contra  si  tendere  pergas. 
Praeterea  splendor  quicumque  est  acer  adurit 
Saepe  oculos  ideo  quod  semina  possidet  ignis 
Multa,  dolorem  oculis  quae  gignunt  insinuando. 

3.  The  primary  power  of  fjiotion  and  of  rest.  These  words  have 
a  modern  sound,  but  they  express  the  sense  of  the  original,      ^^ 


BOOK    OF   THE   DEAD.  117 

4 .  Effluxes^  \\  rt3  ,  the  /x^Vs  t^^  vital  sap,  as  it  were,  of  the 

body  of  Osiris,  which  is  the  source  of  Hfe  both  to  men  and  to 
gods,*  and  in  default  of  which  his  own  heart  (Unas  12)  would 
cease  to  beat.  It  is  celebrated  in  all  the  mythological  texts  extant 
from  the  time  of  the  Pyramids  down  to  the  latest  inscriptions  of 
Denderah  and  Edfu,  and  even  in  Demotic  documents.  |  All 
moisture  was  supposed  to  proceed  from  it,  and  the  Nile  was 
naturally  identified  with  it. 

In   the    Pyramid  texts  (Pepi   66)   X   \>'v\'\\    ^^ 
\\      is  put  in  parallelism  with         ^  ^      |. 

5.  A  wrecked  one.    So  I  understand  ^^^^  from  Chapter  125,  38, 

but  the  whole  context  here  is  so  doubtful  that  no  translator  who 
respects  himself  would  warrant  the  sense. 

6.  /  lie  helpless  like  a  dead  person.  P  AA  ,  heft  is  the 
condition  of  an  infant  on  the  knees  of  its  nurse.  And  I  understand 
li\  V  ^  ^"^  ^'■^  ^^^^  known  euphemistic  application  to  the  dead. 

7.  -»^  Yf^  ^-  -^  ^^  "^^  X!&o%\.  probable  reading  here,  but  it  is  a 
hapax  legomenon  with  nothing  in  the  context  to  explain  it. 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day  from  the  Netherworld. 

I  am  Yesterday,  To-day,  and  To-morrow,  for  I  am  born  again  and 
again  ;  mine  is  the  unseen  Force,  (i)  which  createth  the  gods  and 
giveth  food  to  those  in  the  Tuat  (2)  at  the  West  of  Heaven  ;  I  am  the 
Eastern  Rudder,  (3)  the  Lord  of  Two  Faces,  who  seeth  by  his  own 

*  In  one  of  the  ancient  chapters  preserved  in  the  tomb  of  Horhotep,  the 
deceased,  speaking  in  the  person  of  Horus,  talks  (319)  of  quenching  his  thirst 

with  the  ^^  _^  [^  of  his  father  Osiris. 

t  See  a  very  interesting  passage  in  Pap.  Rhind  4,  4,  with  I'rugsch's 

Il8  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

light;  the  Lord  of  Resurrections,  who  cometh  forth  from  the  dusk 
and  whose  birth  is  from  the  House  of  Death. 

Ye  two  divine  Hawks  (4)  upon  your  gables,  who  are  giving 
attentive  heed  to  the  matter  ;  ye  who  accompany  the  bier  to  the 
tomb,  and  who  conduct  the  ship  of  Ra,  advancing  onwards  from  the 
highest  place  of  the  Ark  in  heaven— the  Lord  of  the  Shrine  (5) 
which  standeth  in  the  centre  of  the  Earth ; 

He  is  I,  and  I  am  He.  (6) 

Mine  is  the  radiance  in  which  Ptah  fioateth  over  his  firma- 
ment. (7) 

Oh  Ra,  who  smileth  cheerfully,  and  whose  heart  is  delighted 
with  the  perfect  order  of  this  day  as  thou  enterest  into  Heaven  and 
comest  forth  in  the  East :  the  Ancients  and  those  who  are  gone 
before  acclaim  thee. 

Let  thy  paths  be  made  pleasant  for  me  ;  let  thy  ways  be  made 
wide  for  me  to  traverse  the  earth  and  the  expanse  of  Heaven. 

Shine  thou  upon  me,  oh  gracious  Power;  (8)  as  I  draw  nigh  to 
the  divine  words  which  my  ears  shall  hear  in  the  Tuat ;  let  no  pollu- 
tion of  my  mother  be  upon  me  ;  deliver  me,  protect  me  from  him 
who  closeth  his  eyes  at  twilight  and  bringeth  to  an  end  in  darkness. 

I  am  the  Overflower,  and  Kam-ura  (9)  is  my  name  :  I  bring  to 
its  fulness  (10)  the  Force  which  is  hidden  within  me. 

Oh  thou  Great  One,  who  art  Shoreless,  (11)  and  callest  upon 
the  Powers  of  the  South,  at  the  moment  when  the  god  is  carried 
forth,  saying  : — 

"Behold  the  Lord  of  his  Flood;  see,  the  Shoulder  is  fastened 
(12)  upon  his  neck  and  the  Haunch  upon  the  head  of  the  West" 
offerings  which  the  two  goddesses  of  the  West  (13)  present  to  me 
when  the  weeping  bursteth  forth  from  me  at  what  I  witness,  as  I  am 
borne  round  on  the  Tenait  in  Abydos,  (14)  and  the  bolts  made  fast 
on  the  gateways  above  your  images  are  in  the  reach  of  thine  hand 
and  from  within  thee. 

Thy  face  is  as  that  of  a  hound  whose  nostril  sniffeth  at  the  covert 
to  which  my  feet  convey  me. 

Anubis  is  my  bearer,  for  he  who  luUeth  me  to  rest  (16)  is  the 
god  in  Lion  form. 

Do  thou  save  me  ! 

I  am  He  who  cometh  forth  as  one  who  breaketh  through  the 
door ;  and  everlasting  is  the  Daylight  which  his  will  hath  created. 


"  I  know  the  deep  waters  "  is  my  name. 

I  satisfy  the  desires  of  the  Glorified,  who  are  by  millions  and 
hundreds  of  thousands  .  .  .  .*  I  am  the  guardian  of  their  interests, 
actively  working  at  the  hours  of  the  day  and  adjusting  the  arms  of 
Sahu  ;  twelve  in  circling  round,  uniting  hands,  each  of  them  with 
another.  But  the  sixth  of  them  in  the  Tuat  is  the  '  Hour  of  the 
overthrow  of  the  Sebau,'  which  cometh  here  in  triumph ;  the  same 
which  maketh  way  into  the  Tuat ;  the  same  which  is  yoked  with 

I  shine  forth  as  the  Lord  of  Life  and  the  glorious  order  of  this 
day  :  the  blood  which  purifieth  and  the  vigorous  sword-strokes  by 
which  the  Earth  is  made  one. 

I  sever  the  horns  (17)  from  those  who  unite  in  resistance  to  me  ; 
the  hidden  ones  who  rise  up  in  opposition  against  me  ;  those  who  go 
upon  their  bellies. 

I  come  as  the  ambassador  of  the  Lord  of  lords  to  avenge  the 
cause  of  Osiris  in  this  place.     Let  not  t  the  Eye  consume  its  tears. 

I  am  the  Guide  of  the  house  of  Him  who  dwelleth  in  his 

I  am  come  from  Sechem  to  Heliopolis  to  inform  the  Bennu  of 
the  matters  of  the  Tuat. 

Oh  goddess  Aucherit,  who  concealest  that  is  within  thee,  but 
raisest  up  forms,  like  Chepera,  grant  that  I  may  come  forth  and  see 
the  orb  of  the  sun,  and  walk  forth  in  the  presence  of  the  great  god, 
who  is  Shu  and  abideth  for  eternity. 

I  travel  on  high,  I  tread  upon  the  firmament,  I  raise  a  flame 
with  the  daylight  which  mine  eye  hath  made,  and  I  fly  forward 
towards  the  splendours  of  the  Glorified  in  presence  of  Ra  daily, 
giving  life  to  every  man  who  treadeth  on  the  lands  (18)  which  are 
upon  the  earth. 

Oh  thou  who  leapest  forth,  conductor  of  the  Shades  and 
Glorified  ones  from  the  Earth,  let  the  fair  path  to  the  Tuat  be 
granted  to  me,  which  is  made  in  behalf  of  those  who  are  in  faint 
condition  and  for  the  restoration  of  those  who  are  in  pain. 

Who  art  thou,  who  devourest  in  Amenta  ? 

I  am  He  who  presideth  in  Restau.     "He  who  entereth  in  his 

*  The  text  is  too  corrupt  here  for  any  plausible  translation, 
t  Aoi  is  omilted  in  many  copies. 

120  BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD. 

own  name,  and  cometh  forth  in  quest ;   the  Lord  of  the  Eternity  of 
the  Earth  "  is  my  name. 

She  who  hath  conceived  hath  set  down  her  burden ;  7ohich 
turneth  round  before  descending ;  the  door  is  shut  at  t/ie  wall  which 
is  reversed .  .  .* 

His  Eye  hath  been  given  to  Horus  and  his  face  brighteneth  at 
the  dawning  of  the  day. 

I  am  not  exhausted  :  I  become  the  Lion  god  and  the  palm 
flowers  of  Shu  are  upon  me. 

I  am  not  one  who  drowneth. 

Blessed  are  they  who  see  (19)  the  Bourne  :  (20)  beautiful  is  the 
god  of  the  motionless  heart  who  causeth  the  stay  of  the  Overflowing. 

Behold  !  there  cometh  forth  the  Lord  of  Life,  Osiris  thy  support, 
who  abideth  day  after  day. 

I  embrace  the  Sycomore,  (21)  I  am  united  to  the  Sycomore. 

I  part  the  two  deities  of  morning  that  I  may  come  to  hold  the 
Eye,  (22)  and  cause  it  to  rest  in  its  place. 

I  am  come  to  see  Ra  at  his  setting,  and  I  unite  with  the  breeze 
at  his  coming  forth :  my  two  hands  are  pure  for  adoring  him. 

ISIay  I  be  restored  !     INLay  I  be  restored  ! 

I  fly  up  to  heaven  and  I  alight  upon  the  earth ;  and  mine  eye 
turneth  back  there  towards  the  traces  of  my  footsteps. 

I  am  the  offspring  of  Yesterday;  the  tunnels  {2;^)  of  the  earth 
have  given  me  birth,  and  I  am  revealed  at  my  appointed  time. 

May  I  be  under  shelter  from  the  warlike  handed  god  who 
cometh  behind  me,  may  my  flesh  be  sound  and  may  my  glories  be 
a  protection  to  the  limbs  of  one  who  waiteth  for  the  purpose  of 
taking  counsel.     May  the  Cycle  of  the  gods  listen  to  what  I  say. 

To  be  said  on  corning  forth  by  day  ;  that  one  may  not  be  kept  back 
on  the  path  of  the  Tuat,  whether  on  efitering  or  on  coming  forth  ;  for 
taking  all  the  forms  which  one  desireth  ;  and  that  the  soul  of  the  person 
'  die  not  a  second  time. 

If  then  this  chapter  be  known  the  person  is  made  triutnphant  upon 
earth  [and  in  the  Netherworld]  and  he  performeth  all  things  which 
are  done  by  the  living. 

This  chapter  was  discovered  on  a  plinth  of  the  god  of  the  Hermu 

*  The  copies  of  this  paragraph  are  as  discordant  as  they  are  unintelligible. 
It  is  idle  to  guess  at  the  meaning  until  a  better  text  can  be  discovered. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  121 

Bark  (23)  by  a  master  builder  of  the  wall  in  the  time  of  King  Septa, 
the  Victorious.  (24) 

This  composition  is  a  secret ;  not  to  be  seen  or  looked  at. 

Recite  the  chapter  when  sanctified  and  pure ;  not  approaching 
women,  not  eating  goat^s  flesh  or  fish. 


This  is  one  of  the  most  important  as  it  is  one  of  the  most  ancient 
chapters.  The  text  of  it  was  aheady  doubtful  at  the  time  of  the 
Xlth  dynasty.  It  had  been  handed  down  in  two  recensions,  both 
of  which  were  inscribed  on  the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhotep,  the 
discovery  of  one  of  these  being  attributed  to  the  time  of  King  Septa 
of  the  1st  dynasty,  and  that  of  the  second  to  the  time  of  Menkaura, 
the  king  of  the  third  pyramid.  These  two  recensions  are  also  found 
in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni.  The  MSS.  present  innumerable  various 
readings,  few  of  which  are  of  the  slightest  value.  These  have  been 
collected,  as  far  as  they  could  be  discovered,  in  the  French  and 
some  other  Museums  in  1876,  in  a  very  admirable  work  upon  the 
chapter,  by  M.  Paul  Guieysse,*  who  has  translated  and  commented 
upon  it  and  and  all  the  variations  of  it  known  to  him  at  the  time. 
Since  then  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  has  been  published,  and  M. 
Naville  has  given  all  the  variants  found  in  the  few  existing  papyri  of 
the  best  period.  I  have  notes  of  the  readings  of  the  papyri  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  also  those  of  a  cast  (now  in  the  British 
Museum)  taken  from  a  block  in  serpentine,  belonging  to  the 
Museum  of  the  Hermitage  in  St.  Petersburg. 

With  such  light  as  could  be  derived  from  these  extremely  diver- 
gent authorities  I  have  done  my  best  (taking  as  the  basis  of  my 
translation  the  texts  in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  and  the  rubric  in  which 
the  discovery  is  ascribed  to  the  time  of  king  Septa)  towards  ex- 
hibiting the  chapter  in  as  intelligible  a  form  as  seems  to  me  possible. 
Some  passages  as  yet  defy  translation  in  consequence  of  the  cor- 
ruption of  the  text. 

Some  years  before  his  untimely  death  M.  de  Rouge  read  his 
translation  of  this  chapter  before  the  Academic  des  Sciences.  It  is 
much  to  be  lamented  that  this  has  never  been  published.  I  have, 
in  addition  to  the  versions  of  other  scholars,   a   copy  of  one  by 

*  Eludes  Egyptologiques  ;  sixieme  livraison. 


122  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Mr.  Goodwin,  with  whom  I  read  this  and  other  chapters  nearly 
thirty  years  ago.  But  this  kind  of  literature  is  not  one  of  those  in 
which  his  marvellous  sagacity  showed  to  advantage. 

In  reading  this  and  almost  every  other  chapter  of  the  Book  of 
the  Dead,  it  is  absolutely  necessary  to  bear  in  mind  that  different 
divine  names  do  not  necessarily  imply  different  personalities. 
A  name  expresses  but  one  attribute  of  a  person  or  thing,  and  one 
person  having  several  attributes  may  have  several  names.  It  is  not 
implied  in  this  chapter  that  the  Sun  is  the  Nile  or  the  Inundation, 
but  that  the  same  invisible  force  which  is  manifested  in  the  solar 
phenomena  is  that  which  produces  the  inundation ;  He  is  the 
Inundator.     But  he  has  many  other  names  and  titles. 

In  this  chapter,  as  in  others  before  it,  the  speaker  at  one  time 
talks  in  terms  identifying  him  with  some  divinit)-,  and  at  another  as 
a  simple  mortal  petitioning  some  favour. 

'=^'^        c=s=i    X     1  -9  ,  .    ,  -f_    ^  « 

1.  c>  U  (*^- ,  1  <^^^  or,  at  a  later  period  ^^    Vs\  , 

signifies  ofie  whose  force  is  concealed  or  unseen.  It  is  a  theological 
term,  frequent  at  all  periods  of  the  Egyptian  religion,  and  implies 
that  the  deity  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  its  external  manifestation. 
The  Sun  that  we  see  hides  as  truly  as  it  reveals  the  Sun-god ;  who, 
as  this  chapter  shows,  has  other  manifestations. 

2.  Those  in  the  Tuat  ^  ^^  ^—^  ^  i  called  in  the  Pyramid 
Texts     IK    ^  V\         )  Pepi  Ij  1815.     The  more  recent  texts  read 

^  "^  ^  1   "  the  gods  of  the  West." 

3.  Cf  Pepi  I,  174. 

4.  Tjc'O  divine  Hawks  upon  yotir  gables.     They  are  mentioned 

in  the  Pyramid  Texts*  as     J       J     mmO   O^,    Teta,  183. 

They  represent  the  two  divisions.  North  and  South,  of  the  kingdom 
of  Horus.  Cf.  Rochemonteix,  £:dfu,  p.  55  and  many  other  such 
passages  as  that  found  there. 

5.  The  Shrine  which  standeth  in  the  centre  of  the  Earth.  This 
Shrine  is  also  mentioned  in  the  '  Book  of  Hades.'  Cf  Bonomi, 
Sarc.  4c. 

*  Here  as  in  the  name  of  i^"  ''•  Tmu,  the  long  sign  is  written  first  though 
read  last. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 23 

6.  He  is  /,  atid  T  am  He.     Cf.  the  Pyramid  Text—"  Oh  Ra 

Teta  is  thou,  and  thou  art  Teta  .  .  .  .  ,  thou  risest  as  Teta,  and  Teta 
riseth  in  thee,  etc.,"  Teta,  337. 

7.  Ptah  fioateth  over  his  fir7nament.  The  meaning  of  the  verb  is 
shown  in  early  texts  by  the  determinative,  as  in  the  parallel  passage 
of  the  17th  chapter. 

8.  Oh  gracious  Potver,    ^^^  —  •      The   adjective  is  also 

written  #¥\  ._A-^.  The  usual  determinative  "i^iC^  has  its  origin 
in  the  hieratic  form  of  ^,  see  Prisse  Papyrus. 

9.  Kam-urii  ^     1  ^^^^  -^^/www,  'The  great  Extender,"  a  name 

applied  to  Osiris,  as  the  Nile.  "Thy  two  sisters,  Isis  and  Nephthys, 
come  to  thee,  and  they  convey  to  thee  Kamit  urit  [the  great  Extent] 
in  thy  name  oi  Kam-urd  [the  great  Extender]."     Teta,  274. 

10.  /  bring  to  its  fulness,  etc.  The  yearly  inundation  is  the 
mature  result  of  the  innate  force  belonging  to  the  god ;  the  evep^/ij^ia. 
of  his  ei'epyei'a..  This  translation  remains  the  same  whether  the 
reading  be  ^>^  or  [q1. 

1 1.  Shoreless,  ■'-^  "^^^  |^^.  ^^  or  1 — t  ,  implies  an  enclosed 
space,  a  basin  or  channel  with  fixed  limits.  The  inundation  has  no 
determinate  banks.  Its  course  is  from  south  to  north,  hence  the 
reference  to  the  deities  of  the  South. 

12.  Shoulder  and  Haunch.  The  usual  sacrificial  joints.  This 
passage  was  at  an  early  date  added  to  the  paragraph  which  opens 
the  chapter. 

ci—  n       V 

It  is  said  of  Ra  at  Edfu 

1 3.   The  two  goddesses  of  the  West,  - 


.     "  He  setteth  m 

the  West."     The  deities  in  question  are  Isis  and  Nephthys,  who  are 
also  the  deities  of  the  East  or  Sunrise  under  the  name  of  (  - 
•^^^-11^;  Unas,  461. 

/VWVNA  /W\^/\A 

In  the  passage  of  the  Pyramid  Texts  just  referred  to  it  is  stated 
that  these  "  divinities  in  Ununait  open  their  arms  to  the  god  as  he 
stands  up  erect  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  firmament." 

Ununait  is  the  place  of  rising,  springing  up. 

14.   The  Tenait  in  Abydos.     This  feast  has  already  been  men- 

R    2 

124  BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD. 

tioned  in  Chapter  I.  It  was  one  of  those  commemorative  and 
representative  of  the  death  of  Osiris,  of  his  mutilation,  mummifica- 
tion and  burial.  Prescriptions  for  carrying  it  out  are  found  in  the 
great  text  at  Uenderah,  published  by  Diimichen  and  Mariette,  and 
translated  by  Brugsch,  and  Loret,  and  (in  part)  by  Diimichen. 

Tenait  is  also  the  name  of  certain  days  of  the  month,  and  (Teta, 
229)  of  the  fifth  hour  of  the  day. 

15.  The  bolts  made  fast  on  the  gatezcays.     The  Pyramid  Texts  on 
behalf  of  the  deceased  invoke  the  ^^\  (,  ^=^^  ^v  ^s.  '^W 

<=i^   V  [F"'  nnn'    '^^^    ^^°'^   which    closes    the  gateway   of 

Heaven,'  with  a  prayer  that  it  may  open  to  him  (Teta,  235,  compare 
line  200). 

16.  He  who   lidleth   me,  /   vk  ^f*-      The   word   is 

here   in   the    dual,    as    corresponding    to    the   double   lion.       Cf. 

important  variant  "Q  |X    g^  is  found  at  Edfu  (Rochemonteix,  p.  78). 

17.  I  sever  the  horns.      Cf.  Psalm  Ixxv,  11. 

18.  The  la?ids.     The  Egyptian  word  varies  in  the  texts.     The 

most  authorized  reading    1     ^     is  used  in  different  senses  :   one  of 

which  (and  perhaps  the  original  one)  is  put,  put  on  ;  ponere,  locare, 
induere,  figere,  addere.  Here  it  would  seem  from  the  context  to 
mean  locality,  post,  spot  of  earth.     And  I  am  inclined  to  identify 

I  m  this  place  with  the  well-known  \>,  or  ,  as  an  equiva- 

\>  111  \>         sss 

lent  if  not  as  a  phonetic  variant. 

19.  Blessed  are  they  who  see  T  ^^W"^^^^  written  T 
%^1\  _^  %\  "^  in  the  Pyramid  Texts  (Unas,  584,  Teta.  42, 
Pepi  1, 181  and  199),  where  it  is  in  parallelism  with  v\  \\  . 

20.  The  Bourne,  [  M.     On  the  goddess  [  \  q,  Menait, 

cf.  Teta  2S8,  Pepi  I,  70,  154,  163. 

21.  The  Sycamore  of  Dawn  repeatedly  mentioned  in  the  Book  of 
the  Dead.      The  Pyramid  Texts  also  (Pepi  I,  174)  speak  of  the  tall 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 25 

Sycomore  of  Sut  in  the  Eastern  Sky  on  which  the  gods  congregate 
and  sit,  in  expectation  of  the  arrival  of  the  Glorified  one. 

21.    To  hold  the  Eye,     m    \\\>\  ^^^^"-      Later  texts, 

like  the  Turin  copy,  have  k      fl^^-      The  two  verbs  here  (like 
I    J  ®  1 1      which  is  also  found  as  a  variant)  are  synonymous  in  the 
sense  of  embracing,  holding,'''  enclosing,  fastening,  staying,  proppiiig. 

According  to  the  ancient  myth  Sut  deprived  Horus  of  his  Eye, 
which  was  recovered  by  Thoth,  and  by  him  restored  to  its  owner. 
The  following  passage  from  an  inscription  at  Edfu  (Rochemonteix, 
p.  25)  is  in  strict  accordance  with  the  oldest  mythological  texts. 

ii  "J  u  s^  ^ -^  c.  ^^.^  sp 

I  =^=i  Wv    / c^     "Asten,  who  restored  the 

Eye  of  Horus  to  its  Lord,  who  preserved  the  Eye  {ut'at)  from 
suffering  harm,  who  made  fast  the  Eye  {ttutrit)  in  its  place,  and  who 
pacified  Horus  with  his  Eye."     The  different  synonyms  designating 

the  Eye  are  important  as  showing  that  the  word  ^v^  i  ^^.   ^^   is 

here  used  in  the  sense  of  the  daily  light  of  the  sun. 

The  other  part  of  the  same  text  as  Edfu  gives  additional  variants. 

®  I  I  Ol     £- — 1  1       /VV\A/vA     H—     " ^  S\vF   J  J     AAAAAA      (f—    '        ''       i 

^|\   "^^^^and^^^<:^  ij^^n.     Here  the 

Eye  is  called  •¥■    '^    ,  'Hr  -^^ ,   and  ^    .      But   in   other 

1   -^^      ci  <rrr>  -C2>- 

places  the  Ut'at  stands  for  a  less  frequent  moment  of  the  solar  pro- 
gress.    In  the  Pyramid  Texts  for  instance    ®    O  V^  L  \^  ^ 

"  holder  of  the  Southern  Eye  of  Horus"  might  perhaps  designate  the 
Summer  Solstice.  And  a  later  text  connects  the  Eye  with  the 
opening  of  the  year. 

The  priestly  title  |;^|,  'holder  of  the  Eye,'  is  like  all  such 

titles,  that  of  the  divinity  whom  the  priest  personates.      The  god 

*  C/".  the  expressions     O     0 1 J         ^s,    Teta,   258,   262,   and     ® 

n     n  ^^  6M!i  yv./v^/v\   POv   LU  1—  _!  yvwvNA 

.        1    I         S  is  not  a  mere  gate,  but  a  hold,  or  keep. 

zr2         -^)  olZl 

126  BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD. 

himself  is  hieroglyphically  represented  by  the  sign  ^^u  of  an  ape 
holding  the  Eye. 

"•  ^^^  ^--^^'  ^  <^  f!T'  ^  ^  S'  ^''''  ^91 ; 

y\<>^3  F       Rjj]  ,  Horhotep,  213.      See  my  note  Froc. 
Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  1873,  p.  385. 

The  Coptic  AKOpi,  which  is  generally  supposed  to  be  a  serpent, 

is  more  probably  an  earth-worm,  like  S^^ 

\  "^  ^'^'  he  who 

The  Pyramid  Texts  have  another  word  which  I  understand  of 
the  tunnels  through  which  the  Sun,  Moon,  and  Stars    pass  from 

West  to  East,  n  ^^1  *^=°^  ■>  ^s  opposed  to  X  ] T^ ,  the  paths 

of  the  upper  world.     Anubis  is  called      11      ><f^  b=^^=^  (Pepi  I, 

80),  and  these  passages  are  (1  -  -  o  V^  0  ®  ^,  'v  Y  Y  ^^'^''  ^^^' 
"  between  the  two  divine  forms  "  (a  lion  at  each  end).  C/.  Teta,  319, 
where  it  is  said  of  the  Stars  f  ^v    f  1v  |  *s'=°=fe'    '  ^^^^  ^^^ 

r  e  e     \\  ^,  o  .c^::^      '     ,  that  at  their  triumphant  course 

through  the  tunnels  the  bones  of  the  Akeru  gods  quake 

"1        ffl 

23.  The  god  of  the  Hennu  Bark,  —  ^ 

resides  in  the  \    vl      ^A£,  ship  referred  to  in  chapter  I.      The  god 

of  this  ship  is  commonly  named  Sekaru  in  the  texts,  but  Hennu  is 
also  one  of  the  names  of  Horus.  On  the  connection  between  the 
two  names  see  Teta,  line  270. 

24.  King  Septa   (    """hr^   )   of  the  1st  dynasty,   who   has   been 

identified  with  the  Usaphais  of  Manetho. 

The  other  account  of  the  discovery  of  the  chapter  is  thus  de- 
scribed in  the  rubric  of  the  second  recension. 

This  chapter  was  discovered  at  Hermopolis  upon  a  slab  of  alabaster, 
inscribed  in  blue,  under  the  feet  of  this  god  [Osiris],  at  the  time  of  King 
Menkard,  the  victorious,  by  the  royal  prince  Hortataf  when  he  was 
journeying  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  the  temples  ....  *  and  he 

*  There  is  no  certainly  about  the  text  of  the  next  few  words. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  12/ 

carried  off  the  slab  in  the  royal  chariot^  when  he  saw  what  was 
on  it. 

The  rubric  farther  prescribes  that  a  scarab  of  hard  stone  en- 
circled and  purified  with  gold  *  should  be  placed  upon  the  place  of 
the  heart  of  the  deceased,  and  that  the  '  words  of  power '  contained 
in  the  30th  chapter,  "  Heart  mine  of  my  mother,"  etc.,  should  be 
repeated.  The  gold  leaf  or  plate  has  been  found  on  some  scarabs, 
but  has  disappeared  from  nearly  all. 

The  'Ritual  of  Parma,'  which  speaks  of  two  metals,  1  ^^"^^ 

smu,  and  silver  (the  latter  for  the  rim),  directs  that  the  scarab  should 
be  put  at  the  throat  of  the  deceased.  According  to  this  authority  it 
was  the  30th  chapter,  not  the  64th,  which  was  discovered  by  Prince 
Hortataf  in  his  inspectorial  tour. 


Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day  and prevaileth  over  the 


Oh  thou  who  shinest  forth  from  the  Moon,  thou  who  givest  light 
from  the  Moon,  let  me  come  forth  at  large  amid  thy  train,  let  me  be 
revealed  as  one  of  those  in  glory.  Let  the  Tuat  be  opened  for  me. 
Here  am  I :  let  me  come  forth  upon  this  day,  and  be  glorified.  Let 
the  glorified  ones  grant  to  me  that  I  live  and  that  mine  adversaries 
be  brought  to  me  in  bonds  before  the  divine  Circle  ;  may  the  Genius 
of  my  mother  be  propitiated  thereby,  as  I  rise  up  upon  my  feet  with 
a  sceptre  of  gold  in  my  hand,  and  lop  off  the  limbs.  May  I  rise  up, 
a  Babe  [from  between]  the  knees  of  Sothis,  when  they  close 
togethe  .  (i) 


The  first  part  of  this  chapter  is  nearly  identical  with  Chapter  2. 
No  copy  of  it  is  found  in  the  papyri  of  the  older  period.  In  place 
of  it  M.  Naville  has  published  a  chapter  bearing  the  same  title,  and 
which  is  found  in  five  ancient  papyri.  These  texts  however  are 
extremely  discordant  and  corrupt,  and  in  the  more  difificult,  and  to 
us  more  interesting,  passages  must  have  been  quite  unintelligible  to 

*  I  understand  by  this  that  the  gold  is  intended  to  keep  the  scarab  free  from 

128  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

the  copyists.  The  second  word,  for  instance,  of  line  8  is  ri  in  Ca, 
the  corresponding  word  is  .  .  htu  in  Za,  tai  in  Pb^  rati  in  la  and  ////  in 
Aa.  A  discrepancy  not  less  violent  is  encountered  after  the  next 
three  words.  The  oldest  extant  form  of  the  chapter  is  that  of  Aa, 
the  papyrus  of  Nebseni ;  it  is  also  the  shortest,  and  the  other  forms 
appear  to  me  to  exhibit  signs  of  interpolation.  But  M.  Naville  was 
quite  right  in  taking  the  text  of  Ca  as  his  basis  for  the  collation  of 
the  texts. 

I.  This  whole  passage,  as  it  stands,  in  the  MSS.  is  extremely 
obscure,  and  I  can  only  make  sense  of  it  by  conjecturing  that  a 
preposition  has  been  omitted  by  the  copyists. 

The  knees  of  a  goddess  are  frequently  mentioned  in  connection 
with  the  birth  of  a  divinity.  Here  the  Babe  is  mentioned  {cf.  opening 
of  Chapter  42),  and  the  closing  of  the  knees.  The  word  dnh,  'live,' 
has  for. its  primitive  meaning  '  rise  up,'  and  it  is  in  this  sense  that 
I  translate  it  here. 


Chapter  whereby  o?te  cometh  forth  by  day. 

I  know  that  I  .have  been  conceived  by  Sechit  and  that  I  am  born 
of  Neith. 

I  am  Horus,  who  proceedeth  from  the  Eye  of  Horus ;  I  am  Uat'it, 
and  I  come  forth  like  the  Hawk  which  soareth  aloft  and  resteth  upon 
the  brow  of  Ra  at  the  prow  of  his  Bark  in  Heaven. 


Chapter  whereby  the  doors  of  the  Tuat  are  opened  and  otie  cometh 

forth  by  day. 

Let  the  doors  be  opened  of  the  caverns  of  Nu,  and  let  the  feet 
be  loosened  of  those  who  are  in  glory. 

Let  the  caverns  of  Shu  be  opened,  that  he  may  come  forth  at 
large,  and  that  I  may  issue  from  my  funereal  pit  to  my  seat  which  is 
at  the  prow  of  the  Bark  of  Ra ;  let  me  issue  without  disaster  to  my 
seat  which  is  at  the  prow  of  the  Bark  of  Ra,  the  all-radiant  one,  as 
he  riseth  up  from  his  lair. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  129 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day. 

Let  the  two  doors  of  Heaven  be  opened  to  me :  let  the  two 
doors  of  Earth  be  opened  to  me :  let  the  bolts  of  Seb  open  to  me, 
and  let  the  First  Mansion  be  opened  to  me,  that  he  may  behold  me 
who  hath  kept  guard  over  me  :  and  let  him  unloose  me  who  hath 
wound  his  arms  around  me  and  hath  fastened  his  arms  upon  me 
into  the  earth. 

Let  the  Re-hunit  (i)  be  opened  to  me,  let  me  pass  into  the 
Re-hunit ;  let  the  Re-hunit  be  given  to  me,  that  I  may  come  forth 
by  day  whithersoever  my  heart  desireth. 

Let  me  have  possession  of  my  heart,  let  me  have  possession  of 
my  Whole  heart ;  let  me  have  possession  of  my  mouth,  let  me  have 
possession  of  my  legs,  let  me  have  possession  of  my  arms,  let  me 
have  possession  of  my  limbs  absolutely;  let  me  have  possession  of 
my  funereal  meals,  let  me  have  possession  of  air,  let  me  have 
possession  of  water,  let  me  have  possession  of  the  stream,  let  me 
have  possession  of  the  river,  let  me  have  possession  of  the  banks. 

Let  me  have  possession  of  all  things  soever  which  were  ritually 
offered  for  me  in  the  Netherworld.  Let  me  have  possession  of  the 
table  which  was  made  for  me  upon  earth — the  solicitations  (2)  which 
were  uttered  for  me  "  that  he  may  feed  upon  the  bread  of  Seb." 

That  which  I  execrate,  I  eat  it  not.  Let  me  feed  upon  the  bread 
of  the  red  corn  of  the  Nile  in  a  pure  place,  let  me  sip  beer  of  the 
red  corn  of  the  Nile  in  a  pure  place  ;  let  me  sit  under  the  branches 
of  the  palm  trees  [in  Heliopolisj  in  the  train  of  Hathor,  when  the 
solar  orb  broadeneth  (3),  as  she  proceedeth  to  Heliopolis  with  the 
writings  of  the  divine  words  of  the  Book  of  Thoth. 

Let  me  have  possession  of  my  heart,  let  me  have  possession  of 
my  Whole  heart ;  let  me  have  possession  of  my  arms,  let  me  have 
possession  of  my  legs,  let  me  have  possession  of  my  funereal  meals, 
let  me  have  possession  of  air,  let  me  have  possession  of  water,  let  me 
have  possession  of  the  stream,  let  me  have  possession  of  the  river, 
let  me  have  possession  of  the  barks. 

Let  me  have  possession  of  all  things  soever  which  were  ritually 
offered  for  me  in  the  Netherworld.  Let  me  have  possession  of  the 
table  which  was  made  for  me  upon  earth. 

Let  me  be  raised  up  on  the  left  and  on  the  right ;  let  me  be 
raised  up  on  the  right  and  on  the  left. 


130  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Let  me  sit  down  and  let  me  stand  up,  and  strain  for  the  breeze 
[with]  my  tongue  and  mouth  like  a  skilled  pilot.  (4) 

If  this  scripture  is  known,  he  will  come  forth  by  day  and  he  will 
travel  over  the  earth  in  the  midst  of  the  living,  ujiinjurcd  for  ever. 


Copies  of  this  chapter  are  found  on  the  coffins  of  Mentuhotep 
and  Sebak-aa  at  Berlin,  and  have  been  published  by  Lepsius  in  his 
Aelteste  Texte,  pi.  8,  21,  22^  and  34.  They  are  unfortunately  in 
very  mutilated  condition,  and  my  translation  follows  the  text  of  the 
Theban  papyri. 

1.  The  Re-hunit  in  this  place  is  clearly  not  an  Egyptian  locality, 
but  a  passage  between  the  Netherworld  and  heaven  or  earth. 

2.  Solicitations,     [I  ^o  m    I  Q(\     ambire,  ambitio,  and  in   a   bad 

sense  ambages. 

3.  This  passage  explains  what  is  meant  in  Chapter  28  by  the  god 
of  the  Broad  Face.    One  of  the  papyri  {la)  adds  the  well  known  epithet 

of  the  setting  sun 


It  is  Hathor  who  proceeds  to  Heliopolis,  as  the  feminine  suffix 
which  is  used  in  the  oldest  texts,  proves.. 

4.  M'.  Lefebure  (Papyrus  de  Soutimes,  p.  3,  note  8)  understands 
the  passage  as  meaning  '■'■  I  seek  the  direction  of  the  wind  m  order  to 
avoid  it."  But  I  am  inclined  to  recognize  a  superstition  still  current 
among  sailors,  the  "whistling  for  a  breeze." 

The  oldest  copies  and  the  more  recent  ones  have  different 
readings,  and  though  the  words  uha  hemu  occur  repeatedly  in  the 

Pyramid   Texts,    the   second  word  is  not  written   ®  ^^^^  ^  ■>  y  ^  , 

as  in  the  Theban  papyri,  but   ®  ^^^  ^  ^^^"^^ . 

Otherwise  said  : 

I  am  a  Flaming  One,  and  brother  to  a  Flaming  One. 

I  am  Osiris,  brother  to  Isis.  He  who  avengeth  me  is  my  son 
Horus,  in  company  with  his  mother,  upon  mine  adversaries ;  adver- 
saries who  have  done  to  me  all  Avicked  and  evil  things. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  131 

Chains  have  been  put  upon  their  arms  and  hands  and  feet  in 
consequence  of  the  evil  things  which  they  have  done  to  me. 

I  am  Osiris,  the  eldest  of  the  great  cycle  of  the  gods  (i)  and  heir 
of  his  father  Seb. 

I  am  Osiris,  the  Lord  of  the  heads  of  life ;  powerful  before  and 
behind ;  his  phallus  extendeth  to  the  limits  of  the  human  race.* 

I  am  Sahu,  who  assigneth  the  bounds  as  he  saileth  round  the 
starry  throng  of  Heaven,  the  body  of  my  mother  Nut,  who  conceived 
me  at  her  will  and  brought  me  forth  at  her  desire. 

I  am  Anubis  on  the  day  of  the  Rending  asunder. 

I  am  the  Bull  in  the  Field  ;  I,  even  I,  Osiris,  who  shut  up  his 
father  and  his  mother  on  the  day  when  the  great  slaughter  took 
place.     My  father  is  Seb  and  my  mother  is  Nut. 

I  am  Horus,  the  eldest  of  Ra  as  he  riseth. 

I  am  Anubis  on  the  day  of  Rending  asunder :  I  am  Osiris. 

O  great  One,  who  enterest  an'd  speakest  to  him  who  presenteth 
the  tablets  and  guardeth  the  door  of  Osiris^  (2)  grant  that  I  may 
come  in  and  be  glorified,  let  me  be  appraised,  and  let  me  be  made 
vigorous,  that  I  may  come  and  avenge  myself. 

Let  me  sit  at  the  cradle  (3)  of  Osiris,  and  put  an  end  to  nly 
suffering  and  pain  ;  let  me  be  made  strong  and  vigorous  at  the 
cradle  of  Osiris,  so  that  I  may  be  born  with  him  and  renewed. 
Said  twice. 

Let  me  seize  that  Thigh  (4)  which  is  under  the  place  of  Osiris^ 
with  which  I  may  open  the  mouth  of  the  gods  and  sit  by  him,  like 
Thoth  the  Scribe,  sound  of  heart,  (5)  with  thousands  of  loaves,  beer, 
beef,  and  fowl  upon  the  table  of  my  father,  and  the  flesh  of  oxen 
and  birds  of  various  kinds,  (6)  which  I  offer  to  Horus,  which  I 
present  to  Thoth,  and  which  I  sacrifice  to  the  Lord  of  Heaven. 


Another  Chapter. 

I  have  come  to  an  end  (7)  for  the  Lord  of  Heaven.  I  am  written 
down  as  sound  of  heart,  and  I  rest  at  the  table  of  my  father  Osiris, 
King  of  Tattu,  and  my  heart  is  stirred  by  his  country.  I  breathe 
the   eastern   breeze  by  its  hair  (8) ;  I  grasp  the  north  wind  by  its 

*  Cf.  note  on  the  Ass  of  Chapter  40. 

S    2 

132  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

side  lock ;  I  grasp  the  south  wind  by  the  skin  as  I  make  the  circuit 
of  heaven  on  its  four  sides  ;  I  seize  the  east  wind  by  the  skin,  and  I 
give  the  breezes  to  the  faithful  dead  amid  those  who  eat  bread. 

Jf  this  scripture  is  knoivn  upon  earth  he  will  come  forth  by  day, 
he  will  walk  upon  earth  amid  the  livi?ig :  his  name  will  be  uninjured 
for  ever. 

Notes  to  Chapters  LXIX  and  LXX. 

These  last  two  chapters  are  always  found  together,  and  always 
appended  to  the  ancient  Chapter  68.  This  is  the  case  not  only  in 
the  papyri,  but  in  tombs  like  that  of  Bakenrenef. 

1.  The  later  texts  say  "  the  eldest  of  the  five  gods." 

2.  Who  presenteth  the  tablets  and  guardeth  the  door  of  Osiris. 
See  picture  of  Thoth  in  the  Psychostasia. 

3.  Where  Osiris  renews  his  birth. 

4.  The  Thigh.  The  iron  instrument  so  called  used  in  the 
ceremony  of  '  Opening  the  mouth  '  of  the  deceased. 

5.  Sound  of  heart  implies  that  the  conscience  of  the  deceased 
has  been  recognized  as  blameless. 

6.  Oxen  and  birds  of  various  kinds.  These  kinds  are  named  in 
the  text,  but  we  have  no  corresponding  European  names. 

7.  I  have  come  to  an  end.  The  first  two  words  of  this  chapter 
are  evidently  copied  from  the  end  of  the  last,  but  instead  of  menhu, 
'  sacrificial  slaughter,'  the  notion  of  mend  or  meni  '  coming  to  an 
end,'  has  been  substituted.  Later  texts  read  "  I  do  not  come  to  an 

8.  Jts  hair.  All  this  paragraph  sounds  very  strangely,  and 
translators  are  tempted  to  understand  that  the  hair,  side-lock,  and 
skin  of  the  deceased  are  acted  upon  by  the  winds.*  But  the 
feminine  suffix  shows  that  the  converse  is  the  case.  The  speaker 
catches  the  air  and  distributes  it,  as  we  are  afterwards  told,  to  the 
faithful  departed. 

Chapter  zvhereby  one  cometh  forth  by  day.  (i) 

O    Divine    Hawk,    who    comest    forth    in    Heaven,    Lord    of 
Mehurit.  {2) 

*  But  we  "  catch  Time  by  the  forelock,"  and  so  did  the  Greeks. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  133 

Make  thou  me  sound,  (3)  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  (4)  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself 
to  the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

I  am  the  Hawk  in  the  Tabernacle  and  I  pierce  through  [that 
which  is  upon]  the  Vail.  (6) 

Here  is  Horus,  the  Son  of  Isis  :  Horus  the  Son  of  Isis. 

Make  thou  me  sound,  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself  to 
the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

I  am  the  Hawk  in  the  Southern  Heaven,  and  Thoth  in  the 
Northern  Heaven,  who  appease  the  Flame  when  raging  and  who 
convey  Law  to  the  god  who  loveth  it. 

Here  is  Thoth  :  Thoth. 

Make  thou  me  sound,  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself  to 
the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

I  am  Unbu  of  En-areref,  the  Flower  of  the  Abode  of  Occultation. 

Here  is  Osiris  :  Osiris. 

Make  thou  me  sound,  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself  to 
the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

O  thou  who  art  upon  thy  two  legs  [<?/•  who  art  terrible  upon  thy 
two  legs],  at  thine  own  hour,  owner  of  the  Two  Twin  Souls,  and  who 
livest  in  Two  Twin  Souls. 

Make  thou  me  sound,  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself  to 
the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One 

O  thou  who  circlest  round,  within  thine  Egg,  Lord  of  Mehurit. 

Make  thou  me  sound,  even  as  thou  hast  made  thyself  sound, 
who  revealest  thyself,  who  disrobest  thyself,  and  presentest  thyself  to 
the  Earth. 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

Sebak  standeth  erect,  surrounded  by  his  high  places,  and  Neith 
standeth  erect  in  the  midst  of  her  alluvial  grounds,  in  order  to  reveal 

134  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

themselves,  to  disrobe  themselves  and  to  present  themselves  to  the 

May  his  will  towards  me  be  done  by  the  Lord  of  the  One  Face. 

Oh  ye  Seven  Divine  Masters,  (7)  who  are  the  arms  of  the  Balance 
on  the  Night  wherein  the  Eye  is  fixed ;  ye  who  strike  off  the  heads 
and  cleave  the  necks,  who  seize  the  hearts  and  drag  forth  the  whole 
hearts,  and  accomplish  the  slaughter  in  the  Tank  of  Flame  :  ye 
whom  I  know  and  whose  names  I  know,  know  you  me  as  I  know 
your  names. 

I  advance  to  you,  advance  ye  to  me  :  live  in  me  and  let  me  live 
in  you.  Convey  to  me  the  Symbol  of  Life  which  is  in  your  hands, 
and  the  Sceptre  which  ye  grasp.  (8) 

Award  to  me  the  life  of  yearly  speech  through  countless  years  of 
life  in  addition  to  my  years  of  life  ;  countless  months  in  addition  to 
the  months  of  my  life  ;  countless  days  in  addition  to  the  days  of  my 
life  ;  and  countless  nights  in  addition  to  the  nights  of  my  life,  that  I 
may  come  forth  and  beam  upon  my  own  images,  with  breath  for  my 
nostrils,  and  eyes  which  see,  amid  those  who  are  at  the  Horizon,  on 
that  day  when  brute  Force  {9)  is  brought  to  a  reckoning. 

If  this  Chapter  is  known  there  is  icell-being  on  earth  with  Rd 

and  a  fair   abode   with    Osiris,   and  the  person  is  glorified  in  the 

Netherworld.       There   are  grant-ed  to  him  the  sacred  cakes  and  the 

coming  forth  into  the  presence  *  in  the  course  i)f  each  day,  undeviatingly, 

for  titties  infinite. 


1.  The  title  as  here  translated  is  taken  from  the  oldest  known 
MS.,  that  of  Nebseni.  But  the  Papyrus  Pc,  which  is  of  the  same 
period,  has  "  Chapter  for  entering  after  going  forth  by  day,  and  for 
making  transfortnations  in  all  forms,"  and  this  title  or  a  very  similar 
one  is  found  on  other  papyri.  The  most  recent  form  is  that  in  the 
Turin  copy — Chapter  for  coming  forth  by  day  and  repelling  brttte 
Force,  so  that  the  person  may  tiot  be  seized  in  the  Nethenuorld,  but 
that  his  soul  may  be  ttiade  sound  iti  the  Ta-t'eserit. 

2.  Lord  of  Me hurit  =^1.0x6.  of  Heaven,  that  is  the  Sun-god.  The 
invocation  is  repeated  a  little  farther  on,  "O  thou  who  circlest  within 
thine  Egg,  Lord  of  Mehurit."  The  god  is  also  said  to  be  the  owner 
of  "  the  Two  Twin  Souls,"  namely  Ra  and  Osiris. 

*  Namely,  "of  the  great  god."     This  ellipse  is  very  frequent. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  135 

3.  The  verb  is  here  in  the  second  person,  not  in  the  first.  This 
is  shown  by  those  texts  which  give  the  name  of  the  person,  instead 
of  the  pronominal  suffix,  as  the  ol)ject  of  the  verb. 

4.  Thyself  =  Here,  in  all  but  the  later  copies,  the  pronoun  of  the 
third  person  is  used,  in  accordance  with  a  well  known  P^gyptian 

5.  Lord  of  the  One  Face  =^ /xovo-n-poawTi-o'i  in  opposition  to  TroXy- 
TrpdaieTTo^,  which  is  an  epithet  of  the  Sky,  on  account  of  its  many 
changes  of  aspect.  The  Moon  too  has  a  variety  of  phases,  whereas 
the  Sun  is  eminently  the  "Lord  of  One  Face."  From  another  point 
of  view  the  god,  at  the  beginning  cf  chapter  64,  is  called  the  "Lord 
of  Two  Faces,"  the  bright  and  the  dark.  The  Pyramid  Texts  have 
the  parallel  conception  of  the  Two  Eyes  of  Horus,  one  white  and 

one  black,  j^s^  j^5^  ^^,   Y  (Unas  37). 

6.  This  passage  receives  illustration  from  the  great  inscription  of 
Pianchi,  who  at  Heliopolis  paid  a  visit  to  the  great  Tabernacle 
I  I  ^^^  [— — ]  I  q£  j-j^g  Sun-god,  the  doors  of  which  he  opened  and 
afterwards  sealed  up  with  the  royal  seal.  Before  going  up  the  steps, 
to  it  he  had  to  lift  the  Vail  (  1 1  crS=i  )  5,  ]  <^r  Curtains  which  con- 
cealed it,  and  perform  sprinklings  and  offer  incense  and  flowers. 
Two  important  words  (of  which  the  first  has  the  interesting  variant 

q|  and  tire  second  is  written  J     \\    in  the  oldest  texts)  are 

thus  made  clear. 

The  god  is  said,  according  to  the  different  readings,  to  pierce 
"  through,  the  Vail  "  or  "  through  zvhat  is  upon  the  Vail." 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Hebrew  Holy  of  Holies  was 
separated  from  the  Sanctuary  by  a  curtain  upon  which  the  figures  of 
Cherubim  were  woven,  that  before  the  curtain  of  the  Holy  of  Holies 
stood  the  altar  upon  which  incense  was  offered  each  morn  and 
evening,  and  that  in  sin-offerings  the  priest  sprinkled  blood  seven 
times  before  the  Vail  of  the  Sanctuary.. 

7.  The  Seven  Divine  Masters,  X^  ^  I  or  \    \\   \    \     ^  I,* 

were  the  offspring  of  Mehurit,  and  assumed  the  form  of  Hawks,  f 

*  In  the  Prisse  Papyrus  this  word  is  to  be  understood  of  a  scholar  or  sage, 
whose  word  is  of  authority. 

t  They  have  human  heads  on  the  Louvre  Sarcophagus  D.  7- 

136  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

They  were  the  inventors  and  patrons  of  all  the  arts  and  sciences, 
and  they  assisted  Thoth  in  composition  and  in  the  measurement  of 
the  earth.     See  references  in  Brugsch's  article,  Zeiis.,  1872,  p.  6. 

They  are,  I  believe,  to  be  identified,  like  the  Seven  Rishis  of  the 
later  Sanskrit  literature,  with  the  seven  stars  of  the  Great  Bear.  In 
this  conception  the  Polar  star  is  represented  by  Thoth. 

8.  The  Symbel  of  Life  and  the  Sceptre,  the  -r-  and     . 

9.  Brute  Force     r\    ^\       ,  see  chapter  57,  note  5. 


Chapter  whereby   one  cometh  forth  by  day  and  passeth  through  the 

Ammchit.  (i) 

Hail  to  you,  ye  Lords  of  Rule,  (2)  devoid  of  Wrong,  who  are 
living  for  ever,  and  whose  secular  period  is  Eternity.  (3)  I  make  my 
way  towards  you.  Let  me  be  glorified  through  my  attributes ;  let 
me  prevail  through  my  AVords  of  Power,  and  let  me  be  rated 
according  to  my  merit. 

Deliver  me  from  the  Crocodile  (4)  of  this  Land  of  Rule. 

Let  me  have  a  mouth  wherewith  I  may  speak,  and  let  my 
oblations  be  placed  before  you ;  because  I  know  you,  and  I  know 
your  names  :  and  I  know  the  name  of  that  great  god  to  whose 
nostrils  ye  present  delicacies  :  Tekmu  is  his  name.  And  whether 
he  maketh  his  way  from  the  Eastern  Horizon  of  Heaven,  or 
alighteth  at  the  Western  Horizon  of  Heaven,  let  his  departure  be 
my  departure,  and  his  progress  be  my  progress. 

Let  me  not  be  stopped  at  the  Meskat ;  let  not  the  Sebau  have 
mastery  over  me  ;  let  me  not  be  repulsed  at  your  gates,  let  not 
your  doors  be  closed  against  me;  for  I  have  bread  (5)  in  Pu  and 
beer  in  Tepu.  And  let  me  join  my  two  hands  together  (6)  in  the 
divine  dwelling  which  my  father  Tmu  hath  given  me,  who  hath 
established  for  me  an  abode  above  the  earth  wherein  is  wheat  and 
barley  of  untold  quantity,  which  the  son  of  my  OAvn  body  offereth 
to  me  there  as  oblations  upon  my  festivals. 

Grant  me  the  funereal  gifts,  beef,  fowl,  bindings,  incense,  oil, 
and  all  things  good  and  pure  upon  which  a  deity  subsists,  regularly 
and  eternally,  in  all  the  forms  I  please. 



Chapter  LXV. 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  93. 

Chapter  LXVIII. 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter  LXVIII. 
Lepsius,  *'Todt.," 
Plate  XXV. 

Chapter  LXXI.  Chapter  LXXI. 

Lepsius,  "Todt.,"  Plate  XXVI.       Papyrus  of  Nebseni,  British  Museum,  9900. 


Chapter  LXXII. 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  93. 

Chapter  LXXil. 
Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum,  II. 


Chapter  LXXIII. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  LXXIV. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 



Chapter  LXXII. 
Lepsius,  "Todt.,"  Plate  XXVII. 




Chap.  LXXIV.    Chap.  LXXIII. 
Lepsius,    "Todt.,"    Plate    XXVII. 



s.     IZ 

i\     7 

Chapters  of  the  Transformations  or  Changes. 
Cedar  Coffin,  in  the  Gizeh  Museum, 

Published  by  Brugsch-Pasha,   "  Zeitschr.  fiir  Aeg.  Spr.,"  1867. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  1 37 

Let  me  come  down  or  go  up  to  Sechit-aarru  and  arrive  in 

I  am  the  god  in  Lion  form. 

If  this  book  is  learnt  upon  earth,  or  executed  in  7vriting  upon  the 
coffin,  he  will  come  forth  by  day  in  all  the  forms  he  pleaseth,  with 
entrance  into  his  house  without  repulse.  And  there  shall  be  given  to 
him  bread  and  beer  and  flesh-meat  upon  the  table  of  Osiris.  He  will 
come  forth  to  Sechit-aarru,  and  there  shall  be  given  to  him  wheat  and 
barley  there,  for  he  will  flourish  as  though  he  were  upon  earth,  and  he 
ivill  do  all  that  pleaseth  him,  like  those  gods  who  are  there:  un- 
deviatingly,  for  times  infinite. 


This  chapter  is  often  found  not  only  in  papyri  but  upon  coffins, 
in  accordance  with  the  rubric  at  the  end.  The  earhest  copy  is  on 
the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhotep.  A  very  fine  copy  is  on  the  ala- 
baster sarcophagus  of  Seti  I,  and  our  museums  are  rich  in  funereal 
monuments  inscribed  with  this  ancient  text.  A  very  similar  text  is 
found  at  the  end  of  chapter  99. 

1.  Ammehit  is  the  name  given  in  chapter  149  to  the  sixth  abode 
in  Amenta,  but  here  and  in  other  places  it  is  simply  one  of  the 
names  of  the  Netherworld.  In  the  inscriptions,  for  instance,  of  the 
tomb  of  Queen  Tita,*  "  passing  through  the  two  folding  doors  of  the 
Ammehit"  is  in  parallelism  with  "going  in  and  out  of  the  divine 

2.  Lords  of  Rule.  Tb-^  '  tl^e  reading  in  most  documents,  but 
there  are  others  which  an  equal  claim  to  authority.  The  in- 
vocation is  sometimes  made  to  the  LJ  "  those  who  are  possessed 

I  I  I  I  1 1 

of  a  ka,"  that  is  the  "spirits  made  perfect,"  those  who  have  already 
passed  through  the  requisite  trials,  besides  the  gods  who  have  never 
passed  through  the  stage  of  mortality,  all  of  whom  are  possessed 
of  a  ka. 

The  invocation,  according  to  another  reading,  which  is  that  of 

chapter  99,  is  addressed  to   the    T  V:>  1  LJ   "those  who  are 

beautiful  or  perfect  of  ka."     Here  the  papyri  add  lords  of  rule,  and 

*  Brugsch,  Rec,  II,  pi.  63.  The  whole  tomb  has  now  been  published  by 
M.  Benedite  in  the  Mhitoires  ae  la  Mission  Archeologiqitc  ati  Caire,  tome  5. 


138  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

the  invocation,  whatever  the  reading  may  be,  is  always  addressed  to 
those  who  have  in  their  power  the  laws  which  regulate  the  universe. 

3.  Whose  secular  period  is  Eternity.     9    vl  fc^  hentd  is  the 

period  of  120  years  (see  Proc.  Sec.  Bibl.  Arch.,  XIV,  264)  which 
was  their  alwv.,  aevtivi,  corresponding  in  idea,  not  in  actual  time,  to 
our  century.     The  secular  period  of  the  gods  is  eternity. 

4.  The  Crocodile.  Are  we  to  understand  this  of  the  crocodile- 
headed  monster  pictured  in  the  represensations  of  the  Psychostasia  ? 
These  pictures  are  not  known  to  us  from  as  early  a  date  as  the 
chapter  itself,  but  they  may  have  existed.  Perhaps,  however,  this 
passage  may  have  suggested  them. 

5.  Bread.     The  Egyptian  word  ^r^  ta,  like  its  homonym  «===, 

\xn'^\\Q?,  somtihmg  pierced  ox  perforated.     The  sacrificial  cake   H^H 

in  Leviticus  viii,  26  has  the  same  meaning  and,  hke    ^''^/D    a  pipe,  is 

connected  with  ^^H,  perforavit,  cojifodit,  aperuit,  profanavit.  See 
Froc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  1893,  p.  386. 

„  I?  ta,  a  door  or  gate,  and  some  other  homonyms  evidently 
come  under  the  same  conception  ;  cf.  porta  and  Treljiw. 

is  identical  with  Chapter  IX. 


Chapter  whereby  the  legs  are  set  in  motion  upon  earth. 

Do  what  thou  hast  to  do,  O  Sekaru  {twice) ;  as  The  god  who  is 
in  his  own  house,  and  as  The  god  who  standeth  on  his  legs  in  the 

I  shine  above  the  Leg  (i)  as  I  come  forth  in  Heaven,  but  I  lie 
helpless  with  corpselike  face. 

Oh  I  faint,  I  faint,  as  I  advance  ;  I  faint,  I  faint  before  the  teeth 
of  those  whose  mouth  raveneth  in  the  Netherworld. 


I.  The  Leg.  In  this  place,  as  in  chapter  98  and  other  texts,  a 
constellation  in  the  northern  sky  is  meant,  which  many  years  ago  I 
identified  with  Cassiopeia. 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  LXXVII. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  LXXVIII. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  LXXVIII. 
Lepsius,  "Todt." 

Chapter  LXXVIII. 
Leiden  Papyrus, 
T.  i6. 

Chapter  LXXVIII. 
Lepsius,  *'Todt." 

Chapter  LXXIX. 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter  LXXIX. 
Papyrus  of  Sutimes,  Bibl.  Nat. 

Chapter  LXXXI. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum- 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 

Chai'ter  LXXXUI. 
Papyrus  of  Ani, 
British  Museum. 

Chapier  LXXXIV. 
Papyrus   of  Ani, 
British  Museum. 

Chapter  LXXXII. 

Papyrus  of  Ani,  British 


Chapter  LXXXIII. 

Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum, 

No.  2. 

Chapter  LXXXV. 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter  LXXXVI. 

Papyrus,  Leyden 

Museum,  IL 

Chapter  LXXXVI. 

Papyrus  of  Ani,  British 


Chapter  LXXXVII. 
Papyrus,  Berlin 
Museum,  No.  i. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 39 

This  constellation,  according  to  chapter  98,  is  in  the  Northern 

sky  and  in  the  Great  Stream  \\  ,  by  which  I  understand 

the  "  Milky  Way."  This  position  is  also  in  accordance  with  the 
ancient  text  on  the  Coffin  of  Amamu,  pi.  XXVI,  line  22.  The  Zeg 
is  as  close  to  the  Pole  as  the  Great  Bear  (called  the  Thigh  in 
Egyptian  Astronomy)  but  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  in  con- 
sequence of  this  position  it  never  sets  below  the  horizon.  Hence  in 
the  Pyramid  Texts  (Pepi  I,   411  and  Merenra  589)  it   is   called 

Y>  <=>  ^^9;  I  ®  ¥\     V       P  .       And   here,    according 

to  these  texts,  as  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  (see  chapter  86),  purifi- 
cation was  obtained. 

The  god     ^    2^.^     \^    V\  '^^-^    (also  named  among  the  42 

judges)  whose  face  looks  backwards,  and  who  is  said  to  be  gate 
keeper  of  Osiris,  must  be  a  star  {e.g.  7  Cepheus)  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  the  Polar  Star  which  represented  Osiris.  On  the 
ancient  coffins  of  Amamu  and  Sit-Bastit  there  is  a  chapter*  for 

AAA^AA  -^ 

assuming  the  form  of  a  Vulture  r^^^ — ,  V\  Z^  ,  in  which  the  speaker 
says  "I  am  the  Vulture  god  who  is  on  the  ^<==>  ^      ." 

I  suspect  that  in  the  formula  ^  I  S  ^  J  I  "^  "^  ^^|  ^  1 

said  of  Osiris  on  the  stelae  of  the  twelfth  dynasty,  the  constellation 
in  heaven  and  not  a  place  at  Abydos  was  meant. 


Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  to  Heliopolis  and  receiveth  a  seat  there. 

I  have  come  out  of  the  Tuat :  I  am  come  from  the  ends  of  the 
Earth,  lighting  up  the  Tank,  whither  the  desires  of  them  who  bring 
salutation  guide  me.  I  pass  through  the  noble  dwellings  of  those 
who  are  coffined.  I  open  the  dwelling  of  Remrem,  I  reach  the 
house  of  Achsesef.  (i)  I  am  led  on  to  the  noble  mysteries,  and  I 
enter  into  the  house  of  Kemkem. 

*  It  was  afterwards  incorporated  with  chapter  149. 

T   2 



[The  Tet  amulet  (2)  layeth  its  two  hands  upon  me  and  assigneth 
me  to  its  sister,  and  the  custody  of  its  mother,  Kehkehit,  who 
setteth  me  upon  the  Eastern  path  of  Heaven  upon  which  Ra  ariseth 
and  mounteth  on  high  each  day. 

May  I  too  arise,  and  be  led  on,  and  assume  the  mummied  form 
as  a  god,  and  let  them  set  me  upon  that  noble  path]  whereon  Thoth 
travelleth  when  he  appeaseth  the  two  Combatants  (3)  as  he  goeth 
to  Pu  and  advanceth  to  Tepu. 


I.  These  gods  are  not  often  mentioned.  But  we  are  told  in 
the   inscriptions  of  Rech-ma-ra  {Mission  Arch,  du   Caire,  V,   127) 

I  great  hall  of  the  Prince 


that  Achsesef  is  master  of  the   i  | 

of  those  in  Amenta.     Cf.  Todt.,  142,  13  and  21. 

2.   The  Tet  amulet,  ||,   has  a  chapter  of  its  own,  chapter  156. 

Divinity  was  supposed  to  reside  in  this  and  the  other  religious 
symbols,  which  are  often  represented  in  pictures  with  hands  and 
feet.  The  annexed  Vignette  is  from  the  Louvre  papyrus  III,  93, 
at  ch.  93. 

'    [  The  part  of  this  chapter  which  is  within  brackets  is  ancient,  but 
is  omitted  in  late  copies. 

3.   The  two  Combatants.     Sut  and  Horus. 


Chapter  whereby  all/or?ns  are  assufned  which  one  pleaseth. 

I  have  made  my  way  into  the  Royal  Palace,  and  it  was  the 
Bird-Fly  (i)  who  brought  me  hither. 

Hail  to  thee,  who  fliest  up  to  Heaven,  to  give  light  to  the  stars 
and  protect  the  White  Crown  which  falleth  to  me. 

Stable  art  thou,  O  mighty  god,  for  ever,  Make  thou  for  me  a 
path  upon  which  I  may  pursue  my  course. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  141 


I.  The  Bird-Fly,  (1  J  ^^^^v^  ^^  '  ^^  ^^^'^  S^*^)  see  Proc. 
Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  1892,  p.  396  and  following,  and  also  1893,  p.  135  and 
following.  In  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  the  name  has  for  determina- 
tive an  insect,  which  M.  Lefebure  has  identified  with  the  mantis. 
This  deity,  according  to  ancient  texts,  was  the  Tiller  of  the  Rudder 
of  the  Neahemit  ship  of  Osiris 


Chapter  whereby  one  assiimeth  the  form  of  the  Golden  Hawk,  (i) 

I  set  myself  to  view  :  I  set  myself  to  view  as  the  Golden  Hawk, 
which  cometh  out  from  its  Egg ;  and  I  fly  and  I  hover  as  a  Hawk  of 
four  cubits  across  the  back.  My  two  wings  are  of  the  green  gem  of 
the  South.  (2) 

I  come  forth  from  the  cabin  of  the  Sektit  Bark  and  I  raise 
myself  up  from  the  Eastern  Hill. 

I  stoop  upon  the  Atit  Bark,  that  I  may  come  and  raise  to  me 
those  who  are  in  their  circles,  and  who  bow  down  before  me. 

I  display  myself  and  gather  myself  together  as  the  beautiful 
Golden  Hawk  with  the  head  of  a  Heron,  to  listen  to  whose 
utterances  Ra  cometh  every  day,  and  I  sit  down  in  th?  midst  of 
all  the  great  gods  of  Heaven. 

The  fields  lie  before  me ;  the  produce  is  before  me ;  I  eat  of  it, 
I  wax  radiant  upon  it,  I  am  saturated  with  it  to  the  satisfaction  of 
my  heart. 

Nepra  hath  given  to  me  my  throat,  and  I  am  in  possession  of  all 
that  pertaineth  to  my  person.  (3) 


I.  This  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  chapters  relative  to  the  "Trans- 
formations," the  subject  of  which  is  treated  in  the  Introduction.  It 
is  sufficient  here  to  repeat  that  the  Egyptian  '  Transformations '  have 
nothing  in  common  with  Metempsychosis,  as  understood  in  the 
Greek  or  Indian  religions.  The  change  of  form  in  the  Egyptian 
idea  depended  upon  the  will  of  the  person ;  it  was  not  a  penance 
for  sin,  but  a  means  of  glorification.     And  all  the  forms  assumed  in 

142  POOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

the  Book  of  the  Dead  by  the  deceased  are  well  known  forms  of  the 

2.  Green  gem  of  the  South  \      -^^^-^     .     This  has  generally  been 

understood  as  representing  the  green  feldspar  of  which  many  ob 
jects  in  our  museums  are  made.     But  Dlimichen  {Zeitschr.,  1872) 

has   shown   that  the  I       '  of  the  East '  is  a   synonym  of  Mdfkait, 

emerald,  and  M.  Naville  has  referred  to  Pliny,  who  {Hist.  Nat., 
XXXVII,  17)  speaks  of  the  Egyptian  emeralds  'qui  eruuntur  circa 
Copton  oppidum  Thebaidis  in  coUibus,  ex  cautibus.'  The  same 
author  quotes  Juba  in  reference  to  Eihiopic  gems  as  being  'alacriter 
virides,  sed  non  facile  puri  aut  concolores.' 

3.  Nepra  is  one  of  the  names  of  Osiris,  considered  as  giver  of 
corn,  o  Ylvpo(/)6()0's.  By  Throat  is  here  meant  the  organ  or  power  of 
swallowing,  deglutition. 

Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Sacred  Hawk,  (i) 

Oh  Horus  !  come  thou  to  Tattu,  make  clear  to  me  the  paths, 
and  help  me  to  make  the  round  of  my  dwelling  places. 

Look  thou  upon  me  and  exalt  me,  impart  to  me  Terror,  and 
rouse  in  me  Might,  so  that  the  gods  of  the  Tuat  may  fear  me,  that 
their  battlements  war  in  my  behalf  there  ;  and  that  he  may  not  assail 
and  slay  me  in  the  house  of  darkness,  who  enwrappeth  the  dead  ; 
the  god  who  hideth  his  name ;  or  that  the  like  be  done  by  them.     - 

Oh  ye  gods  who  give  ear  to  the  words ;  ye  foremost  ones,  ye  who 
are  in  the  train  of  Osiris  ;  hush  ye  up,  gods,  that  which  a  god 
speaketh  with  a  god  who  is  giving  ear  to  a  case  of  Divine  Law  ! 

And  that  which  I  have  said  to  him  say  thou,  Osiris. 

Grant  to  me  that  change  of  existence  which  hath  issued  from  thy 
mouth  on  my  behalf,  that  I  may  see  thine  own  attributes  and  survey 
thy  Powers.  (2) 

Grant  that  I  may  come  forth  and  have  the  mastery  of  my  two  feet, 
and  that  I  may  be  there  like  the  Inviolate  One  on  high  ;  that  the 
gods  of  the  Tuat  may  fear  me  and  their  battlements  war  on  my 

Grant  that  I  may  run  together  with  thy  Punners,  but  remain 
firm  upon  my  pedestal  like  the  Lord  of  Life;  let  me  be  united  with 

BOOK  OF  THE   DEAD.  1 43 

Isis  the  Mighty  ;  may  they  protect  me  against  slaughter,  from  him 
who  looked  upon  death. 

Let  me  advance  to  the  goal  (3)  of  Heaven.  I  claim  words  from 
Seb,  and  I  pray  for  sustenance  from  the  Inviolate  one  on  high,  so 
that  the  gods  of  the  Tuat  may  fear  me,  and  that  their  battlements 
may  war  on  my  behalf,  when  they  see  thy  supplies  for  me. 

I  am  one  of  those  Bright  ones  in  Glory :  may  my  attributes  be 
fashioned  like  the  attributes  of  him  who  cometh  forth  to  Tattu  ;  may 
I  be  invested  (4)  with  the  Soul  of  him  who  telleth  thee  what  con- 
cerneth  me. 

Oh  impart  to  me  Terror  and  rouse  in  me  Might  that  the  gods  of 
the  Tuat  may  fear  me  and  their  battlements  war  on  my  behalf. 

I  am  the  Bright  one  in  Glory,  whom  Tmu  himself  hath  called 
into  being,  and  my  origin  is  from  the  apple  of  his  eye,  (5)  who 
hath  made  and  glorified  and  honoured  those  who  are  to  be  with 
him.  For  he  is  the  Unique  in  Heaven,  whom  they  extol  as  he 
cometh  forth  from  the  Horizon,  and  the  gods  and  glorified  ones 
who  are  with  him  fear  him. 

I  am  one  of  the  worms  which  the  eye  of  the  Lord  of  Oneness 
hath  brought  into  being. 

Verily,  before  Isis  was,  who  gave  birth  to  Horus,  I  grew  up  and 
waxed  old,  and  was  honoured  beyond  those  in  Glory,  who  were  with 

And  I  arose  as  the  Sacred  Hawk,  whom  Horus  had  invested 
with  his  own  Soul  for  the  seizin  of  his  inheritance  from  Osiris  at 
the  Tuat. 

And  the  god  in  Lion  form,  who  presideth  over  those  who  are 
at  the  House  of  the  Nemmes  (6)  which  is  in  its  caverns,  said  to 
me  : — 

"  Go  back  to  the  confines  of  Heaven,  for  thou  art  invested  with 
the  attributes  of  Horus  :  for  thee  the  Nemmes  is  not,  but  free 
utterance  is  thine,  even  to  the  confines  of  Heaven." 

And  I  took  possession  of  the  inheritance  of  Horus  from  Osiris 
at  the  Tuat,  and  Horus  repeated  to  me  that  which  his  father  Osiris 
had  said  to  him  in  the  early  time,  on  the  Burial  Day  of  Osiris. 

"  The  Nemmes  hath  been  given  to  me  by  the  god  in  Lion  form, 
that  thou  mayest  advance  and  go  upon  the  path  of  Heaven,  so  that 
those  who  are  on  the  confines  of  the  Horizon  may  see  thee  and  that 
the  gods  of  the  Tuat  may  fear  thee,  and  that  their  battlements  may 
war  on  thy  behalf."     [Aahat.  (7)] 

144  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD, 

At  the  divine  words  all  they  who  are  at  the  funereal  shrine  of 
the  Lord  of  Oneness  bend  low. 

Oh  thou  who  art  raised  above  thy  coffin  and  bereft  of  the 
Nemmes,  the  god  in  Lion  form  hath  reached  the  Nemmes  to  me, 
and  wings  are  given  to  me. 

He  hath  given  me  strength  through  his  back,  through  his  back, 
and  through  his  most  powerful  might,  that  I  fall  not  upon  Shu.  (8) 

I  propitiate  my  fair  brother,  the  Master  of  the  two  Uraei. 

I,  even  I,  am  he  who  knoweth  the  paths  of  Heaven  ;  its  breezes 
are  upon  me,  the  raging  Bull  stoppeth  me  not  as  I  advance  whither- 
soever there  lieth  a  wreck  in  the  Field  of  Eternity,  and  I  pilot 
myself  towards  the  darkness  and  the  suffering  of  the  deceased  ones 
of  Osiris. 

I  come  daily  through  the  house  of  the  god  in  Lion  form,  and  I 
pass  forth  from  it  to  the  house  of  Tsis  the  Mighty,  that  I  may  see 
glorious,  mysterious  and  hidden  matters,  even  as  she  hath  caused 
me  to  see  the  divine  offspring  of  the  Great  One. 

I  am  invested  with  the  soul  of  Horus,  so  that  I  see  what  is  in  it, 
and  when  I  speak  hard  by  the  Doors  of  Shu  they  respond  to  the 
moment.  (9) 

It  is  I  who  have  charge  of  the  seisin  of  the  inheritance  of  Horus 
from  Osiris  at  the  Tuat. 

It  is  I,  even  I,  who  am  Horus  in  Glory.  I  am  master  of  his 
diadem,  I  am  master  of  his  Light,  and  I  advance  to  the  Goal  of 
Heaven.     Horus  is  on  his  seat,  Horus  is  upon  his  throne. 

My  face  is  that  of  the  Sacred  Hawk,  my  back  that  of  the  Sacred 
Hawk  :  I  am  equipped  as  bis  r^-^ster. 

I  come  forth  to  Tattu,  tL..t  I  may  see  Osiris. 

I  incline  myself  before  him,  I  incline  myself  to  Nut  :  they  behold 
me,  and  the  gods  behold  me ;  the  Eye  of  Horus  and  the  Flame 
which  is  in  the  Two  Eyes.  I'hey  stretch  out  their  arms  to  me. 
And  I  stand  erect  and  prevail  in  opposition  to  evil. 

They  open  to  me  the  bright  paths ;  they  open  to  me  the  bright 
paths  ;  they  see  my  attributes,  they  listen  to  my  words. 

Hail  to  you,  ye  gods  of  the  Tuat,  ye  of  repellent  face  and 
aggressive  front,  who  tow  along  the  Stars  which  set,  and  make  the 
bright  paths  of  the  Hematit  (10)  for  the  Lord  of  the  Soul  Most 
Mighty  :  Horus  hath  ordained  that  ye  should  lift  up  your  faces  and 
look  upon  me. 

And  I  display  myself  as  the  Sacred  Hawk  whom  Horus  hath 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  I45 

invested  with  his  soul  for  taking  the  possession  of  his  inheritance 
from  Osiris  at  the  Tuat. 

I  set  aside  the  long-haired  gods  and  passed  on  through  those 
who  had  charge  of  their  dens  in  my  sight :  I  made  my  way  and 
passed  on  and  reached  those  who  presided  over  their  caverns,  and 
those  who  had  charge  of  the  House  of  Osiris  ;  and  I  speak  to  them, 
and  make  them  recognize  the  god  of  Mighty  Terrors,  who  is  armed 
with  horns  against  Sutu.  I  make  them  recognize  who  it  is  that  hath 
seized  for  himself  the  divine  provisions  and  hath  equipped  himself 
with  the  powers  of  Tmu. 

A  gracious  pass  grant  they  to  me,  the  gods  of  the  Tuat,  as  many 
as  there  are  who  preside  over  their  caverns  and  have  charge  of  the 
House  of  Osiris. 

Behold  me,  I  am  come  to  you  and  have  carried  off  and  put 
together  my  forms     .     .     .     .(11) 

I  make  bright  the  paths  which  are  in  the  Horizon  and  the 
Hematit  in  Heaven.  I  make  firm  the  battlements  on  behalf  of 
Osiris,  and  I  make  the  paths  bright  in  his  behalf. 

I  have  done  according  to  the  command  that  I  should  come  forth 
to  Tattu  to  see  Osiris,  and  tell  him  of  the  fortunes  of  that  great  Son 
of  his  whom  he  loveth,  and  who  hath  pierced  the  heart  of  Sutu.  I 
have  seen  the  death. 

Yea,  I  tell  them  the  divine  plans  which  Horus  carried  out  in  the 
absence  of  his  father  Osiris. 

O  Lord  of  the  Soul  Most  Mighty,  behold  me  ;  I  come,  raise 
thou  me  up  that  I  may  see  the  Tuat. 

May  all  the  paths  which  are  in  Heaven  and  upon  earth  be  open 
to  me,  and  let  there  be  no  repulse  for  me. 

Thou  art  exalted  upon  thy  throne,  Osiris;  thine  hearing  is 
good,  Osiris ;  thy  back  is  strong,  Osiris ;  thy  head,  Osiris,  is  firmly 
fastened,  thy  throat  is  made  fast,  thine  heart  is  glad,  thou  art 
confident  in  the  strength  and  courage  of  those  around  thee.  Thou 
art  established  in  strength  as  the  Bull  of  Amenta. 

Thy  son  Horus  is  seated  upon  thy  throne,  and  all  that  liveth 
is  subject  to  him.  Endless  generations  are  at  his  service,  endless 
generations  are  in  fear  of  him  ;  the  cycle  of  the  gods  is  in  fear  of 
him,  the  cycle  of  the  gods  is  at  his  service.  So  saith  Tmu,  the  Sole 
Force  of  the  gods  ;  not  to  be  altered  is  that  which  he  hath  spoken. 

Horus  is  the  offering  and  the  altar  of  offering  ;  twofold  of  aspect ; 
it  is  Horus  who    hath  reconstituted  his  father  and  restored  him. 


146  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Horus  is  the  father,  Horus  is  the  mother,  Horus  is  the  brother, 
Horus  is  the  kinsman.  Horus  proceedeth  from  the  essence  of  his 
father  and  the  corruption  which  befell  him. 

He  ruleth  over  Egypt,  and  the  gods  are  in  his  service.  He  hath 
carried  off  endless  generations,  and  given  life  to  endless  generations 
with  his  Eye ;  the  sole  one  of  its  Lord,  the  Inviolate  one. 


This  chapter  is  seldom  found  in  the  complete  shape  which  it  has 

in   the   Turin    Todtenhich.     The  shortest  copy  of  it  is  that  in  the 

tomb  of  Horhotep  {Miss.  Arch.  Fr.,  p.  158) ;  it  has  but  a  few  lines  ; 

but  they  are  very  important,  as  giving  the  earliest  form  of  the  formula 

Q:A  -vwwv  <:::2:>  czn  ^    [1  MT^  [1   ^\    ,  which    is  an  invocation 
to  the  battlements.  The  common  reading,  which  adds  the  pro- 
nominal   suffix    "'-'"^■^  both   to    the   verb  and    to    its    subject,    is 

ungrammatical.  The  papyri  Ati,  Fg,  and  Ij,  rightly  omit  the  suffix 
after  the  verb,  in  the  early  part  of  the  chapter. 

The  coffin  of  Amamu  has  a  chapter  of  the  same  title,  but  with 
quite  a  different  text. 

I.  Sacred  Hawk.  Between  this  and  the  Golden  Hawk  of  the 
last  chapter  the  vignettes  make  no  distinction  but  that  of  colour, 
which  is  indicative  of  age  rather  than  of  kind.  The  typical  Egyptian 
Hawk  may  be  identified  wnth  the  Falco  Lanarius,  or  with  the 
Peregrinus,  but  naturalists  tell  us  that  "  the  Lanier  of  BufTon  is  the 
perfect  state  of  the  male  Peregrinus,"  and  that  "the  Lanner  of 
Pennant  is  a  young  female  Peregrine." 

2.  Thy  powers,  '^^^    baiu. 

3.  The  goal  fi    vj  r^  or  fi  /-^^^  \^  '  ^  ^vord  we  have   already 

met  in  chapter  72  (^e'd- Note  3),  and  which  occurs  later  on  in  the 
present  chapter.     It  is  apparently  connected  with  the  verb  of  motion, 

0    \jI  j^  ,  and  seems  here  to  correspond  to  the  Greek  ^a\/3ec69,  or  the 

Latin  carceres,  the  two  posts  which  were  at  once  the  starting  point 
and  the  goal. 

"  signum  unde  reverti. 
"  Scirent,  et  longos  ubi  circumflectere  cursus."  * 

*  Aeneid,  V,  130. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  147 

4.   Invested  9  ^  Q ,  which  is  connected  with  ft      1 1  . 

The  determinative  Q  is  the  symbol  of  investiture,  which  is  also 
expressed  by  the  sign  x^  .  A  mummied  person  is  called  ^rt>^«, 
in  virtue  of  his  investiture. 

5.  Apple  of  the  eye,  literally  point,  thorn  ;  ^^    1  A  -C2>-  . 

/^/^/SA  H 

6.  The  Nemmes    \  ^  yp^.   is  the  royal  head-dress  in  the  form 

of  a  wig.  This  chapter  is  the  only  one  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  in 
which  it  is  referred  to,  but  other  religious  texts  mention  it.  It  rs 
one  of  the  objects  provided  for  the  deceased  in  the  pictures  of 
ancient  coffins.     (See  Aelteste  Texte,  p.  35.) 

7.  [Aahat.]  In  this  place  different  MSS.  introduce  one  or  more 
words  followed  by  the  sign  ^,  determinative  of  divinity.  But  the 
whole  text  which  follows  is  extremely  unsatisfactory.  The  prudent 
scribe  who  copied  Pg  has  the  words  "  I  am  the  great  god,"  and  with 
them  ends  the  chapter. 

8.  Fall  upon  Shu,  or  before  Shu,  who  represents  Daylight. 

9.  The  passage  is  obscure  through  the  absence  of  the  right 
determinative  Tinnnr  after  ^'""^^  V\  •  The  portals  of  Shu,  the 
gates  of  Morning,  answer  the  summons  of  the  god  who  comes  as 
Horus.      "^x—.  ^^'^s  the  sense  of  obviam  ire,  occurrere. 

Hetnatit   Q  — ^    C^ ,     a    place    near    the    Horizon,    not 


mentioned  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  except  in  this  chapter.     It  has 
disappeared  in  the  later  recensions. 

II.  Here   follow   one   or  two  divine    names   unknown   to   the 
copyists,  and  by  them  written  at  random. 


Chapter  iv hereby  one  assumeth  the  forni  of  the  Chief  god  of  the 

Divine  Cycle. 

Hail  to  thee,  Tmu,  Lord  of  Heaven,  who  givest  motion  to  all 
things  which  come  into  being;  thou  who  comest  forth  from  the 
Earth  and   createst  whatsoever  is  begotten :    Lord   of  the   things 

U  2 

148  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

which  are ;  who  givest  birth  to  the  gods  ;  great  god,  self-produced ; 
Lord  ot  Life,  who  givest  vigour  to  the  men  now  living : 

Hail  to  you,  ye  Lords  of  pure  things,  ye  whose  abodes  are 
hidden  : 

Hail  to  you,  ye  Lords  of  Eternity,  ye  whose  attributes  are  con- 
cealed, and  the  place  where  ye  reside  is  unknown. 

Hail  to  you,  ye  gods  who  are  in  the  divine  circuit  and  the 
Kabhu  ;  ye  gods  who  are  in  Amenta  and  ye,  O  Divine  Cycle  which 
is  in  Heaven  : 

Let  me  come  to  you,  let  me  be  purified  and  strengthened,  let 
me  be  enriched  and  gifted  with  power,  let  me  have  possession  and 

I  bring  in  offering  to  you  perfume,  incense  and  natron.  Stop  ye 
the  outpourings  of  your  hearts  against  me.  I  am  come  to  put  a 
stop  to  all  the  wrong  things  which  are  in  your  hearts,  and  to  do 
away  with  the  false  charges  which  have  been  made  to  you. 

But  I  bring  in  offering  to  you  well-bemg.*  I  lift  up  in  offering 
to  you  Maat. 

I  know  you  and  I  know  your  names,  and  I  know  your  attributes, 
though  it  be  not  known  what  by  you  may  be  brought  to  pass. 

I  come  before  you  and  make  my  appearance  as  that  god  in  the 
form  of  a  man  who  liveth  like  a  god,  and  I  stand  out  before  you  in 
the  form  of  that  god  who  is  raised  high  upon  his  pedestal,  to  whom 
the  gods  come  with  acclamation,  and  the  female  deities  with  jubila- 
tion, when  they  see  him. 

T  come  before  you  and  make  my  appearance  on  the  seat  of  Ra, 
and  I  sit  upon  my  seat  which  is  on  the  Horizon,  and  receive  the 
offerings  upon  their  altars.  I  drink  the  sacred  liquor  each  evening, 
in  the  form  of  the  Lord  of  all  creatures,  and  I  am  exalted  like  that 
venerable  god  the  Lord  of  the  Great  House,  whom  the  gods  rejoice 
at  seeing  at  his  beautiful  comings  forth  from  the  womb  of  Nut,  to 
whom  Nut  each  day  giveth  birth. 

*  Perhaps  laiher  gIofj>,  splendour,  I  ^^^  )>  U  which  implies  something  to 
be  seen. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  I49 


Chapter  whereby  o?ie  assumeth  the  form  of  the  god  who  giveth 
Li^ht  to  the  Darkness. 


It  is  I  who  complete  the  vesture  of  Nu,  the  Light  which  shineth 
before  him,  Hghting  up  the  darkness.  I  unite  with  the  two  brother- 
gods  who  are  upon  me  through  the  mighty  Words  of  Power  of  my 
mouth.  I  raise  up  the  fallen  one  who  cometh  after  me.  I  fall 
along  with  him  in  the  vale  of  Abydos  when  I  go  to  rest. 

I  have  seized  upon  Hu  from  the  place  in  which  I  found  him. 
And  I  have  lifted  off  the  darkness  through  my  power.  I  have 
rescued  the  Eye  from  its  eclipse  against  the  coming  of  the  Fifteenth 
day,  and  balanced  Sutu  in  the  mansions  above,  against  the  Great 
one  who  is  with  him. 

I  have  equipped  Thoth  [with  light]  in  the  house  of  the  Moon. 

I  seize  upon  the  Crown.  Maat  is  upon  me,  and  the  Emerald 
and  the  Crystal  of  her  months. 

This  field  of  mine  is  of  Azure  in  the  festival  thereof 

I  lighten  up  the  darkness  and  overthrow  the  devouring 
monsters,  (i) 

Those  who  are  in  their  own  darkness  worship  me,  and  they  rise 
up  to  me,  covering  their  faces,  who  mourn  and  are  prostrate :  look 
ye  therefore  upon  me. 

I  am  the  Craftsman  (2)  of  Nu,  but  I  come  not  up  in  order  that 
you  should  hear  of  this. 

I  am  the  Craftsman  of  Nu,  who  lighteneth  the  darkness,  and  I 
have  come  to  dissipate  the  darkness,  and  that  light  should  be. 


1.  Devouring  fnonsters,  ^^^^  _P  I  I  I  ' 

2.  The  later  recensions  have  ^  or  ^  ^  ^  M^  wife.  The  older 
papyri  omit  the  feminine  ending,  which  is  inconsistent  with  the  rest 
of  the  chapter.  I  understand  'C  or  c?  ^ ,  in  the  sense  of  artist, 

150  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  ivhereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Lotus. 

I  am  the  pure  Lotus  which  cometh  forth  from  the  glory  which  is 
at  the  nostril  of  Ra,  and  I  make  my  journey  and  pursue  it  for  Horus, 
the  great  god  beloved. 

I  am  the  pure  Lotus  which  cometh  forth  in  the  field. 

This  little  chapter  is  not  without  its  special  difficulty.     Are  we  to 
read    [T]    ^^.    (1(1    as    a    word    implying    motion,    with    A    as   its 

determinative,  or  as  implying  invocation,  with  QAas  its  determinative? 
The  copyists  differed  and  some  of  them  changed  the  word  into 
I  so  that  there  should  be  no  ambiguity.      But  this 

ra  o'^ 

does  not  clear  up  the  words  which  immediately  follow ;  hence  Ba 
has  suppressed  them,  whilst  other  copyists  have  given  themselves  no 
trouble  as  to  the  sense  of  what  they  wrote. 


Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  Ptah,  eateth  bread, 
drinketh  beer,  and  sitteth  in  the  midst  of  the  great  gods. 

I  fly  like  the  Hawk,  I  cackle  like  the  Smen-goose,  I  alight  on  the 
right  side  of  the  Aat,  on  the  feast  of  the  Great  One. 

I  execrate,  I  execrate :  I  eat  it  not.  Dirt  is  what  I  execrate  : 
I  eat  it  not.  That  which  my  Genius  execrateth  let  it  not  enter 
into  me. 

Let  me  therefore  live  upon  that  which  is  put  before  them  ;  the 
gods  and  the  glorified   ones.     Let  me   live  and  enjoy  the   bread 

and *     Let  me  then  eat  them  in  the  presence  of  the  gods  and 

glorified  ones.  Let  me  enjoy  and  eat  them  under  the  foliage  of  the 
date  trees  of  Hathor,  my  sovereign.  Let  the  oblations  be  made,  of 
bread  and  beer  in  Taltu,  and  bondings  of  the  head  in  Annu.     Let 

*  The  word  seems  to  have  been  uninleUigible  to  the  copyists,  who  differ 
widely  from  each  other  as  to  its  orthography. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  151 

my  vesture  be  girt  upon  me  by  Tait.     Let   me  sit   whereever   it 
pleaseth  me. 

My  head  is  that  of  Ra  and  I  am  summed  up  as  Tmu  :  Four 
times  the  arm's  length  of  Ra  :   four  times  the  width  of  the  world,  (i) 

I  have  come  forth  with  the  tongue  of  Ptah  and  the  throat  of 
Hathor  that  I  may  record  the  words  of  my  father  Tmu  with  my 
mouth,  which  draweth  to  itself  the  Spouse  of  Seb,  and  the  proclama- 
tion of  whose  lips  inspireth  fear. 

I  repeat  the  acclamations  at  my  success  on  being  declared  the 
heir  of  the  Lord  of  Earth,  Seb,  from  whom  I  issue. 

Seb  purifieth  me,  and  giveth  me  his  Theophanies.  (2)  The 
dwellers  in  Annu  bow  their  heads  to  me.  I  am  their  Master.  I  am 
their  Bull.  More  powerful  am  I  than  the  Lord  of  Time  ;  I  am  the 
author  and  the  master  of  endless  years. 

I.   Not  in   length  but   in  periphery.      The    I  ] 

i     CZS3    I   I    I  I     I         I 

implies  a  quadrangular   figure,   and   so   do    {f^^     ^    .       Of    this 

====   nil 
quadrangle,  North,  South,  East,  and  West,  are  not  cardinal  points  or 

angles,  but  sides. 

2.    Theophanies,  v\  .      This  is  the  true  meaning  of  the 

word,  whether  in  reference  to  the  Sun  rising  in  the  sky  or  to  the 
king  upon  his  throne. 

Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Bennu  bird. 

Let  me  wheel  round  in  whirls,  let  me  turn  like  the  Turning 
One,  let  me  flourish  like  a  flower  and  keep  myself  hidden  like  the 
Hider.  (i) 

I  am  the  Barley  corn  of  every  god. 

I  am  the  four  Yesterdays  of  those  seven  Uraeus  deities  who  are 
born  in  Amenta;  Horus  who  giveth  light  by  means  of  his  own  body; 
the  god  who  is  against  Sutu  when  Thoth  is  between  them,  as  in  that 
dispute  of  the  Prince  of  Sechem  with  the  Spirits  of  Annu  where 
the  river  is  between  them.  (2) 

152  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  come  forth  by  day  and  disclose  myself  at  the  head  of  the  gods. 
I  am  the  god  who  chaseth  all  boastfulness.  (3) 


1.  There  is  here  a  play  on  the  words /«;,  heper^  ru( and  set     The 

Turning   One  is  the  god  Chepera.      The  Tortoise  ^^.    *^^ 

derives  its  name  (the  hider),  from  the  habit  of  drawing  its  body  within 
its  shell.  On  the  flight  of  the  Bennu  see  the  first  note  of  next 

2.  The  Nile  lies  between  the  opposite  shores  of  the  Nomes  of 
Letopolis  (Sechem)  and  Heliopolis  (Annu). 

3.  The  later  recensions  have  "  I  am  Chonsu  who  ptitteth  a  stop 
to  all  boastfulness."     But  in  the  early  copies  Chonsu  is  taken  in  its 

primitive  sense  the  chaser  and  does  not  require  the  verb  <zr>  to 

govern  'boastfulness.' 

Chapter  whereby  one  assunieth  the  form  of  the  Herns  haw.  ( i ) 

Thou  who  boldest  the  bound  victims  ;  ye  knives  over  their  heads 
and  locks  and  fleeces;  (2)  ye  aged  and  bright  ones  who  are  armed 
with  the  fated  moment. 

I  come  to  heaven  but  I  strike  upon  the  earth  ;  and  conversely. 

It  is  my  power  which  produceth  victory  and  raiseth  the  height 
of  heaven,  and  I  make  the  lustrations  which  yield  the  extent  of  earth 
to  my  feet  against  the  sinful  cities  as  I  advance  and  cut  in  pieces  (3) 
those  who  are  involved  in  rebellion.  (4) 

I  leave  the  gods  upon  their  paths  but  I  strike  the  Wakers  who 
are  in  their  coffins. 

I  know  not  Nu,  I  know  not  Tatunen,  I  know  not  the  Red  ones 
when  they  bring  opposition  to  me. 

I  know  not  a  Word  of  Power  to  whose  utterance  I  listen. 

I  am  the  Red  Calf  upon  the  tablets. 

This  is  what  the  gods  say  when  they  raise  their  voice. 

Let  your  countenances  be  without  restraint  towards  him  who 
Cometh  to  me, 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 53 

The  morning  dawns  are  independent  of  you,  ye  have  not  the 
charge  of  them ;  but  my  alternations  are  in  my  own  hands.  I  say 
not  the  wrong  instead  of  the  right. 

Day  after  day  unswervingly  turneth  back  upon  my  eye-brow. 

And  Evening  is  the  beginning  of  my  voyage  to  celebrate  the 
solemnity  of  the  Reclining  and  the  Embrace  of  the  Aged  one  who 
hath  charge  of  the  Earth. 


1.  Both  the  Betmu  and  the  Shenshen  (which  I  here  translate 
'  Hernshaw ')  are  Herons.  They  fly  to  a  great  height  in  spiral 

2.  The  true  reading  here  seems  to  be  '^_^  Yr\  from  \\ 

'  shear.' 

3.  Cut  in  pieces.     The  papyrus  of  Ani  gives  the  valuable  reading 

n    (g  . 

4.  Rebellion.     So  I  understand  -^^  ^  j  ,  a  wrongful  and  violent 

rising,  i7ravaaTaai<s. 


Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  thefortn  of  a  Soul,  (i)  that  one  may 
not  cotne  to  the  dungeon.     Imperishable  is  he  ivho  knoweth  it. 

I  am  a  Soul.  I  am  Ra  who  proceedeth  from  Nu,  and  my  soul 
is  divine.  I  am  he  who  produceth  food,  but  I  execrate  what  is 
wrong  and  look  not  upon  it. 

I  am  possessor  of  Maat  and  subsist  by  means  of  it. 

I  am  the  Food  which  perisheth  not ;  in  my  name  of  the  Self- 
originating  Force,  together  with  Nu,  in  the  name  of  Chepera,  from 
whom  I  am  born  daily. 

I  am  the  Lord  of  Daylight  and  I  execrate  Death,  let  me  not 
enter  into  the  dungeons  of  the  gods  of  the  Tuat. 

It  is  I  who  give  glory  to  Osiris  and  propitiate  the  hearts  of 
those  who  are  with  him,  my  own  friends. 

They  inspire  the  fear  of  me,  and  put  forward  my  might  to  those 
within  their  domains. 


154  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

And  behold  me,  how  I  am  raised  upon  my  pedestal  and  upon 
my  throne. 

I  am  Nu.     They  shall  not  overthrow  me  who  do  wrong. 

I  am  he  whose  orbits  are  of  old ;  my  soul  is  divine,  it  is  the 
Eternal  Force. 

It  is  I  who  create  the  Darkness  which  maketh  its  seat  at  the 
confines  of  Heaven. 

My  Soul  hath  come,  far  advanced  in  age,  and  I  create  the 
Daikness  at  the  confines  of  Heaven  at  my  pleasure. 

I  reach  the  limits,  and  I  advance  upon  my  feet. 

I  take  the  lead  and  I  traverse  the  steel  firmament  which  maketh 
a  curtain.  (2)  I  put  a  stop  to  the  Darkness  and  the  worms  ;  I 
whose  name  is  hidden. 

I  drive  away  aggression  from  before  the  Lord  of  the  two  hands, 
who  is  my  own  Soul.  The  Uraeus  divinities  are  my  body.  My 
image  is  Eternal,  the  Lord  of  years,  the  King  of  Everlasting. 

I  am  exalted  as  Lord  of  the  land  of  Rebu  :  '  the  Youth  in 
Town,  the  Lad  in  the  Country  '  is  my  name ;  and  my  name  is 

I  am  the  Force  which  createth  Heaven  and  maketh  its  abode 
in  the  Netherworld. 

Not  to  be  seen  is  my  nest  ;  not  to  be  broken  is  my  Egg. 

I  am  the  Lord  on  High.  I  have  made  my  nest  on  the  confines 
of  Heaven,  and  I  descend  to  the  earth  of  Seb  and  put  a  stop  to 
evil.     I  see  my  father,  the  Lord  of  the  Gloaming,  and  I  breathe.  (3) 


1.  Soul.  The  Egyptian  word  which  in  our  modern  languages 
we  translate  as  Soul  has  already  been  explained  as  meaning  Force. 
It  is  so  translated  in  this  chapter  in  several  passages  where  this  sense 
is  emphatically  required. 

2.  A  curtain,        ^  set,  literally  a  skin.     Cf.   Ps.    civ,    2,    "Who 

stretchest  out  the  heavens  like  a  curtain,"  where  the  LXX  render 
'  curtain  '  by  ^epi'nv  and  the  Vulgate  hy  pellein. 

3.  Here  the  chapter  ends  in  Fc.  The  few  words  which  follow 
in  other  MSS.  were  unintelligible  to  the  copyists  and  are  written 
very  variously. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  155 


Chapter  ivherehy  one  ass  it  met h  the  form  0/ the  Swallow,  (i) 

I  am  the  Swallow  ;  I  am  the  Swallow. 
I  am  the  Scorpion-bird,  daughter  of  Ra. 

0  ye  gods,  whose  perfume  is  delicious  :  Flame  which  proceedest 
from  the  Horizon  :  O  thou  who  art  in  the  place  whence  I  have 
brought  the  keeper  of  his  fold — -let  me  have  thine  arm  that  I  may 
make  my  observation  at  the  Tank  of  Flame,  that  I  may  advance  as 
an  envoy  and  come  with  the  report  of  it. 

Be  it  opened  to  me,  in  order  that  I  may  tell  what  I  have  seen. 

Horus  is  in  command  of  his  bark.  There  hath  been  given  to 
him  the  throne  of  his  father,  and  Sutu  that  son  of  Nut  is  under  the 
grappling  hooks  which  he  made  for  him. 

1  have  ascertained  what  is  in  Sechera.  I  have  touched  with  my 
two  hands  the  Heart  of  Osiris.  (2) 

And  that  which  I  went  in  order  to  ascertain  I  am  come  to  tell. 
Come  let  me  enter  and  report  my  mission. 

And  I,  entering  and  ascertaining  who  cometh  forth  through  that 
gate  of  the  Inviolate  one,  I  purify  myself  at  that  great  stream  where 
my  ills  are  made  to  cease,  and  that  which  is  wrong  in  me  is  pardoned 
and  the  spots  which  were  on  my  body  upon  earth  are  effaced. 

0  Keeper  of  the  Portal,  let  the  path  be  made  for  me,  for  I  am 
as  one  of  you.  Let  me  come  forth  by  day,  and  walk  upon  my  own 
legs.     Let  me  have  the  feet  of  the  Glorified. 

1  know  the  mysterious  paths  and  the  gates  of  Aarru  from  whence 
I  come.  Here  am  I,  and  I  come  that  I  may  overthrow  mine 
adversaries  upon  earth,  though  my  dead  body  be  buried. 

If  this  chapter  be  known  he  7vill  re-enter  after  coming  forth  by  day. 


I.     The  Swallow /wwvN  •^^^.       The  objection  to  this  meaning 

is  that  the  bird  in  question  was  eaten ;  and  that  doves  or  pigeons 
would  be  less  meagre  food  than  the  Swallow,  and  therefore  more 
probably  intended  in  the  Egyptian  texts.  But  Swallows  are  still 
eaten  at  Rome,  where  like  Clive  Newcome  we  may  be  regaled 
not  only  with  "wild  swans  and  ducks"  but  with  '' robins,  owls, 
and  oiwvolai  Te  iraaL  for  dinner."  And  Willughby,  the  naturalist 
found  a  large  quantity  of  swallows  being  sold  for  food  at  Valencia  in 

X    2 



The  flat  head,  the  short  legs,  and  the  tail  of  the  bird  are  charac- 
teristic not  of  the  pigeon  but  of  the  swallow,  and  on  many  pictures 
{e.g.,  pi.  xxi,  vignette  from  Leyden  papyrus)  we  are  reminded  of  the 
song — 

'^H\6''  ifKOe   ')(^E\ibu3v  .... 
eVt    f^aarepa   \evKa 
ivri    vwra  fieXaiva. 

It  is  not  quite  plain  why  the  name  of  Scorpion  should  be  given 
to  the  bird,  but  the  name  fi  c--^^  ^  of  the  insect  in  itself  implies 

nothing  more  than  the  characteristic  whiteness  of  colour. 

2.    Touched  with  my  two  hands  the  Heart  of  Osiris. 

A     \^ s^  is  the  origin  of  the  Coptic  (To^    'touch.'      The 

word  Heart  has  dropped  out  of  the  later  texts  {e.g.,  the  Turin  copy), 
but  in  the  older  papyri  it  is  found  in  the  form  of  (1    \   or  ^ . 

In  Chapter  86 


Additional  Note 


has  unquestionably  the  sense  of  ascer- 

taifting  by  inspection.  The  Abbot  Papyrus  in  its  account  of  the 
enquiry  respecting  the  spoliation  of  the  royal  coffins  gives  ample 
evidence  of  this  meaning.     And  the  word  there  used  for  reporting 

the  result  of  the  inspection  is,  as  is  Ch.  86,     '  v  [,  (2  ^h  semiiu,  in 

Coptic  T-<LJUt.e. 

But  it  is  well  to  remember  that   I  [ 


has  another  use  ;   which 

perhaps  implies  the  existence  of  two  homonymous  roots.  In  a 
passage  quoted  in  Note  21  to  Ch.  64,  it  certainly  signifies  restore. 
And  this  may  possibly  be  its  meaning  in  the  rubric  of  Ch.  64.  The 
journey  of  Prince  Hortataf  may  have  had  reference  to  the 
restoration,  not  simply  inspection,  of  the  temples.     In  this  sense  it 

111     3  P  or    1[      rv^  sapu.     The  Coptic  word  for 

is  often  written 



ii-zoKaQiaiavai  in  Hosea  xi,  1 1  and  Acts  i,  6  is  Tc^O. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 57 


Chapter  7ohereby  otie  assumcth  the  form  of  Se-ta. 

I  am  Seta — full  of  years. 

I  lay  myself  down  [in  death],  and  I  am  born  daily. 
I  am  Seta  at  the  confines  of  the   earth.     I  lay  myself  down  [in 
death],  I  restore  myself  and  I  renew  myself  daily. 


Se-ta     y^    lUSt'  li'^Grally    Filins  terrae,    is    a    common    noun 

signiying  an  earth-worm.  It  is  applied  to  the  Sun  as  rising  out 
of  the  earth.  There  are  several  pictures  at  Denderah  representing 
the  Sun-god  Hor-sam-ta  in  the  form  of  the  worm  rising  out  of  the 
Lotus  of  Dawn.     See  pi.  xxiii,  from  Mariette,  Dend.  I,  47  and  48. 


Chapter  whereby  one  assumeth  the  form  of  the  Crocodile  god 


For  I  am  the  Crocodile  god  in  all  his  terrors. 
I  am  the  Crocodile  god  in  the  form  of  man.  (2)     I  am  he  who 
carrieth  off  with  violence.     I  am  the  almighty  Fish  in  Kamurit. 
I  am  the  Lord  to  whom  one  bendeth  down  (3)  in  Sechem. 


1.  Sebak  is  not  always  named  in  the  papyri.     The  ideogram  of 
the  crocodile  was  in  some  copies  read  emsuh  and  in  others  sebak. 

2.  In  the  form  of  man  ^^    ^ r  m  •     ^^  ^^^'^  ^^''Y  different 

readings  this  is  the  most  intelligible. 

3.   To  whom  one  bendeth  down,  literally  '  master  of  bendings.' 


Chapter  whereby  the  Soul  is  united  to  the  dead  Body. 

Oh  thou  who  Bringest ;  Oh  thou  Runner,  who  dwellest  in  thy 
Keep,  (i)  thou  great  god;  grant  that  my  Soul  may  come  to  me  from 
whatsoever  place  wherein  it  abideth. 

158  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

But  if  there  be  a  delay  in  the  bringing  of  my  soul  to  me,  thou 
shalt  find  the  Eye  of  Horus  standing  firm  against  thee,  like  those 
undrowsy  Watchers  who  lie  in  Annu,  the  land  wherein  are  thousands 
of  reunions. 

Let  my  Soul  be  caught,  and  the  Chu  which  is  with  it,  whereso- 
ever it  abideth. 

Track  out  (2)  among  the  things  in  heaven  and  upon  earth  that 
soul  of  mine,  wherever  it  abideth. 

But  if  there  be  a  delay  in  thy  causing  me  to  see  my  Soul  and  my 
Shade,  thou  shalt  find  the  Eye  of  Horus  standing  firm  against  thee. 

Oh  ye  gods  who  draw  along  the  Bark  of  the  Eternal  one  :  ye 
who  lift  up  above  the  Tuat,  and  who  raise  up  the  Sky  :  ye  who 
enable  the  Souls  to  enter  into  the  mummied  forms;  ye  whose  hands 
grasp  the  cordage,  hold  firm  with  your  ropes  and  stop  the  adversaries 
that  the  Bark  may  rejoice  and  the  god  proceed  in  peace. 

And  now  grant  that  my  Soul  may  come  forth  in  your  train  from 
the  Eastern  horizon  of  Heaven  for  ever  and  ever. 


The  oldest  papyri  present  a  much  shorter  form  than  the  later 
ones.  That  portion  which  is  here  separated  by  a  line  from  what 
goes  before  it  first  appears  on  the  sarcophagus  of  Seti  I  and  in  the 
papyrus  of  Ani.  The  vignette  is  a  very  favourite  decoraticn  of 

1.  Keep  I  |i  of  which  the  regular  variant  in  this  chapter  is 
not  sah   but     ®    f  |  sehen. 

2.  Track  out,  D     ^    is  investigare,  e^i-vpeiciv,  to  follow  the 

traces  like  a  dog.  See  Denk.  II,  3,  where  the  word  occurs  in  the 
title  of  "master  of  the  trackers,"  determined  by  a  man  holding  a 
hound  in  leash.     It  is  from  this   notion  that  the  sense  of  sis'hi  or 

looking  appears  in  ^   V 

-^3^  ,  Wist. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  1 59 


Chapter  whereby  Memory  is  restored  {\)  to  a  person. 

Oh  thou  who  choppest  off  heads  and  cuttest  throats,  but  restorest 
memory  in  the  mouth  of  the  dead  through  the  Words  of  Power  which 
they  possess  :  thou  seest  me  not  with  thine  eyes,  thou  perceivest  not 
with  thy  feet ;  (2)  thou  turnest  back  thy  face,  thou  seest  not  the 
executioners  of  Shu,  who  are  coming  behind  thee  to  chop  off  thine 
own  head  and  to  cut  thy  throat.  Let  not  my  mouth  be  closed, 
through  the  Words  of  Power  which  I  possess  ;  even  as  thou  hast  done 
to  the  dead,  through  the  Words  of  Power  which  they  possess. 

Away  with  the  two  sentences  uttered  by  Isis  when  thou  camest 
to  fling  remembrance  at  the  mouth  of  Osiris  (3)  and  the  heart  of  Sutu, 
his  enemy,  saying  : — 


Of  this  chapter  we  have  unfortunately  but  one  copy  in  Fa,  of  the 
Musee  Borely.  This  is  defective  both  at  the  beginning  and  at  the 
end,  and  the  text  is  inaccurate.  The  later  copies  are  so  inaccurate 
that  it  is  impossible  to  reconstitute  the  text.  It  is  precisely  on  those 
points  where  grammatical  accuracy  is  required  for  fixing  a  definite 
sense  that  the  manuscripts  are  hopelessly  defective.  The  preceding 
translation  is  verbally  correct,  I  trust,  but  I  do  not  pretend  that  it  is 
intelligible.     It  stops  where  the  papyrus  Fa  stops. 

1.  Restored.  The  reduplication  in  ^ — ^  here  gives  the  verb  this 

2.  It  is  not  only  in  Egyptian  that  verbs  of  sight  are  applied  to 
other  perceptions.  Aeschylus  says  ktvttov  UhopKa  in  Sept  c.  Th.  104, 
and  the  Hebrew  writers  furnish  similar  examples. 

3.  At  the  Jtiouth  of  Osiris  and  the  heart  of  Sutu.  To  justify  this 
translation  the  same  preposition  ought  to  govern  mouth  and  heart. 
But  I  do  not  know  any  copy  in  which  this  occurs.  The  Turin  reading 
is  simply  absurd. 

l6o  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Soul  is  secured  frofn  imprisonment  in  the 


Oh  thou  who  art  exalted  and  worshipped,  all  powerful,  almighty 
one,  who  grantest  thy  terrors  to  the  gods,  who  displayest  thyself  upon 
thy  throne  of  grandeur,  (i)  let  the  way  be  made  for  my  Soul,  my  Chu 
and  my  Shade.     Let  me  be  thoroughly  equipped. 

I  am  a  powerful  Soul ;  let  the  way  be  made  for  me  to  the  place 
where  Ra  is  and  Hathor. 

If  this  Chapter  is  kfioicn,  he  taketh  the  form  of  a  fully  equipped 
Chu  in  the  Netherworld^  and  does  not  suffer  imprisonme7it  at  any  door 
in  the  Atfienta,  either  in  coming  in  or  going  out. 


I.  There  is  no  safe  text  here,  '  grandeur '  is  only  meant  to  indicate 

the  existence  of  <cr>  in  the  original.      But  there  certainly  ought  to 

be  something  different  from  what  any  of  the  MSS.  supply. 


Chapter  whereby  the  Tomb  is  ope?ied  to  the  Soul  and  to  the  Shade  of 
the  person,  that  he  may  come  forth  by  day  atid  ?nay  have  mastery 
of  his  feet. 

That  standeth  open  which  thou  openest,  and  that  is  closed  which 
thou  closest,  oh  thou  who  art  at  rest;  (i)  thou  openest  and  thou 
closest  to  my  Soul,  at  the  bidding  of  the  Eye  of  Horus  :  who 
delivereth  me,  who  establisheth  the  glory  upon  the  brow  of  Ra  :  [the 
god]  of  stretched  out  steps  and  rapid  paces,  who  maketh  for  me  a 
wide  path  and  vigorous  limbs. 

I  am  Horus,  the  avenger  of  his  father,  who  lifteth  up  his  father 
and  who  lifteth  up  his  mother  with  his  staff. 

Let  the  path  be  opened  to  him  who  hath  mastery  of  his  feet, 
that  he  may  look  upon  the  great  god  within  the  Bark  of  Ra  on  the 
day  of  the  Soul's  Reckoning  ;   and  my  Soul  is  then  at  the  front 
during  the  Reckoning  of  the  Years. 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  LXXXVIII.         Cuaptek  LXXXMII. 
Papyrus,   Leyden,     Papyrus  of  Nebseni,  British 
No.  II.  Museum,  No.  9900. 

Chapter  LXXX\"II. 
Mariette,  "Denderah." 

Chapter  LXXXVII.        Chapter  LXXXVIII. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  LXXXIX. 
Papyrvs  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  XC. 
Papyrus,  Musee  Bore'y,  Marseilles. 

Chapter  XC. 
Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Chapter  XCII, 
Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 



Chapter  XCII. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  9949. 



!"i ir 

jxy — -« 




'  \ 

Chapter  XCII. 
Papyrus,  Boulaq,  21. 

Chapter  XCII. 
Papyrus  of  Ani,   British  Museum. 

Chapter  XCIII. 
Papyrus,  Louvre  III,  93. 

Chapter  XCIV. 
Papyrus,  Louvre  III,  9. 

Chapter  XCV. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  10,009. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD,  l6l 

May  the  Eye  of  Horus  deliver  for  me  my  Soul,  and  establish  my 
splendour  upon  the  brow  of  Ra,  and  may  my  radiance  be  upon  your 
faces  who  are  attached  to  the  person  of  Osiris  ;  imprison  not  my 
Soul,  put  not  in  custody  my  Shade. 

Let  the  path  be  open  to  my  Soul  and  to  my  Shade  that  it  may 
see  the  great  god  within  his  sanctuary,  on  the  day  of  the  Soul's 
Reckoning,  and  may  repeat  the  words  of  Osiris  whose  place  is 
unseen,  and  of  those  who  are  attached  to  the  person  of  Osiris  and 
have  the  custody  of  Souls  and  Spirits,  and  who  shut  up  the  Shades 
of  the  Dead  who  would  do  an  injury  to  me.  (2) 

Let  the  path  be  thrown  open  (3)  to  thy  Genius*  and  to  thy  Sou!, 
Glorified  one,  who  art  provided  with  those  who  conduct  thee ;  sit 
thou  at  the  head  of  the  Great  ones  in  thy  place ;  thou  shalt  not  be 
imprisoned  by  those  who  are  attached  to  the  person  of  Osiris  and 
who  have  the  custody  of  Souls  and  Spirits  and  who  shut  up  the 
Shades  of  the  Dead.     It  is  Heaven  that  shall  hold  thee. 


I.  I  cannot  agree  with  those  who  have  hitherto  translated  this 
chapter.  The  only  grammatical  interpretation  which  seems  possible 
for  the  first  sentence  depends  upon  the  sense  given  to  the  suffix 

ta.     I    take  this   as   representing    the   second   person  singular. 


H»    ^'^^  >  ^^^  person  ai  rest  (Osiris)  is  the  one  invoked,  and  is  here 

translated  by  the  vocative. 

2.  The  words  which  follow  are  evidently  the  words  of  Osiris  and 
those  attached  to  him,  which  are  addressed  to  the  deceased  and  are 
repeated  by  him.  The  text  here,  as  indeed  everywhere,  is  very 

J\ .     I  have  explained  the  sense  of  the 

3.  Thrown  open,  [1     *~ 

verb     **     mes  {Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  1882,  p.  70)  as  stretching  out, 
of  which  notion  J\  is  the  determinative.  ^ 

X  .     J/i?i'/ z^rt^  is 'pandatur  via.' 


-«— fl  . 

IS  = 

The  Egyptian  ka. 

1 62  BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD. 


Chapter  ^ahenby  one   avoideth  being  conveyed  to   the   East   in   the 

Oh  thou  Phallus  of  Ra,  who  fliest  from  the  storm,  disablement 
ariseth  from  Baba  who  useth  against  me  might  beyond  the  mighty 
and  power  beyond  the  powerful. 

If  I  am  conveyed  away,  if  I  am  carried  off  to  the  East ;  if  all 
evil  and  injurious  things  of  a  feast  day  of  fiends  are  perpetrated 
upon  me  through  the  waving  of  the  Two  Horns,  then  shall  be 
devoured  the  Phallus  of  Ra  and  the  Head  of  Osiris. 

And  should  I  be  led  to  the  fields  wherein  the  gods  destroy  him 
who  answereth  them,  then  shall  the  horns  of  Chepera  be  twisted 
back,  then  shall  blindness  (i)  arise  in  the  eyes  of  Tmu  and  destruc- 
tion, (2)  through  the  seizure  of  me,  and  through  my  being  carried 
off  to  the  East,  through  there  being  made  over  me  a  feast  day  of  the 
fiends,  through  all  the  murderous  work  perpetrated  upon  me.  (3) 


This  chapter  contains  one  of  those  threats  (of  which  there  are 
other  instances)  made  to  the  gods.  The  speaker  is  in  fact  so 
identified  with  divinity  that  any  evil  which  happens  to  him  must  he 
conceived  as  involving  the  same  calamity  to  the  gods  and  to  the 

There  is  a  very  considerable  difference  between  the  earlier  and 
the  later  texts.  There  is  very  great  confusion  in  the  text  of  the 
Turin  Todtejibuch  as  compared  with  that  of  the  Cadet  papyrus. 

(i)  Blindness,    J    0  ^ '^       in  the  earlier  and       '-■'^■"'^  in  the 
/www      JlT  I  I  I  ^  °  ° 

later  texts.  The  latter  form,  which  has  for  determinative  pearls 
or  globules  of  some  kind,  reminds  one  of  the  disease  formerly  called 
gutta  seven  a. 

(2)   Destruction  A  ^^1=^  ^^\    "^^^^^^^^^      But  this  word  is  written 

in  different  ways  in    the  papyri.      With  M+i  as  a  sufifix  it  would  mean 

'my  destroyer.'  Ca  gives  J|j  as  a  determinative,  and  thus  creates  a 
god  Hetniii,  or  at  least  a  name  punning  upon  that  of  Tnu,  to  which 
it  is  united. 

BOOK   OK   THE   DEAD.  163 

3.  The  more  recent  texts,  like  those  of  the  Turin  Todieiibuc/i, 
insert  a  negative  particle  before  the  mention  of  each  disaster.  They 
pray  that  the  Phallus  of  Ra  may  not  be  devoured,  that  the  blindness 
may  not  come  upon  Tmu,  and  so  on. 

Chapter  whereby  one  prayeth  for  a  Palette  and  an  Inkstand. 

Oh  mighty  one,  who  seest  thy  father,  and  who  hast  charge  of 
the  Book  of  Thoth. 

Here  am  I,  I  come  and  am  glorified  and  filled  with  Soul  and 
Power  and  provided  with  the  writings  of  Thoth,  which  I  bring  in 
order  to  purify  the  tunnel  which  is  in  Sutu.  (i)  I  bring  the  Palette 
and  I  bring  the  Inkstand  as  the  instruments  of  Thoth,  the  secrets 
of  which  are  divine. 

Here  am  I,  as  the  Scribe ;  I  bring  the  remains  of  Osiris;  (2)  and 
the  writing  which  I  have  made  upon  them  is  decreed  by  the  great 
god  to  be  good,  daily,  among  the  good.  Thou  hast  decreed,  Horus 
of  the  Two  Horizons,  that  I  shall  be  the  author  of  Maatandtend  (3) 
it  daily  to  Ra. 


1.  In  Sutu  ;  that  is,  in  Darkness.       See  chapter  96. 

2.  The  remains,  Q  -L  {^.'^^-    This  word,  though  commonly 

applied  to  corruption  and  impurity  of  dead  matter,  is  taken  in  an 
inoffensive  sense  when  applied  to  the  gods.  Compare,  e.g.,  Pepi  I, 
line  477  and  following. 

3.  Tend,      \       |[[   J\   mesi  (not    sebi)    stretch    out,  pandere, 


Chapter  whereby  is  opened  the  place  wherein  Thoth  resteth. 

I  am  the  Dread  one  (i)  in  Storm,  who  guard  the  Great  one  (2) 
against  assault. 

I  smite  like  the  Flint-god  :  I  sprinkle  like  the  Sprinkling-god.  (3) 

\    2 

l64  BOOK   OF   Tf!E   DEAD. 

I  am  the  protection  (4)  of  the  Great  one  against  assault  and  I 
give  vigour  to  the  sword  which  is  in  the  hand  of  Thoth  (5)  in  the 


The  papyrus  ^^  gives  this  chapter  the  title  of  "assuming  the 
form  of  the  Smen-goose,"  and  Dr.  Birch  published  the  text  of  this 
papyrus  in  the  Zeitschrifi  of  1869  (p.  25)  as  one  of  those  additional 
chapters  which  "do  not  occur  in  the  Ritual  of  Turin."  This  is  of 
course  an  error  of  oversight.  This  chapter  is  in  the  Turin  lodten- 
b/jch,  and  the  papyrus  Ad  merely  gives  it  under  an  erroneous  title, 
which  was  evidently  meant  for  another  text. 

I,   The  Dread  one,  v\    ^  .     Instead  of   this    Ad   has 

^AAAAA    ^. J 

\#/  -T| ,   which   I  cannot   regard  otherwise   than   as   a    simple 

blunder  of  the  scribe.     \^  is  a  well  known  anaglyph  in  certain 

scenes,  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  its  being  a  variant  of  the  name 
of  Chnemu. 

2.  Two  of  the  ancient  papyri  Ca  and  Ad  read  ITorus,  the  others 
have  the  Great  goddess,  and  so  has  Ad  in  the  next  line.  The  more 
recent  texts  have  (not  urit,  'the  great  one,'  but)  Jtrerit,  'the  crown.' 

3.  The  Sprinkling  god  "^^X  C3t=l  %  Jj  Aashu.     This  god 

is  mentioned  but  once  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  and  his  name  is 
here    interpreted    conjecturally    in    consequence    of    the    function 

assigned  to  him  and  of  the  not  unlike  word  (I   ^.=»p  as  '  spit.' 

4.  Protection.     I  read  y  |  instead  of  <§>^|    in  the  early  papyri. 

5.  Thoth.  The  recent  texts  have  Chepera,  an  evident  error. 
The  allusion  is  to  the  storm  or  distress  from  which  Thoth  rescues 
the  Eye  of  Horus. 


Chapter  whereby  is  opened  \_t he  place']  where  Thoth  [resteth]. 

I  am  he  who  dwelleth  in  the  middle  of  his  own  Eye.  I  have 
come  that  I  may  deliver  Maat  to  Ra,  and  may  propitiate  Sutu  with 
the  libations  for  Akar  and  the  red  victims  of  the  Faithful  of  Seb. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD;  1 6  = 


Said  at  the  Bark :  Staff  of  Anubis,  may  I  propitiate  those  four 
Glorified  ones  who  follow  after  the  Master  of  [all]  things. 

I  am  the  Master  of  the  champaign  at  their  behest,  and  I  am  the 
Father  of  the  inundation,  when  he  who  hath  charge  of  the  canals  is 

Look  therefore  upon  me,  oh  ye  great  and  mighty  gods,  who  are 
foremost  among  the  Spirits  of  Annu  ;  let  me  be  exalted  in  your 
presence.  I  am  a  well-doer  towards  you.  Lo  I  come,  that  I  may 
purify  this  Soul  of  mine  in  the  most  high  degree ;  let  not  that 
impediment  proceeding  from  your  mouth  be  issued  against  me 
which  giveth  one  over  to  ruin  :  let  me  be  purified  in  the  lake  of 
propitiation  and  of  equipoise :  let  me  plunge  into  the  divine  pool 
beneath  the  two  divine  sycomores  of  Heaven  and  Earth. 

Now  let  my  Fold  be  fitted  for  me  as  one  victorious  against  ail 
adversaries  who  would  not  that  right  should  be  done  to  me. 

I  am  the  Only  one  ;   just  and  true  upon  the  Earth.     It  is  I  who 

siy  it. 

♦  *  ♦ 


Chapters  96  and  97  are  really  but  one  chapter,  which  M.  Naville 
has  found  in  only  two  MSS.  of  the  early  period.  The  end  of  what 
Lepsius  calls  chapter  97  is  hopelessly  corrupt.  On  comparing  the 
three  copies  given  by  M.  Naville  (two  of  them  being  from  the 
papyrus  of  Nebseni)  it  will  be  seen  how  impossible  it  is  to  restore  a 
grammatical  text  out  of  such  discordant  materials.  The  difficulty  is 
not  removed  by  having  recourse  to  the  papyri  of  a  later  period. 

Chapter  whereby  one  saileth  a  ship  in  the  Netherworld. 

Oh  thou  Leg  in  the  Northern  Sky,  (i)  and  in  that  most  con- 
spicuous but  inaccessible  Stream ;  I  rise  up  and  come  to  light  as  a 
god,  I  am  conspicuous  but  inaccessible. 

I  rise  up  and  live,  and  bring  myself  to  light  as  a  god. 

1 66  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  cackle  even  as  the  Smen-goose,  but  I  stoop  (2)  like  the  Hawk 
at  the  nets  of  the  Great  Fowler. 

I  sail  across  the  Sky,  and  Shu  standeth  erect  and  the  Achmiu 
Stars  (3)  are  instantly  active  in  raising  the  ladder  which  lifts  the 
Setting  Stars  away  from  destruction.  (4) 

And  I  bear  that  which  repelleth  mischief  as  I  make  my  voyage 
over  the  Leg  of  Ptah. 

I  come  from  the  Lake  of  Flame,  from  the  Lake  of  Fire,  and 
from  the  Field  of  Flame,  and  I  live 

I  stand  erect  in  the  Bark  which  the  god  is  piloting at  the 

head  of  Aarru,  (5)  and  the  Achmiu  Stars  open  to  me and 

my  fellow  citizens  (6)  present  to  me  the  sacred  cakes  with  flesh. 


There  is  but  one  papyrus  of  the  older  period  which  contains  any 
portion  of  this  chapter,  and  it  does  so  very  imperfectly. 

On  referring  to  M.  Naville's  edition  it  will  be  seen  that  not  only 
the  title  but  the  greater  part  of  the  chapter  is  destroyed.  The  later 
copies  have  texts  so  different  from  the  original  form,  that  it  is  unsafe 
to  attempt  a  restoration  except  within  very  strict  limits. 

It  is  absurd  to  attempt  a  translation  from  a  mixture  of  divergent 
and,  at  the  same  time,  incorrect  texts. 

1.  See  note  to  chapter  74.  The  Stream  which  is  so  conspicuous 
but  cannot  be  reached  is  the  Milky  Way,  and  the  Leg  is  the  constel- 
lation Cassiopeia  in  the  Northern  Sky. 

2.  Stoop,  [  ^^.  This  comparison  occurs  repeatedly  in  the 
Pyramid  Texts,  and  others  of  the  early  periods. 

3.  Achmiu  Stars  l^\®  ^^^   V:^     :jIc      so  Ab,  giving  another 

proof  that  the  word  is  to  be  taken  as  a  noun,  and  not  as  a  negative. 

4.  See  chapter  30A,  on  "The  Crocodile  of  the  West  who  lives 
on  the  Setting  Stars." 

5.  So  Ab,  but  perhaps  wrongly.  I  dare  not  fill  up  the  lacunae  of 
this  text. 

6.  Felloiv-citizens.  The  translation  here  is  necessarily  conjec- 
tural. But  I  understand  by  fellozv-citizens  {avfiiroXi-rai)  the  dwellers 
of  that  city  of  which  the  deceased  says,  in  chajjter  17,  "I  arrive  at 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  CIII. 


British  Museum, 

No.  9,900. 

Chapi'er  XCVII. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9,90c. 

Chapter  XCVIII. 
LeI'SIUS,  Todtenbuch. 

£r    ia     11 

Chaptur  civ. 

Papyrus,  British  Museum, 

No.  9,900. 


1  fl 


Chapter  XCIX. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9,900. 

Chapter  CV. 

Papyrus  of  Sutimes, 

Bibl.  Nat. 

Chapter  CV. 
Papyrus,  British  Museutr,  No.  9,900. 

Chapter  CVIII. 

British  Museum, 

No.  9,900. 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  XCIX.     Papyrus  Busca. 

Chapter  XCIX. 
Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum,  No.  2. 

Chapter  XCIX. 
Papyrus,  Brit.  Mus.,  No.  9905. 

Chapter  XCIX. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  No.  Ill,  89. 

Chapter  XCIX. 
Papyrus  Brocklehurst,  II. 



































« — 

Chapter  XCIX.     Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9900. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 6/ 

my  own  city,  ^•"*      -^"^  this  city  is  explained  by  the  ancient 

scholion  as  being  "the  Horizon"  1^  [or,  as  Lepsius  more  accurately 

translates  it,  '  der  Sonnenberg  ']  of  my  father  Tmu."    It  is  no  eaithly 
city  that  is  thought  of,  but  an  eternal  one. 

Chapter  whereby  one  Saileth  a  Ship  in  the  Netherivorld. 

Oh  thou  who  sailest  the  ship  of  Nu  over  that  chine  which  is 
void,  (i)  let  me  sail  the  ship;  let  me  fasten  my  tackle  (2)  in  peace ; 
in  peace  !  Come,  come ;  Fleet  one,  Fleet  one  !  Let  me  come  to 
see  my  father  Osiris. 

Oh  thou  who  art  veiled,  let  me  enjoy  happiness. 

Oh  thou  who  art  clouded,  but  manful,  and  who  sailest  round 
over  that  chine  of  Apepi ;  thou  of  firm  head  and  steadfast  breast 
when  coming  forth  from  the  fiery  blows :  Oh  thou  who  art  at  the 
ship,  let  me  sail  the  ship,  let  me  fasten  my  tackle  and  come  forth. 

This  place  is  empty,  into  which  the  starry  ones  fall  down  head- 
long upon  their  faces,  (3)  and  find  not  aught  whereby  they  can 
raise  themselves  up. 

Narrow  is  the  path  as  the  tongue  of  Ra.  (4) 

\The  Patrol  who goeth  rounds  and  who piloteth  the  Double  Earth  ; 
Seb  abideth  stably  by  means  of  their  rudders  :  the  divine  Form 
which  revealeth  the  Solar  Orb :  and  He  who  presideth  over  the  Red 
ones.  (5)] 

Let  me  be  brought  in  as  a  distressed  mariner,  and  let  my  Soul 
come  to  me,  which  is  my  brother,  and  go  to  that  place  which  thou 

"Z^/  me  be  told  my  name"  say, 

I.  The  Mooring  post.  "  Lord  of  the  Double-Earth  in  the  Shrine  " 
is  thy  name. 

*  I  take  this  opportunity  of  correcting  my  former  translation,  where  the 
preposition  ^^,  which  twice  occurs  in  the  passage,  is  both  times  rendered  by  the 
same  word,  from.  But  the  sense  of  a  preposition  really  depends  upon  the  verb 
which  it  follows.  The  same  English  word  will  not  suit  the  French  de  in 
' s'approcher  de '  and  '  s'eloigner  de.' 

I  68  BOOK    OF    THE   DEAD. 

2.  The  Blade  of  the  Rudder.     "  Leg  of  Apis  "  is  thy  name. 

3.  The  Hawser.  "The  Side-Lock  which  Anubis  fastens  on  to 
the  swathing  work  "  is  thy  name. 

4.  The  Stern  or  Stem  Posts.  "The  two  columns  of  the  Nether- 
world "  is  thy  name. 

5.  The  Hold.     "  Akar  "  is  thy  name. 

6.  The  Mast.  Bearer  of  the  Great  one  whilst  she  passeth  "  is 
thy  name. 

7.  The  Keel.     "  Backbone  of  Apuat"  is  thy  name. 

8.  The  Mast-head.     "  Throat  of  Emsta  "  is  thy  name. 

9.  The  Sail.     "  Nut  "  is  thy  name. 

10.  The  Leathers.  (6)  Made  of  the  hide  of  Mnevis,  which  Sutu 
hath  scorched,"  is  thy  name. 

11.  The  Oars.     "  Fingers  of  the  elder"  is  your  name. 

12.  The  Bracement.  "  Hand  of  Isis,  stanching  the  blood  of  the 
Eye  of  Horus,"  is  thy  name. 

13.  The  Rids.  "  Emsta,  Hapi,  Tuamautef,  Kebehsenuf,  He  who 
taketh  captive,  He  who  taketh  by  force.  He  who  seeth  his  Father, 
and  He  who  maketh  himself,"  are  your  names. 

14.  The  Look-out :  (7)  "  Master  of  the  Grounds  "  (8)  is  thy  name. 

15.  The  Tiller .-  (9)  ''Merit''  (10)  is  thy  name. 

16.  The  Rudder :  "The  Umpire,  beaming  forth  from  the  water," 
is  thy  name. 

17.  The  Hull :  "The  Leg  of  Hathor,  which  Ra  wounded,  on  his 
lifting  her  into  the  Sektit  Boat,"  is  thy  name. 

18.  The  Boatman  :  "  Off"  is  thy  name. 

19.  The  Breeze.,  since  thou  art  conveyed  by  me  :  "The  Northern 
Breeze  proceeding  from  Tmu  to  the  Nose  of  Ghent- Amenta  "  is  thy 

20.  The  Stream,  since  thou  sailest  upon  me  :  "Their  Mirror"  is 
thy  name. 

21.  The  Shallow:  (11)  "Destroyer  of  the  large-handed  at  the 
place  of  purification  "  is  thy  name. 

22.  The  Lajtd,  since  thou  walkest  upon  me:  "The  Tip  of 
Heaven,  the  Coming  forth  from  the  swathings  in  the  Garden  of 
Aarru,  and  the  Coming  forth  in  Exultation,"  is  thy  name. 

To  be  said  before  them. 

Hail  to  you,  Fair  in  Form,  Lord  of  issues,  who  are  springing  up 
for  ever,  and  whose  double  goal  is  eternity  :  turn  to  me  your  hands. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DKAD.  169 

give  to  me  food  and  offerings  for  my  mouth  ;  let  me  eat  the  Bat- 
bread,  the  6'//^«^«-cake  and  the  Kefen-c^t :  let  my  place  be  in  the 
great  hall  in  presence  of  the  mighty  god. 

I  know  thnt  mighty  god  to  whose  nostrils  ye  present  delicacies. 
Tekmu  is  his  name :  and  whether  he,  whose  name  is  Tekmu, 
tiirneth  from  the  East  or  advanceth  to  the  West,  let  his  course  be 
my  course. 

Let  me  not  be  stopped  at  the  Meskat ;  let  not  the  Sebau  have 
mastery  over  my  limbs. 

I  have  bread  in  Pu  and  beer  in  Tepu.  Let  your  largesses  of 
this  day  be  granted  to  me  ;  offerings  of  wheat  and  barley,  offerings 
of  dfi/a  and  of  vestments,  offerings  of  oxen,  and  ducks,  which  are 
offerings  for  life,  health  and  strength,  and  also  offerings  for  coming 
forth  by  day,  in  all  the  forms  in  which  it  pleaseth  me  to  come  forth 
in  the  Garden  of  Aarru. 

If  this  chapter  be  knotun  he  will  come  forth  at  the  Garden  of 
Aarru  ;  there  will  be  given  to  him  the  Shensu-rrtf/^^,  the  measure  of 
drink  and  the  -^tr^tn-cake,  and  fields  of  wheat  and  barley  of  seven 
cubits  {It  is  the  followers  of  Horus  who  reap  them),  for  he  eateth  of 
that  wheat  and  barley,  and  he  is  made  whole  in  his  limbs  through 
that  wheat  and  barley,  and  his  limbs  spring  up  even  as  with  those 
gods.  And  he  comet h  forth  in  the  Garden  of  Aarru  in  all  the  forms 
in  ivhich  it  pleaseth  him  to  come  forth. 


One  of  the  Paris  papyri  {Pb)  contains  a  composition  bearing  the 
same  title  as  chapter  99,  and  ]SL  Naville  has  published  it  as  an  intro- 
duction to  the  usual  chapter.  It  is  no  doubt  of  very  great  interest, 
but  it  is  the  imperfect  copy  of  a  quite  independent  composition, 
which  really  has  no  claim  to  be  considered  a  part  of  our  Book  of  the 

1.  See  chapter  7,  title  and  notes.  Cf.  the  alO^p  ipij/xo-i  of  Pmdar 
and  the  Latin  expressions  'vacuum  per  inane,'  'per  inania.' 

2.  Fasten  my  tackle,  ^^^^  •     ^f-  Unas,  508  and  639. 

In  the  latter  place  the  ropes  are  said  to  be  made  of  r^  ^"^j 
paltn  leaf  (?). 

3.  Comp.  chapter  44  on  the  cavern  where  the  dead  fall  into  the 
darkness,  '  but  the  Eye  of  Horus  supporteth  me,  and  Apuat  reareth 




me  up.'  There  may  be  an  allusion  here,  as  there  is  elsewhere,  to 
shooting  stars.  It  is  worth  noticing  that — a  group  which  ought,  I 
1   ®     U"  ^ 

think,  to  be  read 

j[  '^   {Ca  and  Ac)  has  in  most  papyri  the 
wrong  determinative  [q]  instead  of  ■;jlc,  which  was  misunderstood,  and 

that  Ab  has  even    '>'<]• 

4.  A  corrupt  passage,  like  the  next. 

5.  The  corruption  of  the  whole  passage  between  [  ]  will  be  best 
understood  on  comparing  it  with  the  names  of  "the  Rudders  of 
Heaven"  as  given  in  chapter  148;  the  earliest  text  of  these  names 
being  (I  think)  the  fine  tablet  in  Detikm.  Ill,  25  bis  a.  Three  out 
of  four  of  these  names  are  represented  by  the  phrases  here  printed  in 
italics.  The  rest  is  incoherent  and  was  certainly  not  understood  by 
the  copyists.     I  have  followed  Aa  in  my  translation. 

6.   '  The  Leathers, 







thongs,  or  straps,  like  the  Greek  -rpoTrol  for  fastening  the  oars, 

*HpTVVavTO  B'  epeTfia  TpoTToi's  iv  Sepfiari'voitri  :    Odyss.  4,  782. 

See  note  of  Scholiast  and  cf.  Aesch.  Fers.,  376. 

7.  Look  out  T  [1[.        ^,  see  chapter  15,  note  9. 

8.  Grounds,  fi  I  is,  technically,  the  superficial  land  measure 
corresponding  to  the  quarter  of  the  Egyptian  arura.  The  more 
general   sense   of  the   word  I  X    I    _^  _  T^  J   is  land  enclosed  and 

parted  out  for  cultivation. 

The  very  ancient  magical  text  (Unas  302)  speaks  characterically 

Q  -fi         n  ^==  [ I  a       p  — " —   mil 

of  I    v\  '\K  ^     R  ,  the  Hippopotamus  who 

k  _m  J    P    <=>  -^i^  A     n     = 
maketh    his    appearance  at  the  garden  (vineyard,   field,  &c.     Cf. 

Psalm  Ixxx,  13). 

In  the  great  inscription  published  in  Mariette's  Denderah,  IV,  35, 


is  used,  in  a  sense  like  that  of  the  'Acwvico^  KtjTrot,  for  a 

ia/t,    or  (as  it  is  also  written) 

G    W^  Ml 
Stone  vessel  in  which  seeds  were  sown  for  ritual  purposes 

9.    Ti7/er.     J 

dbait ;  .y^^  chapter  76,  note  i. 


I  o.   Merit.     <crz>  -^^  (sometimes  written  with  ,^--5^  and  other 
determinatives  ;  Bekenranef  adds    \i     I  is  the  name  of  each  of  the 

two  divine  sisters,  Isis  and  Nephthys,  see  chapter  37,  note;  who  are 

called   «cr>  ^^ fl  1  and  <==>  Y .      But,  at  Edfu,  Denderah  and 

Philae,  Merit  is  a  synonym  of  the  Ut'at,  and  one  of  the  names  of 

II.   ^"i^a/Zi^ze/ ;  a  conjectural  meaning  for  ^^^  ^  ,  which  has 

not  only  the  determinative  of  latid^  but  those  of  water,  ^ — i  and 
^^.  And  in  some  texts  it  would  seem  to  mean  tnarsh,  fen, 


The  Book  whereby  the  glorified  one  is  made  strong,  and  is  made  to 
embark  in  the  boat  of  Rd,  together  with  those  who  are  with  the 

Let  me  convey  the  divine  Heron  to  the  East,  Osiris  to  Tattu. 
Let  me  open  the  caverns  of  Hapu,  (i)  clear  the  path  of  the  Solar 
Orb  and  tow  along  Sekaru  upon  his  sledge.  Let  the  Great  one 
give  me  strength  at  her  fixed  hour. 

I  hail  and  give  worship  to  the  Orb,  and  associate  myself  with 
those  in  adoration,  I  am  one  of  them. 

Let  me  be  a  second  to  Isis ;  and  let  her  glorified  ones  give  me 

Let  me  fasten  my  tackle,  let  me  stop  the  adversary,  and  force 
him  to  turn  back  his  steps. 

Let  Ra  lend  me  his  two  hands,  let  not  his  divine  Boatmen 
prevent  me.  Let  my  strength  be  that  of  the  divine  Eye,  and 

[As  to  the  sundering  of  me  in  the  Bark  of  Ra,  let  the  sundering 
be  as  that  of  the  Egg  and  the  Tortoise.  (2)] 

Said  over  the  Figure  in  the  Text,  which  is  written  upon  clean 
paper,  with  artist's  ink,  fresh  and  mixed  with  essence  of  Anta  ;  let 
the  dead  person  have  it  put  upon  his  body  without  inserting  it  into  his 
limbs  ;  he  will  enter  into  the  Bark  of  Rd  at  the  round  of  each  day, 
Thoth  will  appreciate  him,  on  his  coming  forth  or  entering,  undeviatingly 
for  times  i7ifinite. 

Z  2 

1/2  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

•  Notes. 

This  chapter  appears  a  second  thne  in  the  Turin  Todtenlmch  as 
chapter  129.  But  in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  it  is  found  no  less 
than  three  times. 

I.    Caverns  of  Hapu.     Two  of  the  copies  of  this  chapter  in  the 

pnpyrus  of  Nebseni  give  the  interesting  variant      x  c^  v>  Q  •     p, 
is  the  well  known  equivalent  of  ,  and  the  fountains  of  the 

Nile  are  also  indicated  by  the  group   Q Q  . 

2.  This  passage  does  not  occur  in  chapter  129,  and  is  apparently 
an  interpolation,  which  however  is  already  found  in  ancient  copies. 

Chapter  of  the  Safeguards  of  the  Bark  of  Ra. 

0  thou  who  art  devoid  of  moisture  in  coming  forth  from  the 
stream  ;  and  who  restest  upon  the  deck  of  thy  Bark  :  as  thou  pro- 
ceedest  in  the  direction  of  Yesterday,  and  restest  upon  the  deck  of 
thy  Bark,  let  me  join  thy  boatmen. 

1  am  a  powerful  Chu. 

O  Ra,  in  that  thy  name  of  Ra,  since  thou  passest  through  an 
Eye  of  seven  cubits,  whose  pupil  is  of  three  :  do  thou  then  make 
me  sound,  I  am  a  powerful  Chu,  let  thy  soundness  be  my  soundness. 

O  Ra,  in  that  thy  name  of  Ra,  since  thou  passest  through  those 
who  are  perishing  headlong :  do  thou  then  keep  me  standing  on  my 
feet.     I  am  a  powerful  Chu,  let  thy  soundness  be  my  soundness. 

O  Ra,  in  that  thy  name  of  Ra,  since  thou  openest  the  secrets  of 
the  Ammehit,  which  gladdeneth  the  hearts  of  the  Divine  Circle  :  do 
thou  then  give  me  my  heart.  I  am  a  powerful  Chu,  let  thy  sound- 
ness be  my  soundness,  and  the  soundness  of  thy  limbs  be  the  sound- 
ness of  my  limbs. 

Secured  by  reason  of  the  writing  7vith  gum  mixed  with  colours  upon 
a  strip  of  royal  papyrus,  put  at  the  throat  of  the  deceased  on  the  day  of 
burial.  If  these  phylacteries  arc  put  at  his  throat,  he  will  rise  up  as 
one  of  the  Divine  Circle,  and  be  united  to  the  followers  of  Horns, 
whilst  his  Lamp  is  made  firm  by  Isis  iti  heaven  beside  Sothis.  He 
followeth  Horus  who  resideth   in  Sothis.  (i)      His  Shade  becofueth 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  173 

divine  as  well  as  human.  Vegetation  is  made  to  grow  out  of  his  body 
through  the  goddess  Menkit.  (2)  He  become th  a  god  for  ever,  and  his 
limbs  are  made  vigorous  in  the  Nethenaorld  through  Thoth,  who  hath 
done  the  like  to  Osiris,  in  causifig  the  light  to  rise  out  of  his  dead  body ; 
1/ndeviatingly  and  for  times  infinite. 


This  chapter  does  not  occur   in   the   earlier  collections   known 
to  us. 

1 .  Horus   ivho   resideth    in    Sot  his    vX  [  —    1  A  ^  ;     cf. 
Teta,  277. 

2.  Mefikit  is   one  of  the  names  of  Hathor,   but    the   place  is 
corrupt  and  the  true  reading  uncertain. 

Chapter  whereby  one  entereth  into  the  Bark  of  Rd. 

0  Great  One  in  thy  Bark,  let  me  be  lifted  into  thy  Bark.  Let 
me  make  head  for  thy  staircase.  Let  me  have  charge  of  those  who 
convey  thee,  who  are  attached  to  thee,  who  are  of  the  Stars  which 
never  set. 

That  which  I  abominate,  I  eat  not :  and  that  which  I  abominate 
is  Dirt,  let  me  not  eat  of  it,  but  of  peace  offerings  and  of  Art- 
offerings,  by  which  I  shall  not  be  upset. 

Let  me  not  approach  it  with  my  hands,  let  me  not  tread  upon  it 
with  my  sandals,  because  my  bread  is  of  the  white  corn  and  my 
beer  of  the  red  corn  of  the  Nile. 

It  is  the  Sektit  boat  and  the  Aatit  which  have  brought  me  to  the 
food  and  raiment  which  are  upon  the  altar  of  the  Spirits  of  Annu. 

Salutation  to  thee,  Ur-ar-set,  in  that  voyage  of  heaven  and  the 
disaster  in  Tennu,  when  those  dogs  were  gathered  together,  not 
without  giving  voice. 

1  have  come  myself  and  delivered  the  god  from  that  pain  and 
suffering,  that  was  in  trunk,  in  shoulder  and  in  leg, 

I  have  come  and  healed  (i)  the  trunk,  and  fastened  the  shoulder 
and  made  firm  the  leg. 

And  I  embark  for  the  voyage  of  Ra. 

174  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 




Healed.    Such  is  the  meaning  of  jr  '^  ^^ ,  as  in  chapter  147 . 

17,  and  Unas  214,  no  less  than  in  a  passage  which  does  not  occur 
in  the  most  ancient  texts  of  chapter  1 7,  but  which  is  found  in  the 
papyri  and  is  derived  from  the  early  traditions.  Thoth  healed  the 
face  of  Horus. 


Chapter  whereby  one  openeth  the  place  where  Hathor  abideth. 

I  am  a  pure  follower.     O  Ahi ;  O  Ahi ;  (i)  let  me  become  one 
of  the  followers  of  Hathor. 


I.  Ahi  I  fi  [jl  ^  r^ )  the  Striker  is  one  of  the  names  of  Horus, 
who  in  the  inscriptions  of  Benihassan  is  called  >A^  \     K^      ^^  o ' 

"  Horus  who  striketh  down  men."  The  notion  of  striking  was  in 
later  days  confined  to  the  beating  of  the  sistrum.  Priestly  persons 
bore  the  tide  of  Ahi  as  representatives  of  the  youthful  Horus,  son 
of  Hathor.  See  Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  XH,  p.  460,  on  "  The  Sun- 
stroke in  Egyptian." 


Chapter  whereby  o?ie  sitteth  in  the  midst  of  the  great  gods. 

Let  me  sit  in  the  midst  of  the  great  gods.  Let  me  pass  through 
the  place  of  the  Sektit  boat.  It  is  the  Bird-fly  deity  (i)  that  shall 
convey  me  to  see  the  great  gods  who  are  in  the  Netherworld,  and 
I  shall  be  triumphant  in  their  presence. 

1.   The  Bird-fly  deity.,  Abait ;  see  chapter  76,  note. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  175 

Chapter  ivhereby  one propitiateth  (i)  the  Ka. 

Hail  to  thee,  my  Ka,  my  coeval.  (2) 

May  I  come  to  thee  and  be  glorified  and  made  manifest  and 
ensouled,  let  me  have  strength  and  soundness. 

Let  me  bring  to  thee  grains  of  incense  wherewith  I  may  purify 
myself  and  may  also  purify  thine  own  overflow. 

The  wrong  assertions  that  I  have  uttered,  and  the  wrong 
resistance  which  I  have  offered :  let  them  not  be  imputed  to  me. 

For  I  am  the  green  gem,  fresh  at  the  throat  of  Ra,  given  by 
those  who  are  at  the  Horizon :  their  freshness  is  my  freshness 
\said  twice\,  the  freshness  of  my  Ka  is  like  theirs,  and  the  dainties 
of  my  Ka  are  like  theirs. 

Thou  who  liftest  the  hand  at  the  Balance,  and  raisest  Law  to 
the  nose  of  Ra  in  this  day  [of  my  Ka] :  do  not  thou  put  my  head 
away  from  me.  For  I  am  the  Eye  which  seeth  and  the  Ear  which 
heareth ;  and  am  I  not  the  Bull  of  the  sacrificial  herd,  are  not  the 
mortuary  gifts  (3)  upon  me  and  the  supernal  powers  {otherwise  said: 
the  powers  above  Nut]. 

Grant  that  I  may  pass  by  thee,  and  may  purify  myself  and  cause 
the  triumph  of  Osiris  over  his  adversaries.  (4) 



Propitiate,  c=^='.     The  simple  root  hetep  signifies,  what  is 

^rii    □  t~\  n 

implied  by  the  ideographic  sign  1 1,  the  taking  hold,  embracing,  and 
kindred  notions  {Proc.  Soc.  Bill.  Arch.,  Vol.  X,  p.  578).  The 
notion  of  appeasing  an  angry  personage  is  no  more  necessarily 
involved  in  the  Egyptian  word  than  in  the  Latin  propitiare.  M. 
Lefebure's  translation,  reunir,  in  the  title  of  this  chapter  is  perfectly 
correct  as  far  as  it  goes. 

See  in  Denkm.,  HI,  pi.  34,  b,  the  picture  of  Thothmes  HI  being 
greeted  by  his  ka.  Rameses  II  and  other  kings  are  often  repre- 
sented in  the  act  of  supplicating  their  own  ka. 

2.  My  coeval  ,1/1  v^  M^  or,  as  some  might  prefer,  my 
duration  of  life. 

The  pictures  in  the  temple  of  Luxor  {Denkm.,  Ill,  74  and  75) 
are  well  known  which  represent  the  birth  of  Amenophis  III.     The 

1/6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

infant  prince  in  each  of  these  pictures  is  accompanied  by  his 
ka,  his  exact  image.  The  ka  is  nursed  and  suckled  by  the  same 

But  perhaps  the  best  commentary  on  our  text  is  to  be  found  in 
the  picture  recently  published  by  the  French  Mission  Archeologique 
{TefHpie  de  Luxor,  fig.  203),  in  which  both  the  royal  infant  and  his 
ka  are  being  fashioned  by  the  hand  of  Chnum,  upon  his  potter's 

3.  Mortuary  gifts   ^  |^  ^  1 ,    meals    offered    to  the  departed. 

The   meaning  of  the   compound   group   is   plain   enough  from   the 

determinatives,  and  such  frequent  forms  as  <cz:>  |   v\    V\ 

a       p^^  ^     0  JT  .m   0    I  I  I 

^\    X  "consisting  of  bread  and  beer,"  but  the  origin  of  it  is 

not  so  clear.     The   usual  meaning  of  |  _p  like  that  of  the  Coptic 
^pCOO'Sf  is  voice,  but  in  the  present  group  it  stands  for  |  ^ 
corresponding  to  .^pG,  plur.  ^pHOTI,  Tpotpij,  ^ptL'/iara,  iSea/u 

and  <r::>  is  to  be  understood    as    in   the    very  common   formula 

I  I  I 




The  reading  I   v\  which  is  sometimes  found  in  late 

texts  is  faulty  and  leads  to  an  erroneous  interpretation.     ^^^^^^  is  a 
mistake  either  for  *^^^^  or  for  <:^~>,  the  phonetic  of  |. 

In  such   passages  of    the  Pyramid  texts  as  ^|\    <rr>  /l[ 

_)ii^    ci     (J  1  ^- — ^ 

-2:^  ^\  :®  ®:  w^  I  (Unas  36)  ^^  is  a  demonstrative 

not  a  negative  particle,  "  Here  is  the  mortuary  meal  presented  for 
thee,  and  /lere  are  the  two  Eyes,  the  White  and  the  Black,  of  Horus." 
4.  All  the  early  MSS.  except  Fd  omit  this  last  passage. 

Chapter  whereby  a  largess  is  presented  at  Hat-ka-Ptah.  (i) 

Oh  thou  god  of  nutriment,  oh  great  one  who  presidest  over  the 
mansions  on  high  ;  [to  whom  bread  cometh  from  Annu]  ye  who 
g^ve  bread  to  Ptah  [from  Annu],  give  me  bread  and  beer  :  let  me 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  177 

be   made   pure   by  the   sacrificial  joint,    together   with    the   white 
bread.  (2) 

Oh  thou  ship  of  the  Garden  of  Aarru,  let  me  be  conveyed  to 
that  bread  of  thy  canal  ;  as  my  father,  the  Great  one,  who  advanceth 
in  the  Divine  ship  [because  I  know  thee]. 


This  is  one  of  the  chapters  found  on  the  sarcophagus  of 
Horhotep.  It  is  also  inscribed  on  a  statue,  now  in  the  Berlin 
Museum,  belonging  to  the  early  part  of  the  XVIIlth  dynasty 
{Denkm.,  Ill,  25  h  and  k).  These  authorities  do  not  give  the  title 
found  in  the  papyri.  The  allusions  to  Anna  are  confined  to  the 
earliest  text,  which  somewhat  differs  from  the  later  authorities,  and 
finishes  sooner  than  they  do.     Cf.  also  Teta,  1.  331. 

1.  Hat-ka-Plah  is  the  name  of  Memphis,  but  as  in  so  many 
other  places  it  is  not  the  earthly  city  which  is  meant.  M.  Naville 
has  pointed  out  that  the  words  "  in  the  Netherworld  "  are  added 
in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni. 

2.  Bread  and  beer  are  not  mentioned  in  the  earliest  text,  which 
has   other   important   variants.      The   latest   texts    have   the   verb 

^^    r      -,    wash,  make  dean,  purify,  of  which  (I    ^    ^^  on  the 

Berlin  statue  and  the  Theban  papyri  may  fairly  be  considered  an 

older  form.     But  Horhotep  has       \      Y>  ^  >  ^  different  word  and 

occurring  in  a  grammatical  construction  differing  from  that  of  the 
other  texts. 

The  words   /^^^    \\    ^^^^ d  j  ^  ^^^  occur  as  a  familiar 

formula  in  the  Pyramid  texts  (Unas,  185,  205;  Teta,  91);  but 
Horhotep  interpolates  |  QA  after  a  ]  \^  .  The  determina- 
tives of  the  group  ^^^wna  ^  (3    (sometimes   c?V»  or  ^^),  show  that 

the  copyist  understood  the  word  as  meant  for  the  sacrificial  joint. 

It  is  not  uninteresting  to  note,  with  reference  to  the  correctness 
of  the  title  of  this  chapter,  that  the  Pyramid  ritual  (Unas,  205) 
expressly  says  of  the  deceased  that  "the  sacrificial  joint  with  the 

white  bread"  are  the  "largess  "  (/^  Q^©)  which  he 


2    A 

178  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


[The  chapter  so  called  consists,  in  fact,  of  the  first  two  lines  of 
chapter  109.  The  vignette  over  it  really  belongs  to  chapter  108.  It 
has  no  separate  existence  in  any  of  the  papyri  of  the  best  periods.] 

Chapter  whereby  one  knotveih  the  Poivers  of  the  West. 

In  respect  of  the  Hill  of  Bachau  (i)  upon  which  heaven  resteth, 
it  presenteth  itself  (2)  three  hundred  cubits  in  length  (3)  and  two 
hundred  cubits  in  breadth. 

Sebak,  the  Lord  of  Bachau,  is  at  the  east  of  the  Hill,  and  his 
temple  is  upon  it. 

There  is  a  serpent  on  the  brow  of  that  hill,  five  hundred  cubits 
in  length,  three  cubits  of  his  forepart  are  pierced  with  swords. 

I  know  the  name  of  this  serpent  on  his  hill :  "  He  who  dwelleth 
in  his  own  flame  "  is  his  name.  (4) 

Now,  at  the  close  of  day  (5)  he  tumeth  down  his  eyes  to  Ra  ; 
for  there  cometh  a  standing  still  in  the  Bark  and  a  deep  slumber 
within  the  ship.  And  now  he  swalloweth  three  cubits  of  the  Great 

Then  Sutu  is  made  to  flee  with  a  chain  upon  him  of  steel  (6) 
and  he  is  forced  to  vomit  all  that  he  hath  swallowed.  Then  Sutu  is 
put  into  his  prison. 

And  then  he  saith  with  Words  of  Power : — 

Away  with  thee  !  Steel,  which  art  made  fast  upon  my  hand.  I 
••emain  in  thy  prison,  the  Bark  sails  on  and  thou  seest  the  path  ; 
but  thine  eyes  close,  [thine  eye  is  delivered  to  me],  thy  head  is 
veiled,  (7)  and  I  go  on  and  stay  thy  steps. 

I  am  the  Manful  one,  who  veileth  thy  head  and  who  cooleth  the 
hollow  of  thy  hand  :  thy  strength  is  my  strength. 

I  am  the  Master  of  the  Words  of  Power. 

Who  is  this  who  hath  been  delivered  to  me  ? 

This  Bright  One,  who  cometh  on  his  belly,  on  his  hind  parts 
and  on  the  joints  of  his  back. 

Lo  !  then,  I  come,  and  thy  might  is  in  my  hand.     It  is  I  who 

BOOK   OF   THE  DEAD.  179 

carry  away  thy  might,  that  I  may  come  and  seize  upon  the  Timnels 
of  Ra  who  is  united  to  me  at  sunset  as  he  goeth  round  heaven.  (8) 

But  thou  art  pierced  with  hooks,  as  was  decreed  against  thee 
of  old. 

I  know  the  powers  of  the  West,  they  are  Tmu,  Sebak  the  Lord 
of  Bachau,  and  Hathor,  Mistress  of  Sunset. 


The  chapters  108,  109,  112,  113,  and  114  being  so  analogous  to 
each  other,  in  form,  matter,  style,  and  composition,  and   each  being 

concerned  with  the  divine  Powers  '^^  of  some  locality,  it  is  in- 
teresting to  know  that  one  at  least  of  these  chapters  is  found  on  a 
monument  of  the  Middle  Empire.  The  others  are  probably  not  less 
ancient,  and  the  text  published  by  Dr.  Golenischef  {Zeitschr.  f. 
Aegypt.  Spr.,  1874,  p.  84)  from  the  Sarcophagus  at  St.  Petersburg 
already  bears  manifest  signs  of  antiquity. 

Another  sign  of  antiquity  as  regards  the  present  chapter  may  be 
seen  in  the  numerous  forms  in  which  it  has  come  down  to  us. 
These  are  so  different,  and  sometimes  so  irreconcileable,  that  it 
seems  evident  that  tradition  has  handed  down  very  corrupt  texts, 
and  that  the  original  meaning  of  this  chapter  had  been  entirely  lost 
at  a  very  early  date  and  cannot  be  discovered  now.  The  oldest 
text  is  the  shortest  of  all,  but  it  is  both  imperfect  and  incorrect. 
The  earliest  papyri  differ  greatly  from  the  later  ones.  But  both  the 
earlier  and  the  later  papyri  have  the  149th  chapter  which  contains 
another  recension  of  the  loSth,  and  chapter  in  in  the  Turin  and 
later  papyri  is  another  form  of  it. 

I.   The    Hill   of  Bachau.       J'i^'^  *>-=■  "^  """^     has    for 

determinative  the  sign  -^^  which  connects  the  word  with  the 
Coptic  £.OT^I  '  eyelids.'  In  the  later  texts  the  word  has  for 
determinative  either  a  woman  or  a  co7i)  in  the  act  of  parturition,  as 

if  it  were  connected   with     j  { |  W)  and   its  variants,  with   which 

\  \ j  ^•^^  m  another  name  of  the  Dawn  is  identified. 

2.  Presenteth   itself,   -^^  ^c-^    .     This   Egyptian   verb   is   always 
expressive   of  activity,   and  perhaps  ought   never  to  be  translated 

2    A    2 

l8o  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

being.     ^  W  are  'things  which  are,' but  -^^  ,   ^  ,  are  '  things  which 

I    I    I  /s.ww\      I    I    1 

'  spring  forth'  '  come  to  Hght.' 

3.  The  oldest  text  (which  is  here  the  best  authority)  does  not  give 
the  dimensions  of  the  hill,  but  only  of  the  serpent.  The  earliest 
])apyri  give  the  dimensions  of  both,  but  make  the  hill  so  absurdly 
small  that  the  serpent  could  not  rest  upon  it.  Later  papyri  begin- 
ning with  ^have  corrected  the  texts  so  as  to  give  the  hill  a  length 
of  300  cubits,  or  ^^^  (each  of  which  is  100  cubits  long).  They  omit 
the  statement  that  the  cubit  in  question  is  of  7I  palms  (ihe  Royal 
cubit    being  of  7  palms),  and  also  the  interesting  mention  of  the 


^■■|    "balance   (or  measurement)  of  the   earth."    The 

relation  of  this  '  balance '  to  the  rest  of  the  sentence  is  not  clear, 
because  the  MSS.  differ  as  to  the  preposition  which  precedes. 

The  Papyrus  of  Nebseni  gives  the  hill  300  cubits  in  oreadth. 
The  Todt€7ibuch  of  Turin  reads  370  ^^  in  length,  and  140  cubits 
in  breadth. 

4.  The  serpent's  name  is  not  mentioned  in  chapter  in,  nor  is  it 
in    the    earliest    text.      But    in    chapter    149    the    usual   name   is 

^  ^^  ^^1^'  "^°^^  ^"^^y  written  ^^f^— .^  in  the  Papyrus  of 
Nebseni.  The  determinative  ^V},  commonly  attached  to  the 
name  of  Apepi,  expresses  the  meaning  'sword  smitten,'  'shot 
with  swords,'  ^KpoKTovo^.  We  might  otherwise  have  understood  the 
term  in  the  sense  of  ^KJioKTovo^,  '  slayer  with  swords.'     The  Papyrus 

of  Sutimes  Pd  calls  the  serpent  T  ^|\  ^^^^  cz^^a  ¥\  >=;^^^  '  knife- 

The  proper  name  .^^  """^^  3 ,  also  written  .:^^  ^;^ , 

Mates,  an  epithet  of  Apepi,  or  of  Sutu,  also  means  "pierced  with 
swords."  But  the  expression  itself  seems  sometimes  to  be  found 
in  the  active  sense,  "  piercing  like  a  sword." 

5.  Close  of  Day,  when  daylight  has  come  to  ^2l  stand'  -if  ^  . 
This    is    the    reading    of    the    papyri.      The    oldest    reading    is 

6.  The  earliest  text  says  nothing  of  this,  though  it  mentions  the 
"prison  of  Sutech,"  in  a  passage  corresponding  to  what  the  papyri 
include  in  the  '  Words  of  Power '  which  follow.     1  he  Turin  Jcdteji- 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  C. 

Papyrus.  Musee  du  Louvre, 

No.  Ill,  93- 

Chapter  C. 
Papyrus,  Boulaq  Museum,  No.  21. 




Chapter  C. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre, 
No.  Ill,  89. 

Chapter  CII. 

Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre, 

No.  Ill,  36. 

Chapter  CIX. 

ROSELLINI,  "Mon.  del  Culto.,' 

pi.  XXIII. 

Chapter  CII. 
Papyrus  Brocklehurst,  II. 

Chapter  CVIII.  Chapter  CIX. 

Papyrus,  Berlin  Museum,  No.  II.     Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9900. 


BOOK     OF    THE     DEAD. 



.  .   •  r^rr—t     lL_  ^ii^ 


Chapter  CX.     Papyrus,  Ley  den  Mus;um. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  l8l 

buck  says  that,  "Sutu  is  put  into  his  prison,  and  that  a  chain  of  steel 
is  put  upon  his  neck."  Pictures  of  the  serpent  with  the  chain  upon 
him  will  be  found  in  Bonorai,  Sarcoph.,  plates  lo  and  ii.*  There 
is  an  evident  fusion  in  this  chapter,  in  its  later  form  at  least,  as  in 
chapter  39,  of  the  personages  of  Sutu  and  Apepi. 

7.  Thy  head  is  veiled.  The  'veiling  of  the  head,'  and  'closing 
of  the  eyes  '  of  the  sun  are  of  course  mythological  terms  for  night 
time.     But    the  mythological  event  was  celebrated  on  the  festival 

8.  Chapter  1 11  stops  at  the  word  "Sunset."  And  after  this,  the 
text  in  chapter  149  changes  the  third  to  the  first  person,  and  reads  : 
"  But  I  go  round  the  heaven  whilst  thou  art  pierced  with  hooks,"  as 
if  Ra  were  replying  to  the  words  of  Sutu.  This,  I  confess,  appears 
to  me  to  offer  a  better  sense  than  that  of  chapter  108.  And  I 
should  now  alter  the  word  "stabber"  in  the  first  line  of  chapter  39 
to  "  pierced  with  hooks." 


Chapter  whereby  one  knoiveth  the  Poivers  of  the  East. 

I  know  that  Eastern  Gate  of  Heaven  (the  South  of  it  is  by  the 
lake  of  Cha-ru,  and  the  north  of  it  by  the  stream  of  Reu),  from 
whence  Ra  saileth  with  favouring  gales,  (i) 

I  am  the  Teller  (2)  in  the  divine  ship  :  I  am  the  unresting  navi- 
gator in  the  Bark  of  Ra. 

I  know  those  two  Sycomores  of  Emerald  between  which  Ra 
cometh  forth,  as  he  advanceth  over  what  Shu  hath  lifted  up,t  to 
every  gate  (3)  through  which  he  proceedeth. 

I  know  the  Garden  of  Aarru  :  the  wall  of  it  is  of  steel.  The 
wheat  of  it  is  of  7  cubits,  the  ears  of  it  of  2  cubits,  the  stalk  of  it  of  4 
cubits.  The  barley  of  it  is  of  7  cubits,  and  the  ears  are  of  4  cubits, 
and  the  stalk  of  3  cubits. 

*  On  this  picture  (plate  11)  may  also  be  seen  an  interesting  illustration  of 
chapter  39  ;  the  scorpion  goddess  putting  the  chain  upon  Apepi,  in  front  of  whom 
are  the  divinities  to  execute,  with  swords  and  hooks,  the  decree  passed  against  him. 
The  children  of  Horus  are  also  seen  occupied  in  the  execution. 

t  I.e.,  the  Sky. 

l82  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

It  is  the  glorified  ones,  each  of  whom  is  9  cubits  in  height,  who 
reap  them,  in  presence  of  the  Powers  of  the  East. 

I  know  the  Powers  of  the  East :  Horus  of  the  Solar  Mount,  the 
Calf  in  presence  of  the  God,  (4)  and  the  Star  of  Dawn. 

A  divine  Domain  (5)  hath  been  constructed  for  me  ;  I  know  the 
name  of  it ;  the  name  of  it  is  the  garden  of  Aarru. 


Another  recension  of  this  chapter  has  been  incorporated  into 
chapter  149.  The  differences  lie  chiefly  in  the  order  assigned  to 
each  of  the  component  sentences. 

I.  Favouring    gales    .>y  ^  v\  1  v\     \^     '=^       " sailing    breezes" 

correspond  to  phrases  like  iKfievo^  ovpo9,  venti  secundi,  trade  winds, 
tail  wind,  stern  wind.  There  is  not  the  faintest  authority  from  the 
older  papyri  (which  are  very  numerous,  and  remarkably  unanimous 

on  this  point)  in  favour  of  the  determinative  'kJ  ,    of  the  Turin 

Todtenhich^  which  gives  the  sense  of  violent  or  tempestuous  winds. 

3.  Every  gate.  "  Ra  at  his  rising  is  adored  by  the  Powers  of  the 
"  East.  They  it  is  who  effect  the  rising  of  Ra,  by  opening  the  door 
"  at  each  of  the  four  portals  of  the  Eastern  horizon  of  heaven." 
(Inscr.  in  tomb  of  Rameses  VI,  ChampoUion,  Notices,  Tom.  II,  p. 

4.  The  Calf  in  presence  of  the  god.  The  Calf  is  seen  in  the 
vignettes  of  this  chapter  and  also  of  chapter  i.  Brugsch  {Rev. 
Egypt,    I,    p.     38)     quotes    texts    showing    that    the     Milch-cow 

v\     1  T   vx  ^^~~qi   Hor-sechauit,  is   the  mother  of  the  Sun-god, 

and  that  the  infant  god  is  the  calf  to  whom  she  gives  birth.  The 
words  "  in  presence  of  the  god "  are  probably  corrupt,  but  the 
variants  are  apparently  worse.  The  Morning  Star  was  equally 
identified  with  Horus. 

5.  The  divine  Domain.  See  M.  Maspero's  important  article  "Sur 
le  sens  des  mots  Nouit  et  Hait,"  in  P.S.B.A.,  XII,  p.  235-257. 

"         Nouit    sert   a    designer  un  dcmaine  rural  d'etendue  plus  ou 

moins  conside'rable,   portant  ou    ne  portant  pas  de  village  ou  de 

BOOK   OK   THE   DEAD.  1 83 

maison  d'habitation II  etait  une  personne  reelle,  formant 

un  corps  complet  en  soi,  et  c'est  pour  cela  qu'on  le  represente  sous  la 
forme  d'un  homme  ou  d'une  femme  apportant  des  produits  agricoles 
et  des  offrandes." 

Additional  Note. 

The  later  copies  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  add  a  few  lines  to  the 
chapter,  of  which  they  certainly  formed  no  part  when  first  written. 
The  most  interesting  portion  of  them  is  as  follows  : — 

"  There  are  writings  in  thy  possession  for  the  grant  of  fields  of 
corn-land  in  which  there  sprouteth  corn  from  the  effluxes  of  the  god 
Ut'eb.  The  height  of  the  corn  is  seven  cubits,  the  ears  of  two 
cubits  ;  and  thou  shall  reap  it  with  the  Glorified  ones,  in  presence 
of  the  Powers  of  the  East.  Thou  shalt  enter  boldly  at  the  mysterious 
portals  and  be  purified  by  those  who  are  there." 

The  name  of  the  god  hieroglyphically  written  A/^r^  was  shown 

by  me  {Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  Vol.  VI,  p.  187)  to  be  Uteb  or  Ut'eb. 
Brugsch,  apparently  without  having  seen  my  note,  came  to  the  same 
result,  though  he  identified  the  god  with  Seb.  The  god  is  really 
Osiris,  and  the  text  just  quoted  is  illustrated  by  a  picture  of  which 
various  copies  are  found.  That  here  given  is  taken  from  the 
temple  of  Philae. 

These  pictures  were  known  from  the  Ramesside  period,  but  the 

conception  of  Osiris  which  they  convey    ^^  Jml^    n    1  ^  {Todt., 

142,  7)  is  of  primitive  antiquity.  There  is  a  chapter  among  the 
texts   preserved   by   the   Coffin   of    Aniamu    (pi.    xxvii,    6)    about 

"assuming   the    form  of  corn,"      w      ^o  ^\     T.Ci  I,    and 

which  speaks  of  "  the  vegetation  of  life  proceeding  from  Osiris, 
growing  out  of  the  ribs  of  Osiris,  and  giving  life  to  this  generation  of 

The  same  idea  gave  rise  to  the  name     n    I  ^  J]  which  is  given 

to  Osiris  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  in  the  sacred  texts  of  the  Royal 
Tombs,  and  in  the  Hymn  to  the   Nile.     But  the  god  is  also  twice 

184  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

called     n     ^x^T[(,^in  Amamu,  pi.  xxvii,  8.     This  latter  form 

proves  that  in      T  I      we  have  a  compound  term. 

The  deity  (in  very  late  times)  appears  in  the  feminine  gender 

ex.  The  Chapter  which  in  the  printed  copy  of  the  Turin  Todten- 
buch  is  numbered  no  interrupts  the  series  of  chapters  on  the 
Powers  of  certain  localities.  The  translation  of  it  is  reserved  till 
that  of  these  chapters  is  completed.     It  will  be  found  at  page  193. 

is  only  a  repetition  of  Chapter  CVIII. 


Chapter  whereby  one  knoweth  the  Powers  of  Pit.  (i) 

Oh  thou  of  corpselike  form  who  art  in  Chait  and  Anpit ;  {2) 
thou  goddess  of  the  Net,  (3)  who  art  in  Pu ;  ye  who  preside  over 
the  untilled  lands,  ye  stars  and  constellations  (4)  .  .  .  Know  ye 
wherefore  Pu  hath  been  given  to  Horus  } 

I  know  it  if  ye  know  it  not. 

It  was  Ra  who  gave  it  to  him  in  amends  of  the  blindness  in  his 
eye,  in  consequence  of  what  Ra  said  to  Horus  :  "  Let  me  look  at 
what  is  happening  in  thine  eye  to-day,"  and  he  looked  at  it. 

Ra  said  to  Horus,  "  Look,  pray,  at  that  black  swine." 

He  looked,  and  a  grievous  mishap  afflicted  his  eye. 

Horus  said  to  Ra,  "  Lo,  my  eye  is  as  though  the  eye  of  Sutu 
had  made  a  wound  in  my  own  eye."     And  wrath  devoured  his  heart. 

And  Ra  said  to  the  gods,  "  Let  him  be  laid  upon  his  bed,  that 
he  may  recover." 

It  was  Sutu  who  had  taken  the  form  of  a  black  swine,  and  he 
wrought  the  wound  which  was  in  the  eye  of  Horus. 

And  Ra  said  to  the  gods,  "The  swine  is  an  abomination  to 
Horus;  may  he  get  well."  And  the  swine  became  an  abomination 
to  Horus. 


BOOK     OF     THE     DEAD. 


Chapter  CX.     Bas  Relief,  Leyden  Museum. 

Chapter   CXII. 


"Abydos,"  I,  p.  83. 

Chapter  CXII. 


■Abydos,"  I,  pi.  39. 

Chapter  CXII. 

"Abydos,"  I,  p.  82. 


BOOK     OF    THE    DEAD. 

Chatter  CXII. 
Mariette,  "Abydos,"  I,  pi.  lo. 

Chapter  CXIII. 
Mariette,  "Abydos,"  I,  pi.  29. 

Chapter  CXII. 

Papyrus,  British  Museum, 

No.  9900. 

Chapter  CXIII. 
Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9964. 

Chapters  CXII  and  CXIIT. 
Mariette,  "Abydos,"  I,  pi.  31. 

BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD.  1 85 

And  the  circle  of  gods  said,  who  were  with  him  when  Horus 
came  to  light  in  his  own  children:  (6)  "Let  the  sacrificial  victims  {7) 
for  him  be  of  his  oxen,  of  his  goats,  and  of  his  swine." 

As  for  Emsta,  Hapi,  Tuamautef,  Kebhsenuf,  Horus  is  their 
father  and  Isis  their  mother. 

And  Horus  said  to  Ra,  "  Give  me  tlien  two  (8)  brothers  in  Pu 
and  two  brothers  in  Nechen,  of  this  my  own  body ;  and  that  they 
may  be  with  me  as  an  everlasting  renewal,  through  which  the  earth 
flourisheth  and  storms  are  quenched." 

And  his  name  became  that  of  Horus  upon  his  Column. 

I  know  the  Powers  of  Pu  :  they  are  Horus,  Emsta  and  Hapi. 


1.  On  the  situation  of  Pu,  see  chapter  18,  note  6.  The  Pyramid 
Texts  (Pepi  I,  684)  speak  of  the    }^  '^  ^  "}"  ^  ®  "those  of 

the  Red  Crown  who  are  in  Pu." 

2.  Thou  of  corpselike  form  in  Chait  and  Anpii.  The  sign  of  the 
plural,  here  as  elsewhere,  is  quite  consistent  wiih  its  api)lication  to  a 

single  person,      "j^       ^     Chait  is  the  name*  of  the  i6th,  or  Men- 

desian,  Nome  of  Northern  Egj'pt,  and  Anpit  was  its  metropolis.  The 
nome  is  mentioned  in  the  inscription  of  Amten  in  the  third  dynasty. 
The  god  is  Osiris.  He  is  invoked  in  the  "Lamentations  of  Isis  and 
Nephthys,"  and  asked  to  come  to  Tattu,  Anpit  and  Chait,  which  are 
but  different  names  of  one  Sanctuary,  Cf.  Brugsch,  Zeitschr.,  187 1, 
p.  81,  and  his  translation  of  the  Mendesian  Tablet,  Zeitschr.,  1875. 

3.    Thou  goddess  of  the  Net  v>V  - 

This  name  corres- 

ponds to  the  Greek  Diktynna.  The  reason  why  a  goddess  repre- 
senting Heaven  should  be  so  called  may  be  understood  by  the 
Homeric  epithet  ~o\vw-6v  applied  to  a  net. 

If,  however,  the  deity  was  male,  according  to  the  other  reading, 
the  reference  is  to  -ov  -/yv  ''lo-^cov  rfiocfuf-iov  A/ktvi',  who  was  drowned 
in  the  river.     Plut,  de  Iside  and  Os.,  8. 

4.    Ye  7vho preside,  etc.     Brugsch  {Zeitschr.,  1876,  p.  3)  identifies 

the  Egyptian  f)^,  ;  \i>  y>  ^  ^vith  the  ^InXoTiwo's  of  the  Demotic 

*  Not  Hdmehit,  which  is  the  name  both  of  the  Uit  of  the  nome  and  of  the 
goddess  worshipped  in  it,  whose  emblem  is  the  fish  '^'^^  . 

^  2    B 

l86  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

and  Greek  contracts.  The  remainder  of  this  invocation  is  so  corrupt 
that  the  sense  cannot  be  safely  guessed  at. 

5.  See  Herodotus,  II,  47,  without  attaching  too  much  importance 
to  details.  The  pig  was  certainly  not  considered  impure  (^lapof)  in 
the  days  of  the  third  or  fourth  dynasty,  when  Amten,  who  had  risen 
to  the  highest  dignities,  enumerates  swine  among  the  domestic 
animals  it  is  natural  to  possess.  And  impure  animals  were  not 
offered  in  sacrifice.  But  long  before  the  days  of  Herodotus  a  change 
had  taken  place  in  the  Egyptian  religion  as  to  the  nature  of  Sutu. 

Plutarch  and  Aelian  are  to  be  read  with  the  like  caution.  Some 
of  their  information  is  correct,  but  it  is  mixed  up  with  much  error. 

6.  The  variants  ^^  "^  ^  I  and  "S"~  %^  ^  ^  J  1  are  note- 

7.  Sacrificial  victims  [![1  "^^  i  •     The  substitution  in  Egypt 

of  animal  for  human  sacrifice  is  (I  believe)  entirely  without  foundation. 
And  the  supposed  evidence  of  human  sacrifices  drawn  from  certain 
pictures  has  (I  believe)  been  misinterpreted. 

8.  The  four  children  of  Horus  were  also  his  brothers.  He  asks 
for  two  of  them  to  be  with  him  in  each  of  his  two  cities,  Pu  and 
Nechen.  The  true  sense  of  the  passage  is  entirely  lost  in  the  later 
recensions  and  in  translations  made  from  them. 


Chapter  whereby  one  know  eth  the  Powers  of  Nechen.  (i) 

I  know  the  Mystery  of  Nechen :  Horus,  and  that  which  his 
mother  did  (2)  for  him,  when  she  herself  uttered  the  cry  :  "  Let 
Sebak,  the  Lord  of  the  Marshes,  be  brought  to  us." 

He  cast  the  net  for  them  and  he  found  them^  and  his  mother 
made  them  fast  in  their  places. 

Sebak,  the  Lord  of  the  Marshes,  said  :  "  I  sought  and  I  found 
the  traces  of  them  under  my  fingers  on  the  strand.  I  netted  them  in 
a  powerful  net,  as  the  net  proved  to  be." 

And  Ra  said  :  "  Verily,  those  are  fishes  in  the  hands  of  Sebak. 
and  he  hath  found  the  two  arms  of  Horus  for  him,  which  had 
become  fishes."  (3) 

And  Ra  said  :  "  A  mystery,  a  mystery,  in  the  Net." 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 87 

And  the  hands  of  Horus  were  brought  to  him,  and  displayed 
before  his  face,  on  the  feast  of  the  fifteenth  day  of  the  month  ; 
when  the  fishes  were  produced. 

Then  Ra  said :  "  I  grant  Nechen  to  Horus,  in  the  place  of  his 
two  arms ;  that  his  two  hands  be  displayed  before  his  face  in 
Nechen ;  and  I  grant  to  him  whatsoever  is  therein  comprised  on  the 
feast  of  the  fifteenth  day  of  the  month." 

And  Horns  said  :  "  Be  it  granted  to  me  that  Tuamautef  and 
Kebhsenuf  be  taken  WMth  me,  and  that  they  be  guards  of  my  body 
in  dutiful  service.  (4)  Let  them  be  this  under  the  god  of  Nechen." 
And  Ra  said  :  Be  that  granted  to  thee,  there  and  in  Sati,  and  let 
that  be  done  for  them  which  is  done  for  those  who  are  in  Nechen  ; 
yea,  they  are  asking  to  be  with  thee. 

And  Horus  said  :  Be  they  with  thee,  so  that  they  be  with  me  to 
listen  to  Sutu  invoking  the  Powers  of  Nechen  :  "  Be  it  granted  to 
me  that  I  may  make  my  entry  among  the  Powers  of  Nechen." 

I  know  the  Powers  of  Nechen  :   they  are    Horus,  Tuamautef, 
and  Kebhsenuf. 


1.  Nechen,  the  chief  hieroglyphic  variants  of  which  are  ^  , 

©      ® 

(     U      >  /VWAA[— j 

/vNA/^/vA  and     ®  ,  was  situated  in  the  third  nome   (  /oi     Ten)  of 

©  /wvwv  ©  ^^^ir 

Upper  Egypt,  and  was  called  by  the  Greeks  Hieraconpolis,  'city  of 
the  Hawks,'  from  the  hawk -headed  divinities  mentioned  in  this 
chapter  as  Powers  of  Nechen,  and  of  which  numberless  pictures  are 
found  on  the  monuments. 

2.  Between  these  words  and  those  which  the  three  old  papyri* 
Aa,  Ae,  and  lb,  which  unfortunately  do  not  agree  together  on  all 
points,  have  a  few  passages  here  which  do  not  appear  in  the  later 
papyri.     They  read,  "  Horus  and  what  his  mother  did,  tossing  in 

distressful  agitation  (  _4^  ^k\    v\     4^  ,  KIJUL,  (rukeveaeai)  over  the 

water."  The  mother  then  addresses  persons  who  are  not  named, 
in  words  of  which  the  sense  is  not  clear ;  and  Ra  speaks  words  of 
which  the  only  certain  ones  are  "  the  son  of  Isis."  Then  follows 
the  usual  text. 

*  There  is  a  copy  of  the  chapter  in  the  tomb  of  Cha-em-hait,  which  is  our 
oldest  authority.  But  it  is  unfortunately  mutilated,  and  all  that  can  be  said  is, 
that  if  the  additional  words  were  once  there,  they  have  been  destroyed. 

l88  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

3.  This  legend  of  Nechen  is  connected  with    that  of  the  dis- 
memberment of  HorUS  (to  Trepl  rhi>"Qpov  ^lafieXKr/nov),  of  which   we 

have  but  very  scanty  information.*  It  must  have  been  Hke  a  repe- 
tition of  what  had  happened  to  his  father  Osiris.  The  Hmbs  of 
Horus  had  been  thrown  into  the  water,  and  when  Sebak  threw  his 
net,  at  the  prayer  of  Isis,  he  brought  up  two  fishes,  into  which  the 
arms  of  Horus  had  been  turned. 

Reminiscences  of  this  story  are  preseived  in  the  names  of  several 

localities.    <s^p^  ^  "  Two  Fish,"  is  the  name  of  the  Mer  of  the  second 

Northern  Nome,  and  of  the  pe/iu  of  the  seventeenth  Southern  Nome  ; 

just  as  -<s>- ,  "Two  Eyes,"  is  the  name  of  the _pe/iu  of  the  eleventh 

Northern  Nome.     The  latter  name  may  perhaps  have  reference  to 
Osiris,  but  the  same  stories  were  probably  told  of  both  divinities. 

4.    On   dutiful  service  [J  ,  a  word  omitted  in  the  Turin 

and  other  texts.    Brugsch  {Rev.  Egypt,  I,  22)  has  discussed  the  sense 
of  this  word,  and  quoted  numerous  passages  in  illustration  of  it. 

It  is  of  course  ridiculous  to  identify  the  word  with  the  Hebrew 
^"Tt^,  the  meaning  of  which  is  radically  different. 


Chapter  whereby  ojie  kno7iicth  the  Powers  of  Herinopolis. 

Maat  is  borne  (i)  over  the  Arm,  (2)  and  Neith  dawneth  at 
Ment'ait,  (3)  and  the  Eye  is  illumined  (4)  by  the  one  who  adjusteth 
its  level. 

I  am  led  in  by  her,  and  I  know  what  she  bringeth  from  Kasu.  (5) 
I  tell  it  not  to  men  ;  I  repeat  it  not  to  gods. 

I  am  come  as  a  messenger  of  Ra,  to  make  fast  Maat  upon  the 
Arm,  for  the  dawning  of  Neith  at  Ment'ait,  and  for  restoring  the 
Eye  to  him  who  taketh  the  reckoning  thereof. 

I  am  come  as  omnipotent  through  the  knowledge  of  the  Powers 
of  Hermopolis,  who  love  the  Powers  which  you  love. 

*  The  Apis  tablets  (Zeitschr.,  1882,  p.  22)  give  the  name  of  a  place  Fa-kerk- 
en  Hor,  which  seems  to  refer  to  this  catastrophe  ;  the  Coptic  KODX,  KCCpX 
corresponding  to  the  Greek  iKKoirrtiv,  IkkKcli',  KaTaairacOat. 


BOOK     OF    THE     DEAD. 

Chapter  CXIV 

Papyrus,  British 

Museum,  No.  9900. 

Chapter  CXIX. 
Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  No.  V. 

Chapter  CXVI.     Papyrus, 
Musee  du  Louvre,  No.  IIL  36. 

Chapter  CVII.     Papyrus, 
British  Museum,  No.  9933. 

Ch.\pter  CXXIII.    Papyrus, 
British  Museum,  No.  9903. 

Chapter  CXVII.     Papyrus, 
British  Museum,  No.  9900. 

Chapter  CXIX. 

Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre. 

Cab.  des  Medailles. 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  1 89 

I  am  one  acquainted  with  Maat  made  firm  and  permanent  and 
reckoned  out,  and  I  take  delight  in  reckoning  out  that  which  is 

Hail  ye  Powers  of  Hermopolis,  small  at  the  beginning  of  the 
month  and  great  upon  the  Fifteenth  Day ;  Ra  teacheth  the  mysteries 
of  Night,  and  be  it  known  to  you  that  he  who  teacheth  me  is  Thoth. 

Hail  ye  Powers  of  Hermopolis  as  I  know  you. 


There  are  two  chapters  (114  and  1 16)  of  "  the  Powers  of  Hermo- 
polis," and  they  have  been  preserved  separately  both  in  the  older 
and  in  the  more  recent  papyri.  They  are  very  similar  in  thought 
but  differently  worded,  and  each  throws  a  certain  light  upon  the 
other,  without  however  dispelling  the  obscurity  of  this  very  ancient 
religious  composition.  Some  farther  help,  however  insufficient,  is 
afforded  by  the  pictures  of  the  Book  which  records  the  passage  of 
the  Sun-god  through  the  twelve  hours  of  the  night. 

[.   Aladt  is  borne.     [  1   w   1   is  the  same  word  as  [  .^^^^^ ■>  ^^e 

reduplicated  form  of  I    ^   to  gush,  spring  forth.     But  in  certain 

cases  it  acquires  the  sense  of  being  borne,  or  conveyed,  and  is  written 
^   in   Ptolemaic   inscriptions.     The  corresponding  word  in 


chapter  116  is    1  j-,  ^^  ,  which  has  the  same  meanings.    One 

of  the  pictures  above  alluded  to  (Lefebure,  Hypogees,  Toinbeau  de 
Seii,  part  IV,  pi.  31)  represents  a  boat  carrying  the  Moon-disk, 
raised  upon  a  stand. 

A  personage  kneeling  behind  is  supporting  the  feather  of  Maat. 

The  words  ^^^^  j  c^  ,    which  are   written  by   way   of  explanation, 

-, — Si 

might  give  rise  to  some  misunderstanding  were  it  not  for  considera- 
tions mentioned  in  the  followins;  note. 


2.   The  Arm  ^^^  in  chapter   114  has   for  corresponding  word 
V   v\  in  chapter  116,  implying  that  Arm  is  to  be  taken 

in  a  geographical  sense,  as  when  we  speak  of  an  'arm  of  the  sea  ' 
Now   the   pictures   which   have   been    spoken   of  have   the  words 

2  C 

igo  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

,-r-^Si  ^^  —"—  ,  'arm  of  the  Urnes,'  inscribed  ever  the  stream  down 

which  the  Sun-god  takes  his  nightly  journey. 

These  pictures  have  only  the  value  of  a  commentar)'  on  a  very 
ancient  text,  but  they  are  at  least  as  old  as  the  earUest  papyrus 
which  contains  the  text. 

3.  Ment'ait  ^S^  ^ '  ^^  ^^^  ancient  reading  in  chapter  114, 
but  the  later  texts  have  ^   ll,  Tar.     Chapter  116  has 

g ,  Mat'aii. 

4.  Illumined.     The  texts  are  discordant  as  to  the  reading.     I 


follow  that  of  the  two  old  papyri  which  have  ? -< — ^  ;   though  this 
orthography,  however  defensible,  is  somewhat  suspicious. 

5.  Kasu.       j^l    I     ,  the  'Burial  Place,'  was  the  metropolis  of 

the  14th  Nome  of  Southern  Eg}-pt.      Dendera  is   called         \Jj  D 
M4  "^  W.  "^  ©  ^^^  ^"  ^^^'■^  ordinary  characters     ^    ^  (j  ^ 
X     n  °  I  ^  •      -^^^^  ^^^^'  many  other  geographical  names,  it  has 
the  feminine  form  in  £:i ,  as  well  as  the  masculine  in  v\ . 


Chapter  whereby  one   cometh  forth   into   Heaven,    and  openeth    the 
Aminehit :   and  whereby  the  Powers  of  Heliopolis  are  known. 

I  have  grown  from  yesterday,  a  Great  one  among  the  Great.  I 
have  raised  myself  above  all  things  that  come  into  being. 

The  Face  is  revealed  to  the  Eye  of  the  Only  One,  and  the  round 
of  darkness  is  broken  through.     I  am  one  of  you. 

I  know  the  Powers  of  Heliopolis.  Doth  not  the  All-powerful 
One  (i)  issue  from  it  like  one  who  extendeth  a  hand  to  us? 

It  is  with  reference  to  me  that  the  gods  say :  Lo,  the  afflicted 
one  is  heir  of  Heliopolis  ! 

1  know  on  what  occasion  the  Lock  of  the  Male  child  (2)  was 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  191 

Ra  was  speaking  with  Amhauf,  (3)  and  a  blindness  came  upon 

Ra  said  to  Amhauf:  Take  the  spear,  oh  offspring  of  Men.  (4) 
And  Amhauf  said  :  The  spear  is  taken. 

Two  brethren  came  into  being :  they  were  Heb-ra  and  Sotem- 
anes,  whose  arm  resteth  not ;  and  he  assumed  the  form  of  a  female 
with  a  lock,  which  became  the  Lock  in  Heliopolis. 

Active  and  powerful  is  the  heir  of  the  temple ;  the  Active  one 
of  Heliopolis.  The  flesh  of  his  flesh  (5)  is  the  All-seer,  for  he  hath 
the  might  divine  as  the  Son  whom  the  Father  hath  begotten.  And 
his  will  is  that  of  the  Mghty  one  of  Heliopolis. 

I  know  the  Powers  of  Heliopolis ;  they  are  Ra,  Shu  and  Tefnut. 


The  ancient  text  of  this  chapter  has  most  unfortunately  been 
lost.  A  few  words  only  remain  in  the  fragments  of  Papyrus  P)7i. 
M.  Naville  has  also  published  what  is  found  on  an  ostracon  of  the 
time  of  the  XVHIth  dynasty.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  form 
of  the  text  which  has  been  handed  down  in  the  later  papyri  has 
suffered  great  alterations.  And  a  comparison  between  the  Turin 
and  Cadet  papyri  shows  in  how  untrustworthy  a  way  this  later  form 
of  the  text  has  been  transmitted. 

Special  attention  has  been  given  to  this  chapter  by  Mr.  Goodwin 
(Zeitschr.,  1873,  p.  104),  and  by  M.  Lefebure  {Melanges  d'Arch., 
1874,  p.  155),  whose  work  is  very  much  more  valuable  than  that  of 
his  English  colleague.  But  the  most  important  study  bearing  on 
the  relations  between  the  older  and  the  more  recent  recension  is 
that  of  M.  Naville,  '  Un  ostrakon  egyptien,'  in  the  first  volume  of 
the  Antiaks  du  Musee  Gurnet. 

I.  All  powerful  One,    ^^^  ^  c^.     M.  Naville  observes  that  this 
is    substituted    for    ^^ -^ ,    which    is    found    on    the    ostrakon. 

Both  terms  are  divine  names ;  the  latter  corresponding  to  the  Greek 
TToXvcepKi'if  or  Trai'c.c/)Ki]<^,  was  the  title  of  the  high  priest  of  Heliopolis, 
who,  like  his  priestly  colleagues  all  over  Egypt,  bore  the  titles  of  the 
god  whom  they  represented. 

-2.   T^e  Lock  of  the  Male  child,   Q    vj  v ^  Yh  ''^'^^  ^^  .  is   not 

a  'curly  wigged  woman/  as  generally  interpreted,  but  the  side  lock 

2  C  2 

192  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

borne  by  Horus,  and  princes  and  princesses,  as  well  as  by  other 
priests  and  priestesses,  in  honour  of  Horus. 

3.  Amhanf.  See  emendation  proposed  {?ifra  at  chapter  125, 
note  zi. 

4.  O  offspring.  I  follow  the  Papyrus  Luyne  in  omitting  the 
preposition  «crr>. 

5.  The  flesh  of  his  fleshy  or  the  heir  of  his  heir.  This  may 
perhaps  be  an  assertion  as  to  the  hereditary  succession  of  the  high 
priest  of  Heliopolis. 


Chapter  ivherehy  one  knoweth  the  Power  of  Hermopolis. 

Neith  dawneth  forth  in  Mat'at,  and  Maat  is  conve3'ed  upon  the 
Arm  of  the  Eater  of  the  Eye  by  him  who  reckoneth  it  out. 

I  know  it,  and  I  am  therefore  led  in  through  the  Sem  priest. 

I  tell  it  not  to  men,  I  repeat  it  not  to  the  gods  (and  conversely). 

I  enter  as  one  who  knoweth  not,  and  seeth  not. 

Hail,  ye  gods  who  are  in  Hermopolis.  Know  ye  me  as  I  know 
Neith,  that  the  Eye  may  be  made  firm  and  permanent.  I  take 
delight  in  reckoning  out  that  which  is  reckoned. 

I  know  the  Powers  of  Hermopolis  who  are  great  at  the  beginning 
of  the  month,  and  diminished  at  the  fifteenth  day. 

They  are  Thoth  the  Unseen,  Sau  and  Tmu. 

If  this  chapter  be  hioivn,  filth  is  avoided^  and  lye  is  not  drunken. 


This  is  the  last  of  the  chapters  concerning  the  Powers  of  certain 
places.  Of  their  positive  antiquity  there  can  be  no  doubt,  whatever 
alterations  they  may  have  undergone.  But  they  are  relatively 
modern  with  respect  to  other  chapters,  e.g.,  the  17th.  Mr.  Goodwin 
used  to  compare  them  with  Christian  legends  of  the  mediaeval 
period.  These  are  ancient  enough  as  far  as  we  ourselves  are 
concerned,  but  no  one  would  think  of  judging  by  them  of  primitive 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  I93 


The  Beginning  of  the  Chapters  of  the  Garden  of  Hotepit,  and  of  the 
Chapters  of  coming  forth  by  day ;  and  of  entering  and  coming 
forth  in  the  Nethenvorld,  and  of  arriving  at  the  Garden  0/ 
A  arm,  at  the  Rise  (i)  in  Hotepit  and  at  the  Grand  Domain, 
blest  with  the  breezes  :  that  I  may  take  possession  there  and  be  in 
Glory  there :  that  there  I  may  plough  and  moia :  that  there  J 
may  eat  and  drink  and  love :  doing  whatsoever  things  are  done 
up07i  earth, 

Horus  is  seized  by  Sutu  :  who  looketh  as  one  turning  (2)  towards 
the  Garden  of  Hotepit. 

But  for  me  Sutu  releaseth  Horus  :  and  the  double  path  which  is 
nigh  to  Heaven  is  thrown  open  by  Sutu.  And  Sutu  taketh  his 
portion  of  the  breeze  through  the  Power  of  his  own  day,  (3)  and  he 
dehvereth  the  bowels  of  Horus  from  the  gods  below, 

Lo,  I  sail  the  great  Bark  on  the  Stream  of  the  god  Hotep.  I 
took  it  at  the  mansion  of  Shu, 

The  mansion  of  his  stars  is  again  and  again  renewed.  (4)  I  sail 
upon  its  streams  that  I  may  come  to  the  domains  thereof. 

For  I  am  in  unison  with  his  successive  changes  and  his  rules, 
and  his  papyrus,  (5)  and  his  attendant  gods,  and  his  chieftains.  He 
reconcileth  the  two  Warrior  gods  with  those  who  have  the  charge 
of  food  and  the  beautiful  creation  Avhich  he  raiseth  up;  and  he 
reconcileth  the  two  Warrior  go:ls  with  each  other.  (6) 

He  severelh  the  mourners  from  those  who  quarrel  with  them  : 
he  putteth  a  stop  to  them  whose  hand  is  violent  against  those  weaker 
than  themselves  :  he  keepeth  within  bounds  the  contentions  of  the 

May  I  have  possession  there. 

I  know  it,  and  I  sail  upon  its  streams  that  I  may  come  to  the 
domains  thereof. 

My  mouth  is  potent  and  secured  against  the  Glorified  that  they 
may  not  have  the  mastery  of  me. 

May  I  have  the  investiture  of  thy  Garden,  O  Hotep.  What  thou 
wiliest,  do  thou  it. 

Let  me  be  glorified  there,  and  eat  and  drink  there,  and  jjlough 
there,  and  reap  there,  and  grind  (7)  there,  and  have  my  fill  of  love 

194  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

May  my  mouth  be  potent  there,  let  me  there  utter  my^  Words 
of  Power  and  not  be  shghted. 

I  am  in  possession  of  that  Word  of  Pcwpr  of  mine  Avhich  is  the 
most  potent  one  within  this  body  of  mine  here  :  and  by  means  of  it 
I  make  myself  either  known  or  unknown. 

I  make  my  progress  and  I  plough. 

I  take  my  rest  in  the  divine  Domain. 

I  knoAv  the  names  of  the  domains,  the  districts  ard  the  streams 
within  the  Garden  of  Hotep. 

I  am  there,  I  am  master  there,  I  am  in  glory  there,  I  eat  there  ; 
I  plant  and  I  reap  there ;  I  plough  there,  and  I  take  my  fill  of  love. 
I  am  united  there  with  the  god  Hotep. 

I  cast  my  seed  there,  and  I  sail  upon  its  stream  that  I  may  come 
to  the  domains  thereof,  O  Hotep. 

Lo,  my  mouth  is  armed  with  sharp  points.  There  is  given  to 
me  the  abundance  which  belongeth  to  the  Ka  and  to  the  Glorified. 

I  give  the  reckoning  of  Shu  to  him  who  understandeth  it. 

I  sail  upon  its  stream,  and  I  range  within  the  Garden  of  Hotep, 
for  Ra  is  in  the  sky,  and  Hotep  is  putting  together  the  oblations. 

I  hasten  to  the  land,  and  I  fasten  my  stole  upo)i  me,  that  I  may 
come  forth,  and  that  that  may  be  given  to  me  which  hath  to  be 
given  ;  that  I  may  have  joy  and  take  possession  of  the  wealth  which 
Hotep  assigneth  to  me. 

Rise  in  Hotep,  I  arrive  in  thee,  my  soul  is  with  me,  and  my 
provision  is  before  the  Mistress  of  the  Two  Earths,  who  maketh  fast 
my  Words  of  Power,  which  recall  to  mind  that  which  I  have 
forgotten.  Let  me  live  free  from  stiife  ;  and  be  there  granted  to 
me  enlargement  of  heart. 

Let  my  arteries  be  made  fast,  and  let  me  ha\e  the  enjoyment  of 
the  Breeze.  (8) 

"Rise  in  Hotep,  blest  with  the  Breeze,  I  arrive  in  thee,  my  head 
is  uncovered  :  Ra  sleepeth,  but  there  wakelh  for  me,  and  there 
shineth  upon  me  Hesit  [the  Cow-goddess]  (9)  who  lieth  at  the 
confines  of  Heaven  by  night. 

He  standeth  in  my  way  who  heapeth  against  me  his  own  dross. 

But  I  am  in  my  own  domain. 

Great  Domain,  I  arrive  in  thee  and  I  reckon  up  the  abundance 
as  I  pass  on  to  Uach.  (to) 

BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 


I  am  the  Bull,  raised  on  high  in  the  Blue  ;  the  lord  of  the  Bull's 
field  ;  which  Sothis  describcth  to  me  at  her  successive  hours. 

Uach,  I  arrive  in  thee,  and  I  eat  my  cakes,  and  take  possession 
of  my  joints  of  flesh  and  meat  and  fowl. 

The  winged  things  of  Shu  are  given  to  me,  and  my  Kau  follow 
rre.  (11) 

T'efait,  (12)  I  arrive  in  thee,  I  put  on  the  stole  and  fasten  upon 
me  the  girdle  of  Ra,  whilst  he  is  m  heaven,  (13)  and  the  gods  who 
are  in  heaven  are  following  Ra. 

Rise  in  Hotep,  Lord  of  the  Two  Earths,  I  arrive  in  thee  : 
I  salute  the  stream  of  Teserit.  (14)  Lo,  here  am  I,  and  all  impurity 
is  far  from  me.  The  great  one  flourisheth  .  .  .  I  net  the 
ducks,  and  I  eat  dainties. 

Kankanit,  (15)  I  arrive  in  thee;  that  I  may  see  my  father  and 
attentively  view  my  mother. 

I  lake  care  to  net  the  reptiles  ;  and  that  which  protecteth  me  is 
that  I  know  the  name  of  that  god  who  is  next  to  T'eserit  (goddess 
with  flowing  locks  and  armed  with  horns),  and  who  reapeth. 

I  myself  plough  and  reap. 

Hesit,  I  arrive  in  thee,  and  I  encounter  the  Blue. 

I  follow  the  Breezes,  and  the  company  of  the  gods. 

It  is  the  Great  goddess  who  hath  given  me  my  head,  and  he 
who  fasteneth  my  head  upon  me  is  the  Great  god,  the  Blue-eyed, 
who  doeth  according  to  his  own  will. 

Userit,  (16)  I  arrive  in  thee,  in  face  of  the  mansion  where  food 
is  produced  for  me. 

Smiit,  (17)  I  arrive  in  thee.  My  heart  is  awake:  my  head  is 
provided  with  the  White  crown  and  I  am  conveyed  over  the 
heavens  :  and  I  make  thcs:  things  to  prosper  which  are  below  me  : 
a  joy  to  the  Bull  of  the  gods  above,  the  divine  company. 

I  am  the  Bull,  the  Lord  of  the  gods  ;  and  I  make  my  way 
through  the  midst  of  the  Emerald  ones.  (18) 

Isle  of  Corn  and  Barley,  divine  district,  I  arrive  in  thee.  I 
encounter  and  I  bear  olT  that  which  proceedeth  from  the  head  of 
Ra  :  the  pair  of  horns  which  have  the  force  of  purification.  (19) 

I  make  myself  fast  to  the  Block  of  Moorage  on  the  heavenly 
stream,  and  I  utter  my  praise  to  the  gods  who  are  in  the  Gard:;n  of 

196  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


The  text  of  this  chapter  handed  down  by  the  Turin  papyrus 
and  those  which  agree  with  it  contains  nothing  very  difificult  for  a 
translator,  but  on  being  compared  with  the  older  copies  it  is  found 
to  consist  of  a  collection  of  small  fragments  of  the  older  text  put 
together  without  any  regard  to  their  original  order  or  context.  And 
about  three-quarters  of  the  old  chapter  are  suppressed  in  the  new 

The  editors  of  the  fine  pipyrus  of  Sutimes  in  their  notes  upon 
this  chapter  remark,  that  in  the  Turin  text  the  sentences  are  in  quite 
a  different  order  from  that  of  their  papyrus,  "  On  peut  y  voir,"  they 
.say,  "  I'effet  de  lectures  et  de  transcriptions  en  rebours  du  sens,  par 
des  scribes  ayant  mal  compris  les  editions  en  colonncs  retrogrades." 

This  is,  curiously  enough,  the  very  fault  of  the  papyrus  of 
Sutimes  itself,  which  is  here  wrong  from  beginning  to  end,*  though 
probably  derived  from  an  excellent  original.  It  begins  with  the 
"  Isle  of  Corn  and  Barley,"  and  jumbles  together  quite  incoherent 

The  oldest  copy  of  the  chapter  yet  discovered  is  that  of  the 
Tomb  of  Cha-em-hait,  at  Thebes,  and  by  a  strange  fatality  it  has 
been  published  in  such  a  form  that  in  order  to  read  it  correctly,  we 
must  begin  with  what  is  printed  as  line  11  and  finish  with  line  i. 
We  have  it  also  in  a  very  incomplete  condition.  We  miss  the  first 
eighteen  Hues  contained  in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  and  the  last 
words  of  every  line. 

The  papyrus  of  Nebseni  is  the  only  complete  text  we  have,  and 
here  as  well  as  elsewhere  it  is  extremely  incorrect.  Some  parts  are 
so  corrupt  that  a  translation  must  necessarily  be  dependent  upon 
conjectural  emendations  which  can  have  no  genm'ne  claim  upon 
the  reader's  confidence.  We  must  be  content  with  waiting  till 
better  authorities  are  discovered. 

The  Gardens  of  Hotepit  and  Aanu  are  the  Paradise,  Elysian 
Fields  and  Islands  of  the  Blessed  of  the  Egyptian  imagination.! 
They  were  supposed  to  be  situated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
rising  Sun,  but  certain  features  were  apparently  suggested  by  the 
islets  of  the  Delta. 

*  See  Jif.  Naville's  remarks,  Einlcilung,  p.  156 
t  Mission  Ai-ch.,  I,  p.  125. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  I97 

The  usual  meaning  of  the  word  ffofepif,   c^   u  ,*  when 

^      III 
written   according   to   the   orthography   of  the  Pyramid  Texts,   is 

oblations,  offe/'ings.     This,  however,  is  only  a  derived  meaning.     The 

word  really  only    expresses   a  predicate  of   the    things    offered,   as 

.  .0  . 
putting  together,  unitifig,  reconciling ;  Hotep  might  signify  Rest, 

or  Peace  ;  very  appropriate  names  for  such  a  garden.  ^  is 

the  name  of  a  god  who  dwells  here.f     There  is  also  a  goddess  here 

called  Hotepit  c  M ,  mentioned  in  the  Pyramid  inscription  of 

Pepi  I  (line  423),  as  mother  of  the  great  Scarab  :  and  the  same  name 
is  given  to  Hathor  in  the  temple  of  Dendera.  The  name  of  Hotep 
(with  different  determinatives  J)  belongs  to  one  of  the  islands  of  this 
blissful  place. 

The  Pyramid  Texts  furnish  some  interesting  information  not  con- 
tained in  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  We  are  told  that  the  approach  to 
the  Garden  is  over  the  Lake  of  Putrata  (see  chapter  40,  note  i), 
that  there  is  a  great  lake  (?  that  of  Konsit)  in  the  middle  of  the 
Garden  of  Hotepit,  upon  which  the  great  gods  alight,  and  that  the 
AcJimiu  Sekiu,   the    starry  deities    who    never  set,   there   feed   the 

departed  from  the  wood  of  life  I  ■¥"    -^    lignum  vita; )  "  upon 

which  they  themselves  live,  in  order  that  he  too  may  live."  Shu 
and  Tefnut  are  mentioned  as  divinities  of  this  place.  But  perhaps 
the  most  remarkable  fact  is  that  Horus  had  enemies  even  here,  who, 
however,  were  annihilated  by  the  divine  weapons  at  the  disposal  of 
the  departed  worthy,  who  was  led  there  in  order  that  "  he  might  sit 
among  the  stars  in  heaven." 

And  here  it  was  that  the  beatified  personage  sat  upon  his  throne 
of  steel,  which  was  decorated  in  front  with  faces  of  the  lion-god 

—      \  ^^  >r5K  ^^'^^^^^i  t^s  f^et  of  it  being  the  hoofs  of  the  great 

*  Also  written  ^  0  ( Unas,  422  and  elsewhere). 

t  The  garden  is  also  called  \  .Q  }\  pKy  .     Another  form  is 

-=i  C  {Pepi  I,  309)- 

O  □ 

I  AA^AAA  Nebseni,  I  1       Sutimes,  \\      in  all  the  later 


2    D 

198  LOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Bull  Snta-ura,  and  extended  his  hand  to  the  coming  generation  of 

men  (the  \  '^   ^^^^  ^^  Q ),  whilst  the  gods  approached  him  in 

submissive  attitude,  and  made  offerings  to  him.  It  was,  perhaps, 
from  these  offerings  that  the  Garden  derived  its  name. 

The  Garden  of  Aarru,     I      Mil  ^   „^    ^   '  is  often  men- 

tioned  in  connection  with  that  of  Hotepit,  and  may  perhaps  be 
considered  as  the  most  notable  part  of  it.  It  is  through  its  Gate 
that  the  Sun-god  rises  up  into  Heaven. 

It  takes  its  name  from  a  plant  [I  *^^^  \\    ^  aarrii  (later, 

^©,B.M.  551;   (  <6.  ^T  ",  ^^^,  Chapter 

17  ;  vV]    *  Ba,  Chapter  no,   by  phonetic  dissimi- 

lation  of  rr  into  nr).     The  usual  form  in  later  times  is  [   \\ 

m*"^    "^,  but  we  find  even  shorter  forms  in  MAUHl,  B.M.  32, 
®  <z>l      © 

and  JLJij  .      The   determinative  IM^  of  a  reptile,  indicates 

a  creeping,  climbing^  twbiing  plant,  such  as  the  convolvulus,  hop,  or 

Mc^  1  (       >    w     \     . 
^   I  <=>  I      ,  in  the  papyrus  of  Nesichonsu, 

V  I    I    \    MR    ® 
published  by  M.  Maspero,  Miss.  Arch.,  I,  p.  612. 

+  The   Pyramid   Texts    have    the   invocations  ( Unas,   597),    "  Hail    to    thee, 
Horus,  in  the  domains  of  Horus  ;   Hail  to   thee,  Sutu,  in   the  domains  of  Sutu  ; 

Hail  to  thee,  Lion 


ylar),  in  the  Garden  of  Aarru." 

Another  derivation  is  suggested  in  the  "Destruction  of  Mankind,"  line  39, 

"^     (as  I  read  it)  an  augmented  form  of    ^\      <y>     >  «'',  which  does 

not  mean  pluck,    as    in  Bnigsch's   translation,   but  bind,  fasten,  twine,   jiectere, 
constringere,  convolvere.      This  sense  would  explain  the  ancient  determinatives 

\|jj,     Aillj  and  lead  to  still  more  interesting  results.     For  the  ancient  word 

(J    ^\    <:i^>    liWK    ,  aarei'it,  'a  vine,'  has  thus  clearly  the  same  etymological 

sense  as  our  European  word  vine.     '^Vi-niem  .  .  .  attaches  itself  to  vi-tis,  vt-?/ien, 

vi-tex,  and — exactly  like   the  Greek  Fo1-vo^ — to   the   Indo-Greek  root  vei,    '  to 

twine.'     So  that  m- no  means  first   'creeper,'  then   '  fruit  of  the  creeper,'  finally 

drink  made  from  the  fruit  of  the  creeper'"  (O.  Schia.dei,  Fre/iistoric  Antiquities, 

Philological  speculation  might  make  a  further  advance. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  1 99 

The  term  'Garden'  implies  in  this  connection  nothing  more  than 
a  cultivated  enclosure. 

The  names  of  different  localities  which  are  invoked  by  the 
deceased  and  appear  on  the  vignette  of  the  chapter,  have  here 
been  made  prominent  by  means  of  heavy  type. 

1.  Rise  in  Hotepit,  or  (later  on)  Hotep,  ^^  ¥\   -^  □  ,  is 

/vwwA  _cr^      d        III 

the  name  of  one  of  the  localities.      The  word  ^^,  as  I  have  often 

said,  has  the  sense  of  rising  up,  coming  to  light,  making  an  appearance, 
and  like  the  Greek  (fmlvo^uu  is  especially  applicable  to  the  appearance 
of  daybreak,  or  the  rise  of  the  heavenly  bodies. 

2.  Turning, 

\ .       The    group   has  the    apparent   sense  of 

building,  but  the  primitive  sense  is  turning,  as  in  the  making  of 
pottery.  The  preposition  <=>  which  follows  it  in  this  place  seems 
to  show  that  building  is  not  meant. 

3.  This,  of  course,  sounds  like  nonsense,  but  so  does  the  original 
as  it  has  come  down  to  us.      The  papyrus  of  Ani,  which  reads 

rn   ^     ,  forces  the  sense  of  day  upon  the  sign  Qj  which  in  the 

sense  of  turn  would  have  been  far  more  intelligible.  There  was  the 
'Portion  of  Sutu,'  and  the  'Portion  of  Horus,'  each  being  half 
the  world,  topographically,  or  half  the  twenty-four  hours  as  regards 

I  suspect  that  '  day '  is  a  faulty  interpretation  of  the  ambiguous 
O,  and  that  the  true  sense  of  the  passage  is  that  Sutu  is  satisfied 
with  the  share  which  comes  to  his  turn,  and  thereupon  delivers 
Horus  from  imprisonment  in  the  lower  world.  The  perplexity,  or 
ignorance  of  the  copyists  is  seen  in  the  very  next  words.     One  has 

As  I     \N.  aar,  is  to  ^-^^  «;-,  so  perhaps  is  1     v\  v\ 

Nil  aarni  to  vl  di-ii.     The  first  two  groups  are  not  phonetically  iden- 

1 1  I  <rr>i  II  f  1 

tical,  but  they  are  certainly  allied  and  have  very  much  the  same  meaning  ;  the 
last  has,  with  some  probability,  been  identified  with  the  Vi)te-branch,  and  that, 

in  conjunction  with  the  text  \U   r       <%/(  ra  ^^^^  Zeiischr.,  1878,  p.  107, 

and  the  plate  corresponding).  "  The  Vine-plant  is  Osiris."  The  Greeks,  or  some 
of  them  at  least,  identified  Osiris  with  Dionysos  ( Plutarch,  de  hide  et  Osiride, 
34>  35)-  The  god  is  sometimes  (as  in  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni)  sitting  in  a  naos 
under  a  vine,  from  which  bunches  of  grapes  are  hanging. 

2    D    2 

200  BOOK   OF   THE"  DEAD. 

'  he  who  is  in  Merit,'  others   '  he  who  is  in  my  mouth,'   and  two 
'  he  who  is  in  the  egg,'  if  this  be  the  sense  of  the  very  questionable 

group  -  h  ^\    ^  J] ,  which  looks  hke  a  mistake  for  -\[- 


'C.    O 

well  known  title  of  Anubis. 

Amin  and  amin  renewed 


5.  His  papyrus.    So  the  word         ^  mehit,   which  occurs  in  the 

rubric  of  Chapter  134,  has  hitherto  been  translated.  But  the  vases 
t^  or  ^,  as  determinatives,  rather  imply  'inkstand'  or  'palette  for 
holding  colour.'  In  this  place  it  is  the  writing  itself  and  not  the 
material,  paper,  ink  or  inkstand,  which  is  meant.  And  from  the 
entire  context  Thoth  is  the  god  who  is  spoken  of. 

6.  He    reconcileth    the    two     Warrior   gods    with    each    other., 



'^^^  .     The  final 
I  I  I 

words  en  aru-sen  show  the  origin  of  the  Coptic  form  It  .  .  .  epHOT 

7.  Grind   I  \  ^cn:::^ ,  the  Coptic  from  of  which  is  CIKI.    From 
the  notion  of   '  reducing  to  powder,'   that   of    the   frequent   word 

I  '^z:^  -^^^  'wearing  away,'  'decay,'  is  derived. 

8.  Let  my  arteries  be  made  fast,  and  let  me  have  the  enjoyment  of 
the  Breeze,  or  that  I  may  have  enjoyment.  The  oldest  meaning  of  the 
word  artery,  uprrjpia,  in  Hippocrates,  Aristotle  and  the  earlier  I,atin 
writers  is  wind-pipe,  and,  in  the  plural,  air-duds.  But,  even  when 
the  word  was  also  applied  to  what  we  call  arteries,  these  were 
supposed  to  convey  air  whilst  the  veins  conveyed  blood.  "  Sanguis 
per  venas  in  omne  corpus  diffunditur  et  spiritus  per  arterias  "  is  the 
classic  doctrine  in  Cicero  {de  Natura  Deorum,  2,  55).  Pliny  says 
{Nat.  Hist.,  XI,  89),  "arteriae  carent  sensu :  nam  et  sanguine."  This 
error  is  corrected  by  Galen,  who  has  a  treatise  on  the  question 
"  Whether  Blood  is  naturally  {Kcnacfivaiv)  contained  in  the  arteries?" 
The  error  of  the  ancients  arose  from  the  arteries  always  being  found 
empty  after  death.  The  blood  flowing  from  a  wound  inflicted 
upon  them  was  inferred  to  have  been  intruded  into  them  by  the 
rupture  of  the   veins.      The   Egyptian   doctrine  of  the    '  arteries ' 

^^^^  ^  (Coptic  ^i.ItJULOTX)  in  the  head,  by  means   of 

which  air  is  conveyed  to  all  parts  of  the  person,  was  first  found  by 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  20I 

M.  Chabas  in  the  Berlin  Medical  papyrus.  The  passage  of  the 
Book  of  the  Dead  on  which  this  note  is  written  is  no  doubt  the 
earhest  allusion  to  the  doctrine. 


9.   Hesit   [the   Cozv-goddess]  |  jj  ^,  |  ^  ^,  |  j  ( 

^  is  one  of  the  many  names  of  Isis  or  Hathor.  She  is  repre- 
sented as  suckling  her  son  Horus  (see  picture  in  Lanzone,  p.  844), 
and  it  is  this  which  characterizes  her  and  from  which  she  derives 
her  name.  She  is  asked  on  the  Louvre  tablet  (c.  14)  for  "the 
white  liquor  which  the  glorified  ones  love."  This  is  distinctly  called 
'milk'  on  the  Florentine  tablet  2567,  and  vases  of  her  milk  are 
mentioned  (Diimichen,  Resultate,  27,  6)  in  the  inscriptions  of 
Dendera.  A  picture  of  her  given  in  Diimichen's  Historische 
Inschriften  (II,  32)  identifies  her  with  Hathor,  and  calls  her  "divine 
mother,  mistress  of  heaven  and  sovereign  of  the  gods,"  while  others 
call  her  "  the  divine  mother  and  fair  nurse." 

There  can  be  no  doubt  about  the  right  reading  of  the  name 
which  is  Hesit ;  the  — h —  is  written  in  so  many  texts  (see  Pepi,  I, 

306,  Amamu,  21,  i,  Lepsius,  Auswahl,  IX,  and  the  form  P    'cn  ^t 

Philae),  that  there  is  no  reason  for  confounding  the  name  with  that 
o{  hetemit.  We  must  therefore  attach  no  importance  to  this  latter 
name  when  applied  in  the  vignette  of  the  Turin  Todtcfilnuh  to  one 
of  the  divine  abodes  which  bears  the  name  of  the  goddess,  and  is 
written  exactly  like  it. 

10.    Uach  Sp\  ^^.®'\  blooming, flowering. 

II. —  The   loijiged  things  of  Shu  are  given  to  me,  and  my  Kau 
follow  me. 

V  'T? '    V  ^-^ '  ^^  ^  word  of  very  rare  occurrence. 

Birch  and  Naville  understood  it  of  the  netting,  and  Brugsch,  of  the 
pluming  of  birds.  Both  meanings  may  be  disputed,  but  whatever 
Shu  did,  was  done  to  birds,  and  these  are  said  to  be  given  to  the 

The  prayer  that  a  person  may  travel  over  the  blissful  parts, 

followed  by  his  kau  [  ^  f    j  » H^^  >  is  repeatedly  found  on 

the  early  monuments.  Several  papyri  say  that  the  deceased  is 
followed  by  'the  gods  and  the  hau.' 



12.   Tefait  h-T^  J|,  an  abode  abounding  in  ^°^  ^^\ 

I  I 

The  reading  J_J  to  which 


13.  He  is  in  heaven  ATi  ■ 

Brugsch   at  one  time  attached  much  importance,  has  turned  out 
to  be  one  of  the  many  blunders  of  the  text  of  Sutimes.     But  the 

true  reading  is  not  without  its  difficulties.      If   /v7)  is  taken 

as  equivalent  to  [  v\     we  have  a  strange  anticipation  of  a  charge 

in  language  of  which  the  "  enigmatical "  texts  of  the  royal  tombs* 
give  the  first  intimation,  but  which  first  becomes  conspicuous  in  the 

demotic  period.     In  a  previous  passage  we  have      -Jj  [^   1  C  ^\  ATi 

D^^ITD^ i  where  Nebseni  has  ^^^  ^^       .     But  the  important 

preposition   ^^\     had  already  dropped  out   of  the   earlier  text   of 

Chaemhait.     The  demonstrative  particle  [   I  which  occurs  in  both 

places  may  be  rendered  '  there  [he  is],'  '  le  voila.' 

14.  /  salute  the  streavi  of  Teserit :    a    corrupt  passage  like  so 

many  others  in  this   chapter.      The   first   word 



'  salute '  is  rare  but  correct  and  well  attested.  The  proper  name 
is  but  one  of  the  contradictory  readings.  It  has,  however,  the 
advantage  of  being  a  real  name  and  suitable  to  the  passage,  being 
that  of  a  goddess  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  next  abode. 
„^^  ci  ^V  T'eserit  is  a  name  corresponding  to  the  classical  'A^/Xaia 
or  Clara. t  In  the  texts  of  the  Royal  Tombs  she  is  named  as 
goddess  in     Lh    U^-l  Cher-aba.     And  herej  she  is  depicted  as  the 

*  Here  we  already  have  /Vf)  ^^  I,   \\\ 

and  ^  O  =  -  - 


V=\      III  U    111 

See  my  article  in  the  Zeiischr.,  1874,  p.  102. 


+  It   is   also  the  name  of  a  liquid  substance  ^^ZT   =0=)  \    _~7^  > 

a  produce  of  the  cow,  such  as  cream  or  clarified  butter.     It  occurs  in  all  the 
lists  of  offerings. 

J  A  reference  to  M.  Naville's  collation  of  this  chapter  (line  40),  will  show 
the  corruption  and  uncertainty  of  the  text  which  precedes  the  name  of  the 
goddess.  If  we  look  beyond  the  authorities  given  by  jM.  Naville,  the  difficulties 
are  multiplied.     The  papyrus  of  Queen  Net'emit  in  the  Louvre,  for  instance, 

instead  of   [  J   ^      ^''^•>  reads,    ?C~^  <::z>    • 

BOOK   OF   THE   DExVD.  203 

goddess  with   long  or  flowing  locks  (evTrXoKafio^)  and  armed  with 
horns.     She  is  one  of  the  forms  of  Isis  or  Hathor. 

15.  Kankanit\%  etymologically  akin  to  the  verb  of  beating  {see 
Chapter  17,  note  20),  but  there  is  no  reason  from  the  notice  here  to 
suppose  that  this  was  a  place  of  punishment. 

16.  Userit  ~\  <:zr>  M^  is  one  of  the  commonest  appellatives  of 
Isis,  especially  in  the  later  texts.  The  names  of  all  these  abodes, 
situated  in  that  region  of  the  sky  where  the  sun  rises,  are  derived 
from  the  notion  of  daybreak. 

17.  Smait,  another  of  these  appellatives,  see  Chapter  62,  note  i. 

1 8.  The  Einerald  ones  ^N^  \\  ^  ,  those  who  are  in  the 

emerald  light  of  the  dawn.     The  sun  rises  (Chapter  109)  through 
two  sycomores  of  emerald. 

19.  Which  have  the  force  oj  purification  {\i    v!^  I  •      The 

syllable  db  expresses  the  word  signifying  horn  as  well  as  that  signify- 
ing purification. 

The  vignettes  of  the  chapter  which  are  here  given  from  different 
authorities  are  explained  in  their  proper  place. 

Chapter  luhereby  one  taketh  the  blissful  path  at  Restau.  (i) 

0  paths  which  are  high  above  me  at  Restau :  I  am  the  Girdled  (2) 
and  the  Mighty  one,  coming  forth  triumphantly.  (3) 

1  am  come  :  I  am  come  that  I  may  firmly  secure  my  suit  in 
Abydos,  (4)  and  that  the  path  may  be  open  to  me  at  Restau. 

Let  my  suit  be  made  pleasant  for  me  by  Osiris. 

I  am  he  who  produceth  the  water  which  balanceth  his  throne, 
and  who  maketh  his  way  from  the  Great  Valley.  (5) 

Let  the  path  be  made  for  me ;  for  behold  I  am  iV  the  trium- 
phant. (6) 

[Osiris  is  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  and  the  Osiris 
N  is  made  triumphant  over  his  adversaries,  and  is  as  one  of  you, 
his  patron  (7)  is  the  Lord  of  Eternity  :  he  walketh  even  as  ye  walk, 
he  standelh  as  ye  stand,  he  speaketh  as  ye  speak,  before  the  great 
god,  the  Lord  of  Amenta.] 




I.  This  chapter  and  the  following  have  reference  to  Restau,  one 
of  the  Gates  between  the  Netherworld  and  Heaven. 

It  is  not  mentioned  in  the  most  ancient  recension  of  chapter  i  7 
(from  which  my  translation  was  taken),  but  in  all  the  papyri  of  the 
eighteenth  and  later  dynasties  it  is  stated  that  Restau  was  a  gate 

''        -  )    of 

south  of  An-aaref  and   north  of  the   "Domain 


The  papyrus  of  Ani  has  this  picture  of  it, 


but  the  most  interesting  representations  of  it  are  in  the  Dublin 
papyrus  {D.  a),  where  the  Sun  god  is  seen  passing  between  the 
folding  doors,  and  in  the  papyrus  of  Hunefer  (A.  g),  where  the 
doors  are  also  open  and  the  god  is  sitting  between  them.  (See 
Plates  VI,  II  and  VII  b.) 

The  name  Restau  (the  feminine  form        — (p—    ^ 

is  more  frequent  in  later  texts)  signifies  Gate  of  ihe passages.  These 
are  the  passages  guarded  by  the  faithful  attendants  of  Osiris,  but 
armed  with  "hurtful  fingers"  against  the  adversaries  of  Ra,  against 
whose  onslaught  the  deceased  prays  Ra  for  protection  in  chapter  17. 
A  mystical  interpretation  will  be  found  in  chapter  119  and  note. 

2.   Girdled,  or  staled,   ^^ .     On  the  importance  attached 

to  this  ritual  investiture,  the  following  references  may  (among  many 
others)  be  useful:    Unas  66,   Teta   149,  Pepi\,  395,  Merejiia  190, 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  205 

Todt.  125  (rubric),  145,  25.  The  deceased  prays  (Chapter  82,  4) 
that  he  may  be  girt  by  the  goddess  Tait.  A  passage  in  Todt.  78,  26 
(Turin  text)  would  be  of  greater  interest  were  it  not  an  emendation 
of  those  who  no  longer  understood  the  ancient  text. 

3.  Coming  forth  triumphantly.  This  is  the  reading  of  the  oldest 
authority  (Nebseni),  but  the  reading  which  has  prevailed,  not 
only  here,  but  in  Chapter  147,  is  "coming  forth  from  the  Crown," 

4.  That  I  may  firmly  secure  my  suit  at  Abydos,  The  scholion 
on  Chapter  17,  referred  to  in  note  i,  states  that  the  "place  of  Maat 
is  at  Abydos."  It  is,  of  course,  the  mystical,  not  the  geograpical, 
Abydos  which  is  meant,  and  the  suit  1  {res)    which  has  to   be 

settled  is  the  final  judgment  of  the  deceased. 

5.  The  throne  of  Osiris  in  pictures  of  the  Psychostasia  {see 
Vignettes  to  Chapter  125)  rests  upon  water,  out  of  which  there 
springs  a  lotus  flower ;  and  upon  this  flower  stand  the  four  children 
of  Horus.     In  a  passage  of  chapter  147,  which  is  an  adaptation  of  the 

present  chapter,  the  deceased  says   (I    ^         p.   .M.    V\  ^      '-^■'^^ 

Zrt,    "I    am  he  whose    stream    is   secret."     And  a   Pyramid    Text 

{Merenra,'  188,    193)    after  mention  of   the    Great   Valley    [ 

and  of  the  investiture    I/w-La)  proceeds,  /vwv^^ 

-^  S   ^w  ^ — -*5  "thy  water,  thy  fresh  current,  is 

a  great  inundation  proceeding  from  thee."  Here  the  deceased  is 
identified  with  the  Nile  and  its  inundation,  as  in  Chapter  64  of  the 
Book  of  the  Dead. 

6.  The  chapter  ends  here.  The  passage  which  follows  in  the 
translation  is  taken  from  the  Paris  papyrus  Fe. 

7 .  Patron,  /wvw>  Q  ^.  I  ^  ,  a  word  supposed  by  some  scholars 
to  signify  uncle.  It  occurs  on  funereal  monuments  among  the  desig- 
nations of  persons  connected  with  the  deceased,  such  as  brother, 
sister,  nurse.  A  man  may  have  several  bearing  the  designation,  and 
they  are  not  necessarily  children  of  the  same  parents  {see  e.g.,  Mariette, 
Cat.  d^ Abydos,  p.  110,  where  a  man  has  five  chenemesu,  who  cannot 
all  be  brothers  either  of  his  father  or  his  mother).  The  word  occurs 
repeatedly  in  the  Prisse  papyrus.  I  am  inclined  to  think  it  means 
the  legal  guardian  of  a  minor. 

2    E 

206  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Chapter  whereby  one  arriveth  at  Restau. 

I  am  he  who  is  born  in  Restau. 

Glory  is  given  to  me  by  those  who  are  in  their  mummied  forms 
in  Pu,  at  the  sanctuary  of  Osiris,  whom  the  guards  (i)  receive  at 
Restau  when  they  conduct  Osiris  through  the  demesnes  of  Osiris. 


(i)  Guards,  (1  ^^  ^:z:::^  V>  ~^  I  aaku,  the  same  personages  as 
those  mentioned  in  Chapter  28,  note  2,  and  they  seem  to  me  to 
be  identical  with  the  "wardens  of  the  passages,"  Chapter  17,  "atten- 
dant upon  Osiris."  There  is  an  imperfect  tablet  of  the  1 2th  dynasty 
at    Hamamat   {Denkm.,  II,   138,  c)   in  which    thirty  [  '■cz; 

mentioned  along  with  the  soldiers  and  other  persons  belonging  to 


the  expedition.      The  Pyramid  Texts  have  the  word  [ 

apparently  with  a  determinative  of  salutation,  ^ .      {Pepi  I,   160, 
cf.  line  82.) 

Chapter  lohereby  one  entereth  or  goeth  forth  from  Restau. 

I  am  the  Mighty  one,  who  createth  his  own  light. 

I  come  to  thee,  Osiris,  and  I  worship  thee. 

Pure  are  thine  effluxes,  (i)  which  flow  from  thee,  (2)  and  which 
make  thy  name  in  Restau,  when  it  hath  passed  there. 

Hail  to  thee,  Osiris,  in  thy  power  and  thy  might,  who  hast 
possession  of  Restau. 

Osiris  raiseth  thee  up  in  thy  power  and  in  thy  might.  Osiris 
raiseth  thee  up  in  thy  power  in  Restau,  and  in  thy  might  in  Abydos, 
that  thou  mayest  go  round  heaven  with  Ra,  and  survey  the  human 


One  art  thou  and  triumphant. 


*  The 

from  the  dead  or  yet  unborn. 

liSfc=,  Rechit,  mankind  actually^  living,  as  distinguished 




A/VSA/V\    I     I     I 

^"¥2    ^AAAAA    ,^;>    ■*\ 

1.  Pure  are  thine  effluxes.     The  true  reading  is  /     I  -wwva  v\ 

fX3 ,  a  phrase  which  recurs  in  these  texts.     The  suffix  Vo^  of 
III  ^ 

the  first  person,  which  is  sometimes  added  to  the  first  word,  would 
give  the  sense  "  thine  effluxes  are  my  purification."     On  the  meaning 

of  """^  V:>fl3,  see  65  B,    note  4.      At  the   end  of   Chapter   149 

the  deceased  prays,  "let  me  be  joined,  let  me  be  united  with  the 
sap  which  proceedeth  from  Osiris  ;  let  me  not  be  parted  from  him." 

2.  Which  flow  from  thee.  1  n  \\  ,  sta,  which  has  here 
the  same  meaning  as  when  the  Nile  is  said  {Denktn.,  Ill,  13)  to  flow 
into  the  Great  Sea,    f    I  n          <ir>  n         1)  "^^^SSS^ .      The  name  of 

^^5  I  I 

The  various  meanings  of    I  r-. 

Restau  is  here  derived  from  the  effiuxes  flozai?tg  (stau)  from  Osiris. 

— <&— ,  and  of  the  Coptic  ceT, 

are  all  traceable  to  the  notion  of  sending  forth,  thro7ving,  and  are 

easily  illustrated  from  the  Greek.     Thus   eK/3dX\etu  is  used  for  the 

discharge  of  a  river  into  the    sea  ;   eV/3o\a«  are   '  passes,  passages.' 

Doors  are  secured  by  pushing  the  bolts,  /toxXoi''?  eTn^uWeiv  ;  they 

n  c^  — (p —  — " — 
O.XQ  o^QntdLhy  shooting  back  the  bolt,    I  ri  '     {M-TuxieiiQ,  Abydos, 

p.    58).        I  pj"^     ll  is  exactly  the  reverse  of  tvift/iWetv  acjypa^ftcoc.. 


^    O  )  ^  <=^  Q '  ^OT,  stercus  is  an  UfioX^],  dejectio.    And 



saninare,  and  ever  so  many  others  are  all  determinations  of  one  and 
the  same  concept. 

,  ,   C^-i" ,  COTTe,    /Se'Xo?,  /3ox;?, 

^  ■■M  ,    C^.T-, 

In  such  passages  as 

n  o -(0- ''^'^  s,*_^  I        , 

the  like,  i-/a  has  the  sense  not  of  totving,   but  of  Trof.nri],  '  solemn 
procession.''     It  occurs  even  where  towing  is  out  of  question,  e.g.,  in 

the  march  of  military  men 

I  (Tombs  of  Amenemheb 

and  Pehsukher,  Miss.  Arch.  Francaise,  V,  pp.  229  and  289). 


\~^  string,  rope  is  connected  with  the  notion  of  '  throw- 

■ing  '  like  our  own  warp  with  werfen  (Goth,  vairp-ati)  and  pitt-tw). 

2   E   2 

208  BOOK   OF  THE  DEAD. 

Chapter  CXX  is  a  repetition  of  Chapter  XII. 
Chapter  CXXI  is  a  repetition  of  Chapter  XIII. 
Chapter  CXXII  is  a  repetition  of  Chapter  LVIII. 

Chapter  (i)  ivhereby  ofie  entereth  into  the  Great  House. 

Hail  to  thee,  O  Tmu,  I  am  Thoth. 

I  have  equally  balanced  the  Divine  Pair,  I  have  put  a  stop  to 
their  strife,  I  have  ended  their  complaints. 

I  have  rescued  the  Atu  from  his  backward  course. 

I  have  done  what  thou  hast  prescribed  for  him. 

And  I  rest  since  then  within  my  own  Eye. 

I  am  free  from  obstruction  ;  and  I  come  that  thou  mayest  see 
me  in  the  house  where  I  repeat  the  ancient  ordinances  and  words, 
as  a  guidance  wherewith  thou  shalt  guide  posterity.  (2) 


I.  This  chapter  (which  is  repeated  in  Chapter  139)  is  like  the 
repetition  of  an  important  passage  in  Chapter  no.  But  the 
differences  are  very  considerable,  and  it  is  for  criticism  to  decide 
the  question  of  priority  between  the  two  recensions. 

Whichever  be  the  earlier  recension,  the  present  one  is  of  very  great 
interest  and  importance.  It  is  found  on  two  of  the  most  carefully 
written  papyri  of  the  eighteenth  dynasty.  But  the  most  interesting 
^feature  is  the  mythological  allusion  at  this  date  (at  latest)  to  an 
astronomical  phenomenon,  with  reference  to  which  later  researches 
may  furnish  fresh  evidence. 

The  speaker  in  this  chapter  is  said  (not  merely  implied,  as  in 
Chapter  no,  see  note  5)  to  be  Thoth,  who  is  the  measurer  of  all 
things  in  heaven  and  earth,  and  the  author  and  regulator  of  all 
science.       He  is   here    said    to    have    established    the   equilibriu7n 

\\        ))  ~r^  between  the  Divine  Pair,   Horus  and    Sutu  ;   that   is 

Day  and  Night.     Such  an  equilibrium,  strictly  speaking,  never  exists 
except  at  the  Equinoxes. 

But  the  most  important   passage  is,  "  I  have  rescued  the  Atu 

from  his  backward  course."    The  ^  ^^Pi^j  Atu  is  a  mytho- 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  209 

logical  yfi-//,  who  is  represented  as  following  the  course  of  the  Bark 
of  Ra.     The  meaning  of  the  name  is,  the  Cleaver,  Divider,  Cutter 

in  two  .      It  is  one  of  the  appellatives   of  the   Sun-god, 

with  reference  to  his  path  through  the  sky.     But  what  is  that  solar 
phenomenon  specially  deserving  to  be  characterised  by  its  motion 

backwards  c^  ^^^  ? 

I  do  not  think  any  astronomer  would  hesitate  to  answer,  that 
Precession  is  meant.  The  cause  of  Precession  could  only  be  known 
to  really  scientific  philosophers  (which  is  out  of  question  in  this 
case),  but  the  phenomena  would  necessarily  be  noted  by  those 
who  had  important  interests  in  keeping  their  calendar  correct.* 
Even  the  Chinese,  by  dint  of  records  and  without  any  mathematics, 
came  to  infer  the  precession  of  the  equinoxes ;  so  did  the  Egyptians 
apparently  at  a  very  much  earlier  period ;  and  Hipparchus,  who  has 
the  credit  of  the  discovery,  may  have  learnt  it  from  them. 

Although  's^Pca^   is    commonly   represented   as   a  Jish,   the 

I— (— I     XI5C 
same  name  is  given   to  a   Crustacean  c^ii    cissj  whose  organs  of 

locomotion  are  specially  adapted  for  backward  motion. 

"  Rescuing  the  Atu  from  its  backward  course  "  can  mean  nothing 
less  than  being  able  to  correct  or  (in  technical  language)  to  equate 
the  phenomena. 

It  might  perhaps  be  suggested  that  the  backward  course  here 
spoken  of  has  reference  to  the  year  of  360  days,  corrected  at  an 
early  period  by  the  addition  of  the  five  supplementary  days.  This 
would  certainly  have  been  a  very  probable  explanation  of  the  clause, 
but  for  the  direct  connection  which  this  has  with  what  precedes, 
concerning  the  equilibrium  between  Day  and  Night;  that  is,  the 

2.  Posterity,  <^r>  \\  ^"^^^^^  '  literally,  minores.  The  word 
in  the  present  context  seems  to  have   a  different   meaning  from 

*  "  The  amount  of  this  motion  by  which  the  equinox  travels  backward,  or 
retrogrades  (as  it  is  called),  is  fer  annum  an  extremely  minute  quantity,  but 
which,  by  its  continual  accumulation  from  year  to  year,  at  last  makes  itself  very 
palpable,  and  that  in  a  way  highly  inconvenient  to  practical  astronomers,  by 
destroying,  in  the  lapse  of  a  moderate  number  of  years,  the  arrangement  of  their 
catalogues  of  stars,  and  making  it  necessary  to  reconstruct  them."  Herschul. 
Astronomy,  chapt;;r  4. 


what   it    has   in    Chapter    no,  where   it   is   put    in    contrast   with 


violent  ones,  against  whom  Thoth  interposes 

nis  protection. 

Chapter  whereby  one  cometh  to  the  Divine  Circle  of  Osiris. 

My  soul  buildeth  for  me  a  Hall  (i)  in  Tattu  and  I  flourish  in  Pu. 

My  fields  are  ploughed  by  those  who  belong  to  me  :  therefore  is 
my  palm  tree  like  Amsu. 

Abominations,  abominations,  I  eat  them  not.  I  abominate  filth, 
I  eat  it  not. 

[Peace  offerings  are  my  food,  by  which  I  am  not  upset] 

I  approach  it  not  with  my  hands  ;  I  tread  not  upon  it  with  my 
sandals ;  for  my  bread  is  of  the  white  corn  and  my  beer  of  the  red 
corn  of  the  Nile. 

It  is  the  Sektit  boat,  or  it  is  the  Atit  boat,  which  bringeth  them 
to  me,  and  I  feed  upon  them  under  the  foliage  of  the  Tamarisk.  (2) 

I  know  how  beautiful  are  the  arms  which  announce  Glory  for 
me  (3)  and  the  white  crown  which  is  lifted  up  by  the  divine  Uraei. 

O  thou  Gate-keeper  of  him  who  pacifieth  the  world,  let  that  be 
brought  to  me  of  which  oblations  are  made,  and  grant  that  the  floors 
may  be  a  support  for  me,  and  that  the  glorious  god  may  open  to  me 
his  arms,  and  that  the  company  of  gods  be  silent  whilst  the 
Hammemit  (4)  converse  with  me. 

O  thou  who  guidest  the  hearts  of  the  gods,  protect  me  and  let 
me  have  power  in  heaven  among  the  starrj-  ones. 

And  every  divinity  who  presenteth  himself  to  me,  be  he  reckoned 
to  the  forerunners  of  Ra  :  be  he  reckoned  to  the  forerunners  of 
Light  and  to  the  Bright  ones  who  deck  the  sky  amid  the  Mighty 

Let  me  have  my  will  there  of  the  Bread  and  Beer  with  the  gods ; 
that  I  enter  through  the  Sun-disk  and  come  forth  through  the  Divine 
Pair,  that  the  gods  who  follow  may  speak  to  me,  and  that  Darkness 
and  Night  may  be  terrified  before  me  in  Mehit-urit,  by  the  side  of 
him  "Who  is  in  his  Sanctuary." 


BOOK    OF    T  HE    DEAD. 

Chapter  CXXV. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  III,  36- 

Chai'tkr  CXXV. 
Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  III,  93. 

ClIAl-lKR    CXXV. 

Papyrus  du  Louvre,  III,  9. 

Cl    lAPTER    CXXV. 

Papyri  is  du  Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter    CXXV. 
Papyrus,  Musee  di  i  Louvre,  III,  36. 

Chapter  CXXIV.     Pap  jrrus,  Musee  du 
Louvre,  Cab.  des  iMedaille 

'_   llllll.l|.U.IIi.l|.|i.llill.llnlllllIT; 

Chapter  CXXV.     Papyrus,  Ani. 

Chapter  CXXV. 
Papyrus,  Paris,  Sketch  by  Mr.  Renouf 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  211 

And  lo  I  am  here  with  Osiris.  My  measure  is  his  measure  (5) 
among  the  mighty  ones.  I  speak  to  him  the  words  of  men  and 
I  repeat  to  him  the  words  of  gods. 

There  cometh  a  glorified  one,  equipped,  who  bringeth  Maat  to 
those  who  love  her. 

I  am  the  Glorified  one  and  the  Equipped.  And  better  equipped 
am  I  than  any  of  the  Glorified. 


1.  ^.//^,  ^,  ^Yn'  ^'^  2^ /..«/.  the  .,oV«o,, 
irpoSofio's,  '  Vorsaal,'  first  room  of  a  temple  or  palace.  The  sense  of 
harim  which  has  been  ascribed  to  it  in  certain  texts  is  entirely 
erroneous.  The  temple  inscriptions  (see  Brugsch,  Zeiischr.,  1875, 
p.  118,  and  fol.,  and  Mariette,  Denderah,  I,  6)  leave  no  doubt  on 
the  subject.  If  there  were  "  ladies  of  the  royal  antechamber,"  it 
by  no  means  follows  that  they  were  wives  or  concubines  of  the 
king,  and  hall  or  antechamber  convey  a  very  different  idea  from 
that  of  the  most  reserved  portion  of  the  house.* 

Pictures  and  inscriptions  on  mummy  cases  identify  the  term 
mythologically  with  that  portion  of  the  sky  whence  the  first  rays  of 
the  rising  sun  are  visible. 

The  mention  of  the  word  in  the  Pyramid  Texts  {FeJ>i,  I,  672) 

is  in  connection  with  the  notion  of  food,        ])  ^\. 

2.  We  have  here  a  repetition  of  passages  to  the  same  effect  as  in 
Chapters  53  (A  and  B)  and  others.  The  Pyramid  Texts  {Tela, 
344)  have  a  section  nearly  identical. 

3.  The  arjns  which  announce  Glory  for  me.      The  clue  to   the 

meaning  of  this  passage  is  to  be  found  in  ,  which  is  a  relative 

form  implying  an  antecedent,  which  can  only  be  "the  arms." 

*  The  V\  I    mentioned  in  the  tablet  of  Pa-shere-en-Ptah  are  not 

concubines,  as  Brugsch  and  others  have  thought,  but  female  children,  as  Birch 
rightly  asserted.      Cf.   my  Hihbert  Lectures,   p.    79,    note.      It  is  the  feminine 

form  of      ®    d"^  ^. 

There  is  also  another  word,  ^ ,  applied  on  the  walls  of  tombs  to 


persons  {male  as  well  as  female)  executing  certain  g)'mnastic  movements. 

212  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  arms  which  announce  Glory  for  me  are  to  be  explained  by 
the  usages  of  the  ancient  ritual,  which  prescribed  certain  postures 

or  attitudes  in  the  ceremony  of  .<2>-   I  ''1>^  ,  as  in  other  forms 

wherein  the  arms  pla)  ed  a  great  part.     These  religious  ceremonies 
it  must  always  be  jemembered,  were  considered  as  dramatic  repre- 
sentations of  what  was  done  in  the  invisible  world. 

4.  The  Hammemit,    ^  ^^  ^  ^  i  '    °^   ^Q  "^  ^Z  ^ 

^  J  ' '    nH  "^  S^^v'V  ^  ^  ' '  ^^^  generations  of  human 
beings  yet  unborn. 

5.  My  measure  is  his  measure.     The  meaning  of      L,  ^^^/^^"^ 

v\    ^  Q   can   only   be   inferred   from   the    form 


L^    ^^  ^J\  "FV  which   occurs   repeatedly   in   the   great   Harris 

Papyrus  and  some  other  documents. 

The  scribe  of  the  Turin  Todtenbuch  carelessly  omitted  the  second 
part  of  the  phrase,  and  therefore  altered  the  grammatical  construc- 
tion. This  is  how  M.  Pierret  came  to  conjecture  the  sense 
'proclaim,'  which  is  not  suggested  by  any  of  the  ancient  authorities, 
or  even  by  the  later  ones.  The  reading  of  the  Leyden  Papyrus 
T,  16  is  identical  with  that  of  the  oldest  papyrus. 

Part  I. 

Said  on  arriving  at  the  Hall  of  Righteousness,  that  N  may  be 
loosed  from  all  the  sins  which  he  hath  committed  and  that  he  may 
look  upon  the  divine  countenances. 

He  saiih :  Hail  to  thee,  mighty  god,  lord  of  Righteousness  ! 

I  am  come  to  thee,  oh  my  Lord  :  I  have  brought  myself  that  I 
may  look  upon  thy  glory.  I  know  thee,  and  I  know  the  name  of 
the  Forty-two  gods  who  make  their  appearance  with  thee  in  the 
Hall  of  Righteousness ;  devouring  those  who  harbour  mischief,  and 
swallowing  their  blood,  upon  the  Day  of  the  searching  examination 
(1)  in  presence  of  Unneferu. 


BOOK     O 

Fig.  14. 
Chapter  CXXV.     Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum,  No.  i. 

•     THE     DEAD. 

Fig.  15. 
Chapter  CXXV.     Lf.psius,  "  Denkmaler,"  Abth.  Ill,  BI.  78. 

Chaiter  XVII. 

Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre. 

No.  3091. 


BOOK   )F    THE   DEAD. 

Chaptrr  CXXV.     Papyrus  Brit.  Mus.  ,  No.  9,901,  and  Papyrus  Leyden,  No.  II, 




Verily,  'Thou  of  the  Pair  of  Eyes,  (2)  Lord  of  Righteousness'  is 
thy  name. 

Here  am  I ;  I  am  come  to  thee;  I  bring  to  thee  Right  and  have 
put  a  stop  to  Wrong. 

I  am  not  a  doer  of  wrong  to  men. 

I  am  not  one  who  slayeth  his  kindred.  (3) 
X.  I  am  not  one  who  telleth  hes  instead  of  truth.  (4) 

I  am  not  conscious  of  treason. 

I  am  not  a  doer  of  mischief. 

I  do  not  exact  as  the  firstfruits  of  each   day  more  work  than 
should  be  done  for  me.  (5) 

My  name  cometh  not  to  the  Bark  of  the  god  who  is  at  the  Helm. 
■^  I  am  not  a  transgressor  against  the  god. 

I  am  not  a  tale-bearer. 

I  am  not  a  detractor. 

I  am  not  a  doer  of  that  which  the  gods  abhor. 

I  hurt  no  servant  with  his  master. 

I  cause  no  famine. 

I  cause  not  weeping. 
"^    I  am  not  a  murderer. 

I  give  not  orders  for  murder. 

I  cause  not  suffering  to  men. 

I  reduce  not  the  offerings  in  the  temples. 

I  lessen  not  the  cakes  of  the  gods. 

I  rob  not  the  dead  of  their  funereal  food. 
X    I  am  not  an  adulterer. 

I  am  undefiled  in  the  Sanctuary  of  the  god  of  my  domain. 

I  neither  increase  nor  diminish  the  measures  of  grain. 

I  am  not  one  who  shorteneth  the  palm's  length.  (6) 

I  am  not  one  who  cutteth  short  the  field's  measure.  (7) 

I  put  not  pressure  upon  the  beam  (8)  of  the  balance. 

I  tamper  not  with  the  tongue  of  the  balance. 

I  snatch  not  the  milk  from  the  mouth  of  infants. 

I  drive  not  the  cattle  from  their  pastures. 

I  net  not  the  birds  of  the  manors  of  the  gods.  (9) 

I  catch  not  the  fish  of  their  ponds.  (10) 

I  stop  not  the  water  at  its  appointed  time. 

I  divide  not  an  arm  of  the  water  in  its  course. 

I  extinguish  not  the  lamp  during  its  appointed  time. 

I  do  not  defraud  the  Divine  Circle  of  their  sacrificial  joints. 

2   F 

214  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  drive  not  away  the  cattle  of  the  sacred  estate. 

I  stop  not  a  god  when  he  cometh  forth. 

I  am  pure,  I  am  pure,  I  am  pure,  I  am  pure. 

My  purity  is  that  of  the  Great  Bennu  in  Sutenhunen,  for  I  am 
the  Nose  of  the  Lord  of  Air,  who  giveth  hfe  to  all  mortals ;  on  the 
day  when  the  Eye  is  full  in  Annu,  on  the  last  day  of  Mechir ;  in 
presence  of  the  Lord  of  this  land. 

And  I  am  one  who  see  the  fulness  of  the  Eye  in  Annu,  let  no 
harm  come  to  me  in  this  land,  in  the  Hall  of  Righteousness  ;  because 
I  know  the  names  of  those  gods  who  make  their  appearance  in  it. 

Part  II. 

1.  Oh  thou  of  long  strides,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in 
Annu  ;  I  am  not  a  doer  of  wrong. 

2.  Oh  thou  who  holdest  the  fire,  and  makest  thine  appearance  in 
Cher-aba  ;  I  am  not  a  man  of  violence. 

3.  Oh  thou  of  the  Nose,  (11)  who  makest  thine  appearance  at 
Chemunnu  ;  I  am  not  evil  minded. 

4.  Oh  Eater  of  the  Shadow,  (12)  who  makest  thine  appearance 
at  Elephantine ;  I  am  not  rapacious. 

5.  Oh  thou  Facing-backward  god,  who  makest  thine  appearance 
at  Re-Stau  ^l  am  not  a  slayer  of  men. 

6.  Oh  thou  of  Lion  form,  (13)  who  makest  thine  appearance  in 
Heaven  ;  I  am  not  fraudulent  in  measures  of  grain. 

7.  Oh  thou  whose  eyes  [pierce]  like  swords,  who  makest  thine 
appearance  in  Sechem ;  I  commit  no  fraud. 

8.  Oh  thou  of  fiery  face,  whose  motion  is  backwards  ;   I  am  not 
a  robber  of  sacred  property. 

9.  Oh  Breaker  of  bones,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Suten- 
hunen ;  I  am  not  a  teller  of  lies. 

10.  Oh  thou  who  orderest  the  flame,  who  makest  thine  appearance 
in  Memphis  ;  I  am  not  a  robber  of  food. 

11.  Oh  thou  of  the  Two  Caverns,  who  makest  thine  appearance 
in  Amenta  ;  I  am  not  sluggish.  (14) 

12.  Oh  thou  of  the  Bright  Teeth,  (15)  who  makest  thine  appearance 
in  the  Unseen  Land  ;  I  am  not  a  transgressor. 

13.  Oh  Eater  of  Blood,   who  makest  thine  appearance  at  the 
Block ;  I  have  not  slaughtered  the  sacred  animals. 


BOOK     OF     TH 
Chapter  CXXV 

Fig.  17.     Lkpsius,  "  Denkmaler,"  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  39. 

Fig.  19.     Mariette,  "Deii  el  Bahari,"  Fig.  20.     Rosellini,  "M.C,"  PI.  LI. 


:     DEAD. 


Fig.  18.     Lepsius,  "  Denlcmiiler,"  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  39. 


Fig.  21.     Rosellini, 
"  M.C,  PI.  LII. 

Fig.  22.    Rosellini,  "M.C,"  PI  LII. 


EOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 



I  I  • 

_l L_l_ 

I  ir 

r — ]c 



J I 1 

Fig.  II.     Chapter  CXXV. 
Sarcophagus  of  Sebek-aa,  Berlin  Museum. 


Fig.  12.     Chapter  CXXV.     Lepsius,  "Denkmaler,"  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  232 

Fig.  13.     Chapter  CXXV. 
LEP.SIUS,  "  Denkmaler,"  Abth.  Ill,  Bl.  232. 



14.  Oh  Eater  of  Livers,  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  Mabit; 
I  deal  not  fraudulently. 

15.  Oh  Lord  of  Righteousness,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in 
the  place  of  Righteousness  ;  I  am  not  a  land-grabber. 

16.  Oh  thou  who  turnest  backwards,  who  makest  thine  appearance 
in  Bubastis ;  I  am  not  an  eaves-dropper. 

17.  Oh  Aati,  (16)  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  Annu  j  I  am 
not  one  of  prating  tongue. 

18.  Oh  Tutu,  (17)  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Ati ;  I  trouble 
myself  (18)  only  with  my  own  affairs. 

19.  Oh  Uammetu,  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  the  Block  ; 
1  commit  not  adultery  with  another's  wife. 

20.  Oh  Maa-antu-f,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Pa-Amsu, 
I  am  not  unchaste  with  any  one. 

21.  Oh  thou  who  art  above   Princes,   and   who   makest   thine 
appearance  in  Amu  ;  (19)  I  do  not  cause  terrors. 

22.  Oh  Chemiu,  (20)  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Kauu  ;  I 
am  not  a  transgressor. 

23.  Oh  thou  who  raisest  thy  voice,  (21)  and  makest  thine  ap- 
pearance in  Urit ;  I  am  not  hot  of  speech. 

24.  Oh  divine  Babe,  who  makest  thy  appearance  in  Annu  ;  I 
lend  not  a  deaf  ear  to  the  words  of  Righteousness. 

25.  Oh  high-voiced  one,  who  makest  thy  appearance  in  Unsit; 
I  am  not  boisterous  in  behaviour. 

26.  Oh  Basit,  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  the  Shetait;  I  am 
not  the  cause  of  weeping  to  any. 

27.  Oh  thou  whose  face  is  behind  thee,  and  who  makest  thine 
appearance  at  thy  cavern ;  I  am  not  given  to  unnatural  lust. 

28.  Oh  thou,  hot  of  foot,  (22)  who  makest  thy  appearance  at 
even  ;  I  indulge  not  in  anger. 

29.  Oh  Kenemtu,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Kenemit ;  I 
am  not  given  to  cursing. 

30.  Oh  thou  who  earnest  thine  own  offering,  and  makest  thine 
appearance  in  Syut ;  I  am  not  of  aggressive  hand. 

31.  Oh  thou  who  hast  different  faces,  and  makest  thine  appear- 
ance in  Net'efit ;  I  am  not  one  of  inconstant  mind.  (23) 

32.  Oh  Busy  one,  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  Utenit ;  I  do 
not  steal  the  skins  of  the  sacred  animals.  (24) 

33.  Oh  thoQ  Horned  one,  who  makest  thine  appearance  at  Sais 
I  am  not  noisy  (25)  in  my  speech. 

2  F   2 

2l6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD, 

34.  Oh  Nefertmu,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Memphis;  I 
am  neither  a  har  nor  a  doer  of  mischief. 

35.  Oh  Tem-sepu,  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Tattu  ;  I  am 
not  one  who  curseth  the  king. 

36.  Oh  thou  who  doest  according  to  thine  own  will,  and  makest 
thine  appearance  in  Tebua  ;  I  put  no  check  upon  the  water  in  its 

37.  Oh  Striker,  (26)  who  makest  thine  appearance  in  Heaven  ;  I 
am  not  one  of  loud  voice. 

38.  Oh  thou  who  makest  mortals  to  flourish,  and  who  makest 
thine  appearance  at  Sais  ;  I  curse  not  a  god. 

39.  Oh  thou  of  beautiful  shoulder,  who  makest  thine  appearance 
at  ....  (27) ;  I  am  not  swollen  with  pride. 

40.  Oh  Neheb-kau,  who  makest  thy  appearance  at  thy  cavern  ; 
I  have  no  unjust  preferences.  (28) 

41.  Oh  thou  of  raised  head,  (29)  who  makest  thine  appearance 
at  thy  cavern  ;  I  have  no  strong  desire  except  for  my  own  property. 

42.  Oh  thou  who  liftest  an  arm,  (30)  and  who  makest  thine 
appearance  in  the  Netherworld,  I  do  not  that  which  offendeth  the 
god  of  my  domain. 

Part  III. 
[Said  upon  approaching  to  the  gods  who  are  in  the  Tuat.  (31)] 

Hail  ye  gods,  I  know  you  and  I  know  your  names  ;  let  me  not 
be  stricken  down  by  your  blows  :  report  not  the  evil  which  is  in  me 
to  the  god  whom  ye  follow.  Let  not  reverse  (32)  of  mine  come  to 
pass  through  you. 

Let  not  evil  things  be  said  against  me  in  presence  of  the  Inviolate 
One  ;  because  I  have  done  the  right  in  Tamerit. 

I  revile  not  the  god  :  let  not  reverse  of  mine  come  to  pass 
through  the  King  who  resideth  within  His  own  Day.  (33) 

Hail  ye  gods  who  are  in  the  Hall  of  Righteousness,  who  have 
nothing  wrong  about  you ;  who  subsist  upon  Righteousness  in 
Annu,  and  who  sate  themselves  with  cares,  (34)  in  presence  of  the 
god  who  resideth  within  his  own  Orb  :  deliver  me  from  Babai  who 
feedeth  upon  the  livers  of  princes  on  the  Day  of  the  Great  Reckoning. 


Chapter  CXXV. 

Tombeau  de  Seti  I^"'  (Ann.  du  Musee  Guimet,  Vol.  IX). 

BOOK   OF   THE   DLAD.  217 

Behold  me  :  I  am  come  to  you,  void  of  wrong,  without  fraud,  a 
harmless  one  :  let  me  not  be  declared  guilty ;  let  not  the  issue  be 
against  me. 

I  subsist  upon  Righteousness  :  I  sate  myself  with  uprightness  of 
heart :  I  have  done  that  which  man  prescribeth  and  that  which 
pleaseth  the  gods. 

I  have  propitiated  the  god  with  that  which  he  loveth.  I  have 
given  bread  to  the  hungry,  water  to  the  thirsty,  clothes  to  the  naked, 
a  boat  to  the  shipwrecked.  I  have  made  oblations  to  the  gods  and 
funeral  offerings  to  the  departed  :  deliver  me  therefore :  protect 
me  therefore :  and  report  not  against  me  in  presence  of  the  great 

I  am  one  whose  mouth  is  pure,  and  whose  hands  are  pure,  to 
whom  there  is  said  "  Come,  come  in  peace,"  by  those  svho  look 
upon  him. 

For  I  have  listened  to  the  words  which  were  spoken  by  the  Ass 
and  the  Cat  in  the  house  of  Hept-ro.  (35) 

And  I  have  undergone  the  inspection  of  the  god  Whose  face  is 
behind  him,  who  awardeth  my  verdict  (36),  so  that  I  may  behold 
what  the  Persea  tree  covereth  (37)  in  Restau. 

I  am  one  who  glorifieth  the  gods  and  who  knoweth  the  things 
which  concern  them. 

I  am  come  and  am  awaiting  that  inquisition  be  made  of  Right- 
fulness and  that  the  Balance  be  set  upon  its  stand  within  the  bower 
of  amaranth.  (38) 

0  thou  who  art  exalted  upon  thy  pedestal  and  who  callest  thy 
name.  Lord  of  Air :  deliver  me  from  those  messengers  of  thine 
who  inflict  disasters  (39)  and  bring  about  mishaps.  No  covering 
have  they  upon  their  faces. 

For  I  have  done  the  Righteousness  of  a  Lord  of  Righteousness. 

1  have  made  myself  pure  :  my  front  parts  are  washed,  my  back 
parts  are  pure,  and  my  inwards  steeped  in  the  Tank  of  Righteous- 
ness.    There  is  not  a  limb  in  me  which  is  void  of  Righteousness. 

I  purify  me  in  the  Southern  Tank,  and  I  rest  me  at  the  northern 
lake,  in  the  Garden  of  Grasshoppers.  (40) 

The  Boatmen  of  Ra  purify  them  there  at  this  hour  of  the  night 
or  day  (^i)  and  the  hearts  of  the  gods  are  appeased  (42)  when  I  pass 
through  it  by  night  or  by  day. 

Let  him  come  (43) :  that  is  what  they  say  to  me. 

Who,  pray,  art  thou  ?  that  is  what  they  say  to  me. 

2l8  BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD. 

What,  pray,  is  thy  name?  that  is  what  they  say  to  me. 

"  He  who  groweth  under  the  Grass  (44)  and  who  dwelleth  in 
the  OHve  tree  "  is  my  name. 

Pass  on,  then  :  that  is  what  they  say  to  me. 

I  pass  on  to  a  place  north  of  the  OUve. 

What,  prithee,  didst  thou  see  there  ? 

A  thigh  (45)  and  a  leg. 

And  what,  prithee,  said  they  to  thee  ? 

That  I  shall  see  (46)  the  greetings  in  the  lands  there  of  the 
Fenchu : 

What,  prithee,  did  they  give  to  thee  ? 

A  flame  of  fire  and  a  pillar  of  crystal. 

And  what,  prithee,  didst  thou  to  them  ? 

I  buried  them  on  the  bank  of  the  Lake  of  Maait  as  Provision  of 
the  Evening. 

What,  prithee,  didst  thou  find  there  on  the  bank  of  the  Lake  of 
Maait  ? 

A  sceptre  of  flint :  *  Giver  of  Breath  '  is  its  name. 

And  what  didst  thou  to  the  flame  of  fire  and  to  the  pillar  of 
crystal  after  thou  hadst  buried  them  ? 

I  cried  out  after  them  and  drew  them  forth  :  and  I  extinguished 
the  fire,  and  I  broke  the  pillar,  and  I  made  a  Tank. 

Thou   mayest   now   enter   through    the    door   of    the    hall    of 
Righteousness,  for  thou  knowest  us. 

I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  by  me,  saith  the  Leaf  (47)  of  the  Door, 
unless  thou  tell  my  name  : 

"  The  Pointer  of  Truth  "  (48)  is  thy  name. 

I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  by  me,  saith  the  right  side  post  (49)  of 
the  Door,  unless  thou  tell  my  name. 

"The   Scale-pan   (50)    of  one   who   lifteth   up   Right"   is   thy 

I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  by  me,  saith  the  left  side  post  of  the 
Door,  unless  thou  tell  my  name  : 

"  The  Scale-pan  of  Wine  "  is  thy  name. 

I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  over  me,  saith  the  Threshold  of  the 
Door,  unless  thou  tell  my  name  : 

"  Ox  of  Seb  "  is  thy  name. 

I  open  not  to  thee,  saith  the  Lock  of  the  Door,  unless  thou  tell 
mv  name  : 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  219 

Bone  of  An-maut-ef  is  thy  name. 

I  open  not  to  thee,  saiih  the  Latch,  unless  thou  tell  my  name : 

"The  Eye  of  Sebak,  Lord  of  Bachau,"  is  thy  name. 

I  open  not  to  thee,  and  I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  by  me,  saith 
the  Keeper  of  the  Door,  unless  thou  tell  my  name  : 

"The  Knee  of  Shu,  which  he  hath  lent  for  the  support  of 
Osiris,"  is  thy  name. 

We  allow  thee  not  to  pass  by  us,  say  the  Lintels  of  the  Door, 
unless  thou  tell  our  names  : 

"The  dragon  brood  (51)  of  Renenut"  is  your  name. 

Thou  knowest  us  :  pass  therefore  by  us. 

I  allow  thee  not  to  pass  over  me,  saith  the  Floor  of  the  Hall,  for 
the  reason  that  I  am  noiseless  and  clean,  and  because  we  know  not 
the  names  of  thy  two  feet,  wherewith  thou  wouldst  walk  upon  us. 
Tell  me,  then,  their  names. 

"  He  who  goeth  before  Amsu  "  is  the  name  of  my  right  foot : 
and  "The  Truncheon  of  Hathor"  (52)  is  the  name  of  my  left  foot. 

Thou  mayest  walk  over  us :  for  thou  knowest  us. 

I  do  not  announce  thee,  saith  the  Doorkeeper,  unless  thou  tell 
my  name  : 

"  He  who  knoweth  the  heart  and  exploreth  the  person  "  (53)  is 
thy  name. 

Then  I  will  announce  thee. 

But  who  is  that  god  who  abideth  in  his  own  hour  ?     Name  him. 

He  who  provideth   for  (54)  the  Two  Worlds). 

Who,  pray,  is  it  ?     It  is  Thoth. 

Come  hither,  saith  Thoth,  wherefore  hast  thou  come? 

I  am  come,  and  wait  to  be  announced. 

And  what  manner  of  man,  prithee,  art  thou  ? 

I  have  cleansed  myself  from  all  the  sins  and  faults  of  those  who 
abide  in  their  own  day  ;  for  I  am  no  longer  among  them. 

Then  I  shall  announce  thee. 

But  who  is  he  whose  roof  is  of  fire,  and  whose  walls  are  living 
Uraei,  and  the  floor  of  whose  house  is  of  running  water?     Who  is  il  ? 

It  is  Osiris. 

Proceed  then  :  for  behold,  thou  art  announced. 

220  BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Thy  bread  is  from  the  Eye,  thy  beer  is  from  the  Eye,  and  the 
funeral  meals  offered  upon  earth  will  come  forth  to  thee  from  the 
Eye  (55).     So  is  it  decreed  for  me. 

This  chapter  is  said  by  the  person,  ivhe?i  ptirified  and  clad  in 
raiment ;  shod  with  7vhite  sandals  ;  anoifited  from  vases  of  dnta  ; 
and  presenting  oblations  of  beeves,  birds,  inceiise,  bread,  beer  and 

A?id  thou  shall  make  a  picture,  drawn  upon  a  clean  brick  of  clay, 
extracted  from  a  field  ifi  which  no  swine  hath  trod. 

And  if  this  chapter  be  written  jipon  it — the  man  will  prosper  and 
his  children  will  prosper :  he  will  rise  ifi  the  affection  of  the  ki?ig 
and  his  court :  there  will  be  given  to  him  the  shesit  cake,  the  measure 
of  drink,  the  persen  cake  and  the  meat  offeri?ig  upon  the  altar  table  of 
the  great  god ;  and  he  shall  ftoi  be  cut  off  at  any  gate  of  Amenta, 
but  he  shall  be  conveyed  alons,  with  the  Kirigs  of  North  and  South, 
and  make  his  appearance  as  a  foUoiver  of  Osiris :  undeviatingly  aiid 
for  times  infinite. 



For  the  significance  of  this  most  important  chapter  with  reference 
to  the  religion  and  ethics  of  ancient  Egypt  I  must  refer  to  the  Intro- 
duction. The  notes  in  this  place  must  be  confined  to  the  text  and 
its  elucidation. 

No  copy  of  the  chapter  is  known  of  more  ancient  date  than  the 
eighteenth  dynasty,  but  the  oldest  papyri  contain  the  three  parts  of 
which  the  chapter  consists.  That  the  chapter  is  of  much  earlier 
date  than  the  eighteenth  dynasty  is  quite  certain  from  the  nature  of 
the  corruptions  which  had  already  made  their  appearance  in  the 
earliest  copies  which  have  come  down  to  us.  But  the  three  parts 
are  not  necessarily  of  the  same  antiquity.  The  second  part  seems 
to  have  grown  out  of  the  first  and  to  have  been  suggested  by  the 
mention  of  the  "  Forty-two  "  gods  and  the  "  negative  confession,"  as 
it  is  called,  of  certain  sins.  It  is  a  tabulated  form  in  which  the  gods 
are  named  and  a  sin  is   mentioned  in  connection  with  each  god. 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 
Chapter   CXXV.  (Note  2.) 

Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9900. 

Mummy  Case,  Leyden  Museum. 


Chapter   CXXV.   (Note  2.) 

Papyrus,  Leyden  Museum. 

Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9964. 

Mummy  Case,  Leyden  Museum. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  221 

The  number  of  sins  in  this  form  is  therefore  forty-two;  a  higher 
number  than  in  Part  I. 

The  two  catalogues  agree  to  a  certain  extent,  but  they  also 
disagree,  and  the  second  is  evidently  the  result  of  a  different  process 
of  thought  than  that  which  gave  birth  to  the  first.  The  author  of 
Part  I  is  not  the  author  of  Part  II,  unless  perhaps  at  a  different  and 
later  period.  Nor  is  there  any  indication  in  Part  I  of  the  extra- 
ordinary examination  to  which  the  deceased  person  is  subjected  in 
Part  III.  This  in  itself  would  not  be  a  serious  objection,  but  the 
matter  becomes  more  complicated  if  we  remember  that  the  picture 
of  the  Psychostasia  has  the  right  to  be  considered  as  a  part  of  the 
chapter.  The  texts  which  are  written  upon  it  differ,  indeed, 
according  to  the  taste  of  the  artist,  and  can  therefore  claim  no 
canonical  authority.  But  the  question  as  to  the  order  of  succession 
in  the  trials,  or  the  precise  moment  at  which  the  deceased  person  is 
finally  freed  from  all  anxiety  as  to  his  fate,  cannot  be  satisfactorily 
solved  on  the  supposition  that  all  these  documents  form  parts  of  a 
consistent  whole.  It  seems  much  more  natural  to  consider  them  as 
really  independent  compositions  brought  together  in  consequence  of 
their  subject  matter.  The  artists  of  the  Ramseside  period  (in  the 
papyri  of  Hunefer  and  Ani)  add  another  scene  *  in  which  the 
deceased  is  judged  not  by  the  forty-two  assessors  of  Osiris  but  by  a 
smaller  company  of  gods  (twelve  or  fourteen),  sitting  on  thrones  and 
bearing  the  names  of  well  known  divinities. 

The  essential  notion  was  that  of  a  trial  before  Osiris,  in  which  the 
man's  conduct  or  conscience  was  weighed  in  the  Balance.  This  trial 
is  referred  to  in  various  chapters  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  and  in 
other  texts  which  prove  that,  with  reference  to  the  details,  free  scope 
was  allowed  to  the  imagination  of  the  scribes  or  artists. 

The  number  of  the  Forty-two  assessors  might  be  thought  con- 
nected with  that  of  the  Nomes  of  Egypt.  But  this  number  is  only 
certain  for  the  later  periods  of  Egyptian  history,  and  is  not  true  for 
earlier  times.  Moreover  the  localities  in  which  the  gods  are  said  to 
make  their  appearances  do  not  correspond  to  the  nomes,  or  places 
within  them.  Some  of  the  localities  occur  more  than  once,  and 
some  of  them,  if  not  all,  are  localities  not  upon  earth.  Heaven 
occurs  twice,  the  eleventh  god  makes  his  appearance  at  Amenta  and 

*  Apparently  sugj^ested  by  the  scene  in  the  tomb  of  Hor-em-heb  (see 
Dcnkm.,  Ill,  78),  in  the  time  of  Amenophis  III.     (Plate  XXXIl,  lig.  15.) 

2    G 

222  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

the  forty-second  in  the  Netherworld.  But  the  names  which  have  a 
more  earthly  sound  may  have  a  mystical  meaning.  The  first  god 
makes  his  appearance  in  Annu,  so  does  the  seventeenth  and  so  does 
the  twenty-fourth.  But  does  this  mean  Heliopolis  of  Egypt?  On 
referring  to  an  important  text  in  Mariette's  Moiiufnenis  Divers, 
pi.   46,  it  will  be  seen  that  Annu  is  the  Eastern  Solar  Aioiintain 

T  n  '  '^^'here  the  Sun  rises^  and  where  he  is  saluted  by  the  Powers 

of  the  East.  There  cannot  be  a  more  striking  illustration  of  "the 
Divine  Babe  who  maketh  his  appearance  in  Annu  "  (the  twenty- 
fourth  Assessor),  than  \.\\e picture  I  refer  to.* 

And   Chemunnu,  ZZq  %^  ©,   is  surely  not  the  Hermopolis   of 

Egypt,  but  the  place  of  the  Eight  gods     1   1 D  ^     A  1  ,  four  to  the 

Left  and  four  to  the  Right  of  the  rising  sun,  who  hail  his  coming 
and  help  him  to  rise;  where  Shu,  according  to  the  ]\ISS.  of  the  17th 
Chapter,  raises  up  the  Sky,  and  where  "  the  children  of  Failure," 
(that  is,  shades  of  darkness)  are  exterminated.     It  is  not  simply  of 

Hermopolis  nor  yet  of  Lake  Moeris  that  one  may  say  r        D  v\ 

1  1  "'^'^^^  rjj  fi)  '  T"  ^  ¥i^  '^^  ^^  ^^^  place  of  the  Eight  deities 
where  Ra  riseth  {Zeitschr.,  1872,  p.  8). 

The  same  considerations  apply  to  such  names  as  those  of 
Sutenhunen  and  Tattu. 

The  presence  of  the  divine  "Babe,"  of  the  god  "of  long  strides" 
(Ra),  of  the  god  "  of  Lion  form,"  of  the  goddess  Bast,  of  Nefer- 
tmu,  of  the  "  Striker "  {Ahi,  a.  name  of  Horus),  and  of  Nehebkau, 

not  to  mention  others,  among  the  Assessors,  would  of  itself  be 
sufficient  to  convince  us  that,  in  spite  of  the  strange  and  terrific 
names  of  some  of  these  personages,  they  are  not  to  be  looked  upon 
as  fiends,  like  Malacoda,  Scarmiglione,  and  the  rest  of  the  demon 
crew  in  the  Inferno  of  Dante.  They  are  not  evil  spirits,  but  gods, 
all  of  them,  "subsisting  on  righteousness;"  there  is  "nothing  wrong 

*  The  picture  of  the  Babe  lifted  up  into  the  upper  world  by  two  divinities 
speaks  for  itself.  Of  the  birth  of  the  Sun  as  the  Winged  Scarab  at  the  beginning 
of  the  first  hour  of  the  day,  M.  Maspero,  in  his  dercription  of  the  text,  says  : 
"II  est  salue  a  ton  apparition  par  les  huit  ....  '  les  esptits  d'Orient,  dieux 
du  ciel,  des  terres,  des  pays  etrangtrs,  de  la  montagne  d'horizon  orientale  qui 
est  On.'" 

BOOK  OF  THE  DEAD.  223 

about  them."*  They  are  the  gods  who  accompany  Osiris,  and, 
according  to  Egyptian  theology,  are  his  Names,  his  Limbs,  his 
Body.  If  the  names  of  some  of  them  appear  harsh  or  cruel,  it  is 
because  strict  Justice  is  inexorable,  and  Mercy  is  a  quality  never 
thought  of  in  Egyptian  theology. 

The  exact  notion  of  Maat  in  Egyptian  texts  is  discussed  in 
another  part  of  the  present  work.  In  this  chapter  I  have  translated 
it  Righteousness,  because  the  question  here  is  about  moral  conduct : 
and  conformity  to  the  strict  Rule  of  Right  towards  one's  fellow 
men,  one's  own  self  and  the  heavenly  powers  is  what  is  meant  by 
Righteousness.  And  here  it  is  opposed  to  moral  transgression  or 
sin,  not  to  physical  evil,  which  itself  is  a  very  frequent  result  from 
the  operation  of  the  inexorable  Maat. 

But  in  the  expression,  "Hall  of  Righteousness,"  the  word  in 
Egyptian  is  used  in  the  dual  number :  hence  the  erroneous  or 
inadequate  translations,  "the  Two  Truths,"  or  "Double  Justice," 
and  the  guesses  which  have  been  made  as  to  their  meaning. 

A  very  important  determinative  of  the  Egyptian  word  is  found 
not  only  in  the  papyri  but  in  the  very  earliest  mention  yet  known 
of  the  Hall.     The  great  inscription  of  the  tomb  of  Peher  at  El  Kab, 

calls  it  the  -^^^  .     The  repetition  of  the  sign  ©  indi- 

CTZD    o    all© 

cates  a  locality  in  which  the  Sun-god  is  present,  as  in  the  cases  of 
,  ,  and  many  others.     Space  is  divided  into  two 

parts ;  one  on  the  Southern  and  one  on  the  Northern  side  of  the 
god  as  he  proceeds  on  his  course.  And  when  we  have  for  de- 
terminatives two   Urgei    TL  JL  ,    or  two  ostrich   Feathers    j  f) ,  we 

*  This  is  the  principle  by  which  to  judge  the  c^ses  of  the  Facing-backward  god 
"^T      k\  ^     oil   serpentine,  or  crocodile      ^y-     ^  §5^- '  ^"^  °f  Uammeta 

S     m  §>  I  ^  serpentine,  or  crocodile      ^ 


,   against  both   of  whom  a   passage  of  the  '  Book  of 

Hades'  (Bonomi,  Sarc,  pi.  H  A)  has  been  quoted.  The  book,  of  course,  is  of 
infeiior  authority  to  the  'Book  of  the  Dead,'  but  in  any  case  it  must  be 
remembered  that  these  names,  as  appellatives,  are  coinvion  nouns  {Uammelu  is  in 
the //«ra/ number  in  the  passage  in  question),  and  may  simply  mean  Serpents.  . 
Sutu  is  called  by  th-  first  of  tht-se  names  at  Edfu  {Zeitschr.,  1871,  p.  108).  But 
even  at  Dendera  (Lanzone,  Diz.,  pi.  173,  l)  this  'god  of  serpent  fact-'  is 
'disastrous  to  the  Sebau,'  the  enemies  of  Osiris  and  Ra,  and  is  therefore  not  one 
of  them.     His  soul  is  invoked  like  those  of  all  the  great  go.'s  in  the  royal  tombs. 

2    G    2 

224  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

have  to  understand  two  goddesses  Maat,  one  to  the  Left  and  one  to 
to  the  Right  side  of  Osiris. 

These  goddesses  are  Isis  and  Nephthys,  who  play  very  con- 
spicuous parts  in  a  symbolism  discussed  in  note  2  of  the  present 

It  would  be  well  if  evidence  could  be  brought  with  equal  facility 
to  bear  upon  all  the  difiticulties  with  which  the  chapter  abounds. 
But  though  a  very  lively  interest  was  attracted  to  it  ever  since 
ChampoUion  quoted  extracts  from  it  in  his  Grammar,  the  difficulties 
with  which  he  did  not  attempt  to  cope  have  only  increased  with  our 
knowledge  of  the  language  and  its  scientific  treatment.  The  text  is 
extremely  doubtful  in  many  important  parts,  the  forty-two  sins  are 
not  the  same  in  all  the  manuscripts,  and  they  are  not  assigned  to 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  same  gods.  So  important  a  papyrus  as  that 
of  Sutimes  omits  some  sins  of  which  an  Egyptian  would  certainly  be 
expected  to  give  an  account.  The  same  word  is  made  to  appear 
with  different  meanings  in  the  same  passage  of  the  papyri  when  they 
are  compared  together.  And  there  are  not  a  few  important  words 
of  which  the  meaning  was  first  only  guessed  at  by  the  first  translators, 
but  has  been  retained  without  sufficient  warrant  by  their  successors. 
The  present  translation  is  presented  under  the  full  consciousness  of 
all  its  imperfections,  and  of  the  difficulties  which  have  yet  to  be 
overcome  before  a  version  can  be  called  satisfactory. 

A  very  admirable  contribution  towards  our  acquaintance  with 
the  first  part  of  the  chapter  was  made  as  far  back  as  1866  by  Dr. 
Pleyte  in  his  Etudes  Egyptologiques.  Since  then  other  versions  have 
appeared  by  MM.  Deveria,  Lefebure  and  Pierret. 

The  Demotic  text  of  the  chapter,  first  published  by  Brugsch,  and 
now  more  recently,  with  a  complete  translation,  by  M.  Revillout,  is 
in  itself  most  interesting,  but  written,  as  it  is,  in  the  days  of  imperial 
Rome,  cannot  always  be  appealed  to  as  to  an  authoritative  exposition 
of  the  ancient  text. 

I.   The  Day  of  searching  exaviinaiion  or  reckoning.     The  word 
1.^^  has   to   be   compared  with    the  Coptic    KtJO'f"    in   the 

sense  of  search,  enquiry,  ^rjreiv,  ^jryjcn^.     This  sense  is  derived  from 
\  a   circle   (   I M  ^  []^    sail  round)   and    the    notion    of    going 

completely  round  a  thing  and  approaching  it  from  all  sides. 

BOOK   OF   THE  DEAD.  225 

2.   Thou  riiterally  heX  of  the  Pair  of  Eyes   vm:\ 

Pn  Pn  •*      This   title   of  Osiris   is   made  clear  by  the    37th 

chapter,   which   begins  with    an    invocation    to    the   Sister  Pair  of 

Goddesses,  Mcrta  "T^  |  ,^  ^  ^  ^  ^^  ^  ^  ^.  ^^-^-  ^ign- 
fying  Two  Eyes,  and  the  divine  Sister  pair  being  Isis  and  Nephthys. 
In  vignettes  of  the  chapter  (see,  e.g.,  PI.  XXXIII  and  XXXIV, 
figs.  14  and  16  for  instances)  the  two  goddesses  appear  in  human 
form  with  their  brother  Osiris  within  the  naos  where  the  judgment 
is  delivered.     It  is  not  so  easy  to  recognise  them  under  the  form 

^^"^^  which  they  have  in  the  vignette  of  Pd.  (see  PL  XXXI), 

or  in  the  picture  which  is  found  in  many  papyri  {e.g.,  those  of 
Nebseni,  Hunefer,  Ani  and  the  Turin  Todtenbuch),  wherein  the 
cornice  or  top  row  of  the  decoration  surmounting  the  forty-two 
judges  has  for  central  figure  a  man  (Osiris)  either  supporting  the 
Two  Eyes  or  extending  his  hands  above  them  (see  PI.  XXXIV, 
fig.  14). 

We  have  here  a  symbolism  of  such  extreme  importance  as  to 
justify  a  short  excursus  on  the  subject. 

The  Two  Eyes  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^  most  frequent  symbol  on  all 
funereal  monuments ;  on  the  most  ancient  coffins,  such  as  those  of 
Apaanchu,  Antuf,  Taka  {Denkjii.,  II,  98,  146,  147),  Mentuhotep 
{Aelteste  Texte,  pi.  9  and  25),  Sebak-aa  (Gio.  d'Athanasi,  pl.  3)  and 
Amamu,  as  on  mummy  cases  generally,  and  on  funereal  tablets. 
Between  the  Eyes  on  many  tablets  we  frequently  find  the  sign  Q , 

and  this  is  often  followed  by  the  sign  of  Water  "^Z^  or  the  Vase  ^ , 
and  very  frequently  by  both.     Very  often  we  have  two  signs  Q,  one 

by  each  Eye,  and  not  less  frequently  a  pair  of  jackals,  fiJ^sv  or  ^^ 

facing   each   other.     No   two   tablets    are    exactly    alike,    but    the 
meaning  is  always  the  same. 

Nor  is  the  meaning  changed  when  the  tablet  is  headed  by  the 
Winged  Disk  ^Qj  or,:^^   even  though   the   Eyes   are   not   seen. 

*  The    ''^    is  not  to  be  fi  or  fy.     The  sign  W  is  merely  the  ideogram 

of  the  number  2,  like   the  letter  ^  in  Coptic.     The  belief  in  an  Egyptian  dual 

With  \\  as  a  final  syllable  is  an  illusion,  though  a  very  pardonable  one,  of  our 

226  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Their  place  is  supplied  by  two  Uraei,  sometimes  crowned  with  the 
n  and  the  >/,  insignia  of  Southern  and  Northern  sovereignty. 

On  a  fine  tablet  of  the  twelfth  dynasty  {Denkm.^  11,  136Z'),  the 
sign  Q  is  attached  to  each  Uraeus,  and  this  device  is  repeated  on 
innumerable  monuments. 

According  to  another  device  the  Two  Eyes  are  represented 
within  the  Winged  Disk  (seee.^.,  Leemans,  J/(?«.,  Ill,  M.,  PI.  XVI). 

"  He  of  the  Pair  of  Eyes  "  is  always  Osiris.  But  Osiris  is  a  god 
"  of  many  names,"  as  the  Pyramid  Texts  show  no  less  than  the 
Book  of  the  De:id,  where  in  the  seventeenth  chapter  he  is  identified 
with  Tmu,  Ra,  the  Bennu,  Amsu  and  Horus,  not  to  mention  others, 
and  where  in  the  Scholia  the  Two  Feathers,  the  Two  Uraei,  the  Two 
Eyes  and  the  Two  Kites*  are  identified  with  the  Sister  pair  Isis  and 
Nephthys.  And  wherever  these  symbols  occur  in  pairs  Isis  and 
Nephthys  are  meant,  one  for  the  right  or  northern  side  and  the  other 
for  the  left  or  southern.     The  same  idea  is  conveyed  under  such  forms 

^^   Wm  1  ^^ '  ^''  h^M^ '   ^"^  many   others.      Dr.  Birch  long  ago 

{Ziitschr.,    iStj,  p.  33)  mentioned  A  ^  n  as  representing  Osiris 

between  his  two  sisters.      Osiris  is  often  represented  as  a  living  TT, 
with  eyes. 

The  royal  crowns  and  their  decorations,  such  as  [1|,  ///,   )i\, 

fjfj^f^ ,  and    [m  ,  abound  in  this  symbolism. 

The  ancient  coffin  of  Sebakaa  at  Berlin  {Ae/fesfe  Texfe,  pi.  29),  in 

the  phrase  [1     !>  r  ^  ^^  rji »  recognizes  Isis  as  one  of  the  Two 

Eves.      Down   to   the   latest   periods   the   Sisters   were   known   as 

<cr::>  ^ fl  ^=4r^ ,  Eye  of  the  Southern  or  Left  side  (Isis),  and  <c=>  r^ fl  '^  f, 

Eye  of  the  Northern  or  Right  side  (Nephthys).  On  countless  coffins 
and  sarcophagi  these  goddesses  are  represented  on  opposite  sides, 
in  kneeling  attitude,  holding  the  Q  in  their  hands,  like  the  equi- 
valent Vultures  of  the  North  and  South,  with  their  claws,  and  the 
Ursei  on  their  bodies. 

*  Or  Vultures.     See  M.  Gayet's  Teviple  de  Luxor,   PI.    xliii,  fig.   127,  where 
ihe  Bird  at  each  end  of  the  picture  holds  Q  in  its  claw.     And  note  the  taber- 

nacles (a  very  frequent  picture)  where  a  winged  goddess  bearing  the  [)  kneels  on 
either  side  of  the  solar  scarab. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  22/ 

The  meaning  of  the  sign  Q  is  well  known.  It  is  a  7-ing,  and 
is  applied  to  the  circuit  of  the  heavens  made  by  the  sun  and  other 
heavenly  bodies.  It  is  also  applied  to  the  yearly  recurring  flow  of 
the  Nile.  It  has  numerically  the  signification  of  10,000,000  or  an 
indefinitely  large  number.   As  attached^  {,  to  the  sign  of  years  4  ,  3 

it  means  Eternity. 

It  is  therefore  an    appropriate  emblem  of  Osiris,  the  Lord  of 

Years,  "^3 

\  ■  ,  annosus,  A  \    XI  the  King  of  Eternity. 
The  sign  of  Water  ^^C^,  and  the  Vase  ^7  ,  are  a^so  emblems  of 


Osiris,  one  of  whose  names  is  Water  of  Rcneiiuil.  A  chapter  of  the 
Pyramid  Texts,  Teta,  176,  Pepi  I,  518,  which  begins  by  saying  that 
Seb  has  given  to  the  departed  (identified  with  Osiris)  the  Two  Eyes 
of  tliat  Great  One*  and  has  done  that  through  Horus  who  recognizes 
his  father,  proceeds  after  this  to  say  :  "  He  renews  thee  in  thy  name 

of  T^X^  /^,/vs  \   v\    Water  of  Renewal." 

I    cannot    say   if   the    Vase  \j   is   a   mere    appendage    to    the 
Water,  but  if  it  is  not  it  most  probably  was  meant  to  contain  the 

,  the  divine  and  life-giving  Sap  flowing  from  Osiris,  which  is 

mentioned  in  another  Pyramid  Text  (Pepi  I,  33),  also  speaking  of 
the  Water  of  Renewal,  as  a  name  of  Osiris. 

The  goddesses  Isis  and  Nephthys  as  mythological  figures 
represent  not  merely  the  Light  at  Dawn  and  Sunset,  but  the  Light 
thrown  out  right  and  left  by  the  Sun  in  his  entire  course,  whether 

in    the   heavens   or    in    the    Netherworld. 



^-^   ,  "he  lightens  up  the  earth  with  his  two  eyes,"  an 

expression  most  frequent  in  the  texts,  is  not  confined  to  special 
moments,  though  it  is  said  of  these  emphatically. 

In  all  that  has  been  said  thus  far,  the  Two  Eyes  have  been 
considered  as  acting  conjointly  and  discharging  one  and  the  same 
function.  When  they  are  distinguished  one  from  the  other  as  acting 
in  different  ways  the  symbolism  is  altered. 

The  ancient  scholion  on  the  17th  Chapter  speaks  of  the  Right 
Eye  of  Ra,  and  the  more  recent  scholion  of  the  papyri  speaks  of  the 

*  Or  as  it  is  said  in  other  words  (Teta,  172  ;  Pepi  I,  130  ;  Pepi  II,  107,  and 
Merenra,  152),  "  Seb  hath  brought  to  thy  side  thy  two  sisters,  Isis  and  Nephthys. 

228  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Eye  as  being  in  pain  and  weeping  for  its  sister  II     ^'^      .       The 

^  — " — 
Egj'ptian  name  for  the  Eye  is  here  ^  |  ^^,  ;^  ut'ait.      The  fre- 
quent   expression  '  "^^    means  full  moon,   and   is   constantly 

n  St 

identified  with  the  filteenth  day  of  the  month  ^^^^^  .      The  moon  is 

in  these  texts  called  the  Ze/if  Eye  y  ^^  ,  and  Osiris  is  said  to  unite 

with  her  (or  with  her  sister)  in  order  to  renew  her  revolution  f      Q   I . 

J  ^ 
And  of  the  Eye  it  is  said  that  '  she  renews  her  revolution  on  the 

fifteenth  day  'FN  ^^^^,  and  the  god  (Osiris)  makes  her  full  of 

her  glory  or  splendour  (ITT  M)    or   what  she  requires,  ""^W^   '  = 

cr^>   Jo  \°°/  *     '^^  explains  die  symbol  ^^  III  ^^  which  is 

seen  on  certain  tablets. 

But  what  is  the  meaning  of  the  passage  at  the  end  of  Part  I  of 
this  chapter — "when  the  Eye  is  full  in  Annu,  on  the  last  day  of 

Mechir"  / <:rz>  ,  an  expression  which  is  repeated  in 

ir      G    I    G  I  ^  ^ 

the  title  of  Chapter  140?  The  moon,  which  is  always  represented 
as  full  on  the  fifteenth  of  the  month,  cannot  be  full  on  the  thirtieth. 
It  must  be  the  other  Eye,  the  Sun.  Now  we  know  what  is  meant 
by  the  Full  Moon,  the  Plenilunium,  but  what  is  the  Full  Sun  ? 

M.  de  Rouge,  in  his  commentary  on  the  17th  Chapter,  gave  the 
key  to  this,  by  pointing  out  that  the  30th  Mechir  was  the  last  day 
of  the  sixth  month  of  the  year ;  that  is  the  i8oth  day  after  the  first 
of  Thoth,  which  is  supposed  to  coincide  with  the  Summer  Solstice. 
It  is  therefore  at  the  time  of  the  Winter  Solstice  that  the  Eye  is 
said  to  be  full.  The  inaccuracy,  of  course,  arises  from  the  length 
of  the  Eg}'ptian  year.  But  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  time 
of  the  Winter  Solstice  is  meant. 

In  the  year  1470  B.C.  the  Egj-ptian  year  began  on  July  20,  and 
the  30th  Mechir  coincided  with  January  15  of  the  Julian  calendar. 

If  the  Eye  (considered  as  the  Sun)  is  said  to  be  full  at  the 
Winter  Solstice,  it  was  most  probably  spoken  of  in  the  same  way 
not  only  at  the  Summer  Solstice,  but  also  at  the  two  Equinoxes. 
And  this  is  the  most  probable  reason  why  in  the  pictures  repre- 
senting the  Four  Rudders  of  Heaven  (North,  South,  East  and  West) 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  229 

an   Eye   '^^   is   attached   to    each    rudder.       (See   Vignettes   of 

Chapter  148.) 

The  Two  Eyes,  considered  as  Sun  and  Moon,  are  attributed  not 
only  to  Ra  and  Osiris,  but  to  gods  identified  with  these.  Of  the 
two    passages    which   have   been    most    frequently    quoted,    "  Thy 

Right  Eye  is  the  Sun  |] -^  Jj    and  thy  left  is  the  Moon  (3," 

"  His  Right  Eye  is  the  Sun  and  his  left  is  the  Moon,"  the  first  is 
addressed  to  Ptah  (in  the  Pap.  Berlin,  VII,  1.  42),  and  the  second, 
which  occurs  on  the  Neapolitan  Stele,  is  really  addressed  to  Osiris 
as  god  of  Suten-hunen,  under  the  form  of  the  Ram-headed  deity 
Her-s'efit.  Reference  is  made  towards  the  end  of  the  inscription  to 
the  "  divine  Eyes  which  are  in  Suten-hunen." 

Horus  according  to  the  Pyramid  Texts  has  two  eyes,  a  Light 
one  and  a  Dark  one.  But  the  "  Eye  of  Horus  "  is  most  frequently 
spoken  of  in  the  singular  number.  It  is  certainly  meant  for  the  Sun, 
and  the  name  of  it  is  given  to  cakes  and  ale,  wine,  corn,  oil,  honey, 
and  all  the  good  things  which  come  to  maturity  through  the  bene- 
ficent god:  who  has  in  himself  all  the  attributes  of  'Ceres  and 

I  must  bring  this  long  note  to  an  end  with  one  or  two  observations. 

Many  goddesses  will  be  found  bearing  the  title  of  Eye  of  Ra. 
There  is  not  one  of  these  who  is  not  identified  with  Isis  or  Nephthys, 
who  are  in  fact  one,  and  personify  the  Light  of  the  Sun. 

Shu  and  Tefnut,  who  are  brother  and  sister,  play  the  same  parts 
as  the  two  goddesses. 

There  is  a  picture,  which  appears  in  the  vignette  of  Chapter  17 
in  most  of  the  papyri  of  the  second  and  later  periods,  of  two  wa/e 
deities  bearing  the  Eyes  over  their  heads  (see  PI.  XXXV).  If  the 
beards  upon  their  chins  are  not  a  mistake,*  copied  from  one 
papyrus  upon  another,  they  must  represent  not  Isis  and  Nephthys 

but  the  two  Rehu  '^^^^  |  ^  ^  r^  ^^  ^"^  Thoth,  Sun  and  Moon, 

instead  of  the  '^  i  j^  ^  ^  • 

It  is  important  to  note  that  if  Sun  and  Moon  are  Eyes  of  Osiris 
or  Ra  or  Ptah,  the  deity  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  them  :  they 
are  but  manifestations  of  himself. 

*  A  very  conceivable,  because  a  very  frequent,  one. 

2    H 

2jO  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

3.  Kindred,  *!"  [[  <::i  ^  JJi  .      The  sign  of  plurality  does  not 

here,  any  more  than  in  Chapter  i,  necessarily  imply  more  than  one 
person.  The  crime  in  question  is  one  to  which  men  are  easily 
tempted  in  certain  stages  of  society.  Abimelech,  in  the  book  of 
Judges  (ix,  5),  "slew  his  brethren,  the  sons  of  Jerubbaal."  Jephthah 
had  to  "  flee  from  the  face  of  his  brethren."  Absalom  had  his 
brother  Amnon  assasinated,  and  all  the  king's  sons  fled  in  fear  of 
sharing  the  same  fate.  Solomon  put  to  death  his  elder  brother 
Adonijah.  Athaliah,  the  queen  mother,  "destroyed  all  the  seed 
royal "  of  Judah.  The  annals  of  eastern*  and  even  westernf  nations 
are  full  of  such  occurrences.  But,  in  positions  less  exalted  than 
that  of  claimants  to  royalty,  ambition  or  covetousness  are  motives 
to  crimes  like  that  of  the  wicked  uncle  of  '  the  Babes  in  the  Wood.'  \ 

The  reading  ^F"  \\  c^  ^^,  which  has  for  determinative  the  sign  "'^ 

of  smallness,  seems  to  indicate  that  the  victims  of  the  crime  are 
minors,  perhaps  wards. 

Some  of  the  papyri  (even  that  of  Nebseni)  have  a  calf,  5^, 
as  determinative  of  the  word,  and  as  the  '  slaying  of  calves '  is  not 

necessarily  a  crime,  other  scribes  have  added    |  '^^~s^ ,  'sacred,'  and 

thus  made  the  sin  one  of  sacrilege. 

The  same  word,  like  the  Greek  /noaxo^  and  the  Latin  pullus^ 
might  be  applied  to  the  young  of  all  kinds  of  animals;  but  the 
Egyptian  scribes  have  in  such  cases  a  propensity  to  use  a  deter- 
minative which  forces  a  wrong  sense  upon  the  word. 

4.  Instead  of  truth,    \\     \        ^^  \  .      There  are  two 

ways  according  to  which  this  expression  may  be  translated,  but  only 
one  of  them  can  be  the  right  one.     ^    r         is  a  compound  pre- 

*  "  His  sons  were  kept  in  prison,  till  they  grew 
Of  years  to  fill  a  bowstring  or  a  throne." 

t  To  quote  only  well  known  cases,  we  have  '  the  massacre  of  the  princes,' 
involving  the  two  unc'es  and  seven  cousins  of  the  Emperor  Constantius,  and 
those  of  our  own  King  John  and  Richard  III. 

:J:  The  le^isiaiion  of  Solon  is  said  by  Diogenes  Laertius  (who  is  however 
contradicted  by  no  orious  evidence)  to  have  excluded  from  the  position  of 
guardian  anyone  who  had  the  right  of  succession  to  the  ward's  estate.  And  this 
was  also  the  law  of  Enj^land  with  reference  to  guardians  in  socage.  In  France 
the  next  in  s  icce-sion  had  the  charge  of  the  estate,  but  was  excluded  from  the 
custody  of  the  person  of  the  ward. 

LOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  23 1 

position,  instead  of,  in  loco,  anstatf,  au  lieu  de,  Z'^j^a^ .     And  this  is 

evidently  the  right  construction.     If  V\\     be  taken  as  the  simple 

preposition  governing  r        ^^  ci  [3 ,  the  meaning  will  be  that  the 

deceased  did  not  "  tell  lies  in  the  cetnetery."     The  Pyramid  Texts 

(Unas,  394)  have  the   expression    — ^  |\    n  '^  []  '''^g-  {sic), 

"  Right  instead  of  Wrong." 

5.  This  is  only  an  approximate  version  of  a  passage,  the  true 
text  of  which  was  lost  at  an  early  period.  M.  Maspero  {Origines, 
p.  189)  understands  it  as  follows  :  "  Je  n'ai  jamais  impose  du  travail 
a  I'homme  libre  quelconque,  en  plus  de  celui  qu'il  faisait  pour  lui- 
meme  ! "     The  last  words  are  the  translation  of  ^ 

yV^AAAA    ^j^— 

according  to  Td.  (tomb  of  Ramses  IV)  all  the  other  ancient 
texts  having  \A  ,  ^for  me.'  But  the  chief  difficulties  occur  at  the 
beginning  of  the  sentence. 

6.  Shorten  the  palm's  length,   ®   1  r      n  Vv    3Sr  .      INfany 


I 1 

under  the  next  precept. 

7.  The  fields'  measure, 

8.  The  beam  of  the  balance,  c^'^^^^^^^Y^^^- 
The  tongue  [rather  plunwiet']  of  the  balance,       ^^ 

papyri  read  ^q,  which  is  a  superficial  measure,  more  in  place 
I        I 





The  balance  is  so  frequently  represented  in  false  perspective  by 
Egyptian  artists,  that  Sir  J.  G.  Wilkinson  has  given  an  account  of  it, 
which  is  quite  unintelligible  to  those  who  have  ever  so  moderate 
a  knowledge  of  statics.  Mr.  Petrie's  description  is  the  true  one- 
"  The  beam  was  suspended  by  a  loop  or  ring  from  a  bracket  pro- 
jecting from  the  stand.  .  .  .  Then  below  the  beam,  a  long  tongue 
was  attached,  not  above  the  beam  as  with  us.  To  test  the  level 
of  the  beam,  a  plummet  hung  down  the  tongue,  and  it  was  this 
plummet  which  was  observed  to  see  if  the  tongue  was  vertical  and 
the  beam  horizontal." — A  Season  in  Egypt,  p.  42. 

In  PI.  XXXVI,  a  few  pictures  will  be  found  which  give  a  more 

2  11  2 

232  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

correct  notion  of  the  Egyptian  balance  than  some  of  the  absurd 
representations  which  defy  a  scientific  explanation. 

It  is  evident  that  if  the  tongue  is  fastened  at  a  wrong  angle,  the  beam 
will  not  really  be  horizontal  when  the  tongue  is  shown  by  the  plummet 
line  to  be  vertical.     This  seems  to  be  the  fraud  alluded  to  in  the  text. 

The  word  §=0=,  §  '^'^^>  ^^^  name  given  to  the  plummet,  ap- 
parently signifies  a  cup  full  of  liquid.     It  is  etymologically  identical 

with    ^ 

V"^  m^'   ^    ^^^^^    (^^-^Ij    i~&^j    ebrius^    ebrietas), 
^^^^,  TI^I,  a  crane,  and       [)  ^  the  crane-god,  Thoth. 

c^  _  ^%^ 

The  apparatus  of  which  the  plummet  forms  so  important  a 
part,   whether  for  the  balance  or  for  building  purposes,  is  called 

2:0=  {Denkni.,  Ill,  26),  S^^^  • 

Q,   The  manors  of  the  gods,   d         III  •     I  understand  d       as 
^  -^  "^  N  III    I  I   I  Ns 

property  acquired  by  royal  grant.  Aahmes  at  El  Kab  says  that  he 
has  acquired  (^^^:=:^  y^^)  ^"'^^'^  ^^^^  through  the  royal 
bounty.     The  deceased  in  the  later  copies  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead 

(Ch.  I,  24),  acquires  the  allotment  of  land,    \=^  •< ^^    v\  «      1 , 

in  the  Garden  of  Aarrn,  and  Ani  (PI.  Ill)  acquires  "  a  permanent 
allotment  ( "^^  r^^^  \  in  the  Garden  of  Hotepit  hke  the  followers 
of  Horus." 

10.  Ponds.      The   right   readmg   is         /   ^V -i -r '    ^^    Birch 

already  noted  in  his  Diciionary,  from  the  excellent  papyrus  Ao  of 
the  XVIIIth  dynasty. 

Hieratic  papyri  also  give  the  determinative  t=t. 

The  determinative  .  -^  <  which  some  of  the  papyri  give  to  the 
word,  and  which  is  a  self-evident  blunder,  is  probably  copied  either 
from  I  I,  or  from  1  —  1  .  The  sign  '''5>^,  and  a  man  striking  with 
an  instrument,  which  also  occur,  are  mere  symbols  of  the  operation 
by  which  either  quarries,  ox  ponds,  are  cut. 

11.  Thoii  of  the  Nose,  or  rather  Beak,  aw^-  [[1  £)  -J|  ,  in  allusion 

to  one  of  the  chief  characteristic  features  of  the  Ibis  god  {Trpoawirov 
es  TO,  fiakia-ra  e-i'ipvirov  ;  Herodotus,  II,  76,  in  his  description  of  the 
bird).     Thoth,  the  god  of  Chemunnu,  is  meant  by  this  appellative. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  233 

He  is  SO  called,      (1[  ifll ,  on  the  statue  of  the  King  Horus  in  the 

Museum  of  Turin  (1.  8),  and      [|[  ^  on  the  very  much  more  ancient 

altar,  of  the  Vlih  dynasty,  belongmg  to  the  same  museum.  The 
same  appellative  *  is  found  in  the  list  of  gods  upon  each  of  the 
Memphite  cubits  described  by  Lepsius.f 

12.  Eater  of  the  Shadozv.  The  Demotic  version  interprets  this 
of  "  his  own  shadow."  I  am  rather  inclined  to  interpret  it  by  "  the 
gnomons  which  were  without  shadows  at  noon,"  and  the  "  well  of 
Syene"  (Strabo,  817)  at  the  Summer  Solstice;  when  the  Sun  was 

13.  Thou  of  Lion  form,  -^^  fl I  <>/(  •     '^^^  Demotic  has  "Shu 

and  Tefnut."  But  as  there  are  only  forty-two  gods  in  all,  we  must 
here  think  of  a  single  god  with  a  lion's  head,  as  in  such  pictures 
as  Wilkinson,  III,  PI.  XLIX ;  Denkm.,  Ill,  276,  and  many  sarco- 
phagi (<f.^.,  Leemans,  Mon.,  Ill,  L,  PI,  III). 

Even  some  of  the  Theban  papyri  have  two  divinities  by  way  of 
determinatives  to  the  group. 

14.  Sluggish, 


tk^.        --(]^^, 

sluggishness.     Coptic  (f\[^t.     See  my  note  {Froc.  Soc.  Bib.  Arch., 
XI,  p.  76)  on  the  Inscription  of  Kum  el  Ahmar. 

There  are  however  other  readings ;  none  of  them  apparently  of 
any  value. 

15.  Thou   of  the   Bright   Teeth,    |  "^  (]  J  |  ^  ^,  •     The 

Demotic  equivalent  is,  "  who  openeth  his  teeth,"  and  so  exhibits 
their  brightness. 

16.  Aati,  \\    c-=-^  Ll  rJ[  )    ^    name   about   which    the 

a  _M^  11  111 

copyists  have  bungled.     It  is  one  of  the  names  of  Ra  in  the  Solar 
Litany,  where  it  appears  (1.  23)  as  ^^v   c-^='^  v\  <0<  ^  ,   or 

<^< .     Whether  applied  to  the  Sun,  to  the  Fish  of  the  name, 
or  to  a  Ship,  the  name  means  Cutter,  '  that  which  cleaves  '  its  way. 

*  The  true  sense  of  the  name  has  been  missed  by  Birch,  who  reads  it  Teti, 
and  by  Brugsch,  who  reads  it  "  Chonti,  der  Anfangliche."    At  Beb-el-moluk  it  is 

written   r^^^^ 

t  D.  Aegyptische  Elle,  Taf.  i  and  2. 

2  34  BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD. 

17.  Tufu  [yi^r-^^i<^    ,   with   many   variants,    showing 

that  the  scribes  did  not  understand  the  sense  of  the  syllable  C^^^, 

some  of  them  adding  the  bird  of  evil  ^^=^,  others  the  1 — — 1  deter- 
minative oi 7twtuitai7i.  The  name  on  the  Sarcophagus  of  Seti  (Bon.  II, 
A.  30)  has  a  snake  for  determinative,  and  some  papyri  call  him 
Tutu.  The  god  may  be  recognised  in  later  texts.  In  the  Calendar 
of  Esneh  there  is  a  feast  on  the  14th  day  of  Thotb,  in  honour  of 

^  ^  lull  '  Tutu,  '  the  son  of  Neith,'  and  the  text  gives  the 

important  determinative  HHt)  of  a  serpent,  tvonn,  or  slug.  I 
feel  sure,  therefore,  that  we  should  in  the  text  read  the  name  Tutu, 
and  consider  j^.^  as  a  determinative.*  The  symbolism  would  then 
be  identical  with  that  in  PI.  XXIII,  illustrative  of  Chapter  87.  The 
Sun-god  there  rises  up  like  a  worm  out  of  the  Lotus  of  Dawn,  whereas 
in  another  picture  a  slug  (<-=^)  is  seen  moving  upon  the  flower. 

M     ^^ ,  Ati.,  where  the  god  makes  his  appearance,  is  the  name 

of  the  ninth  Nome  of  Lower  Egypt. 

18.  /  trouble  myself  only  with  my  o%V7i  affairs.  I  understand 
this  of  the  virtue  spoken  of  by  Cicero  {de  Officiis,  I,  34),  "  nihil 
praeter  suum  negotium  agere,  nihil  de  alieno  anquirere,  minimeque 
esse  in  aliena  republica  curiosum."     It  is  the  same  to  which  Plato 

refers  in  the  TimaeuS,  72  A;  ev  kuI  ircikai  \e-^€7ai  to  Trpdr-etv  kuI 
-ji/ibvai   T«    Te    tavTOO    Kal    Iuvtov    (Jw(ppovi   /itovu)    TrpoaijKCti',  not   in   the 

sense  of  a  selfish  indifference  to  a  neighbour's  welfare  or  the  public 
good,  but  in  opposition  to  the  ways  of  the  busybodies,  who  tattle 
i.nd  "speak  things  which  they  ought  not"  (i  Tim.,  v,  13). 

The  Egyptian  -^^^  QA  is  a  rare  word.    Brugsch's  etymology 

of  it  is  an  impossible  one,  and  his  identification  of  it  with  OJUOCJUL 
is  not  less  unfortunate. 

,9.  A,„„  or  A,„U.  (}^\^,  000  o'  Oko-  ™' 
seems  to  be  the  favourite  reading.  It  means  the  tou'n  of  Fahn. 
But,  as  the  name  was  written  ideographically,  it  appears  in  some 
copies  as  the  town  of  other  trees,  such  as  N'ehait,  or  Ndrit. 

Amu  was  a  place  in  the  north  of  Egypt,  which  Biugsch  thinks 

*  Cf.  the  forms  (1  -L      J]    ,  (1  - 


h-   o  o°o   :n  (Naville, 

Litanies,  pp.  55,  83,  and  the  corresponding  texts)  of  one  of  the  hJo'.ar  names. 



he  has  identified  with  a  town  called  Apis  (the  site  of  which  is  itself 

The  most  interesting  thing  known  about  Amu  (Diimichen,  Rec. 
de  M.,  IV,  PI.  XV,  90  rt),  is  that  in  the  rites  performed  on  the  16 
Choiak,  Horns  is  represented  as  raising  up  the  body  of  Osiris  out  of 
the  water  in  the  form  of  a  crocodile;   and  that  Osiris  was  known 

under  the  name  of u  ()()©,  The  Crocodile,  Lord  of  Amu. 

The  142nd  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  which  gives  a  list 

of  the   names  of  Osiris,  has  (L    17)  that  of     H  ,   'Osiris   of 

Crocodile  form,'  or  'with  Crocodile  head.'*    The  variants  of  this 

group,  however,  show  the  reading  0, 5A  U  L  f4  >  ' king,'  or  (  U I  "^  p| . 

'  of  kingly  form.'     There  is  but  little  doubt  that  (as  M.  Naville  says, 

Zeitschr.,  1882,  p.   190)  Jj    j  1  on  the  Turin  tablet  published 

by  Professor  Piehl,  means  '  King  of  the  gods,'  and  that  Ptahhotep 
in  the  Prisse  papyrus  (IV,  i)  addresses  not  Osiris,  but  King  Assa  as 
'my  Lord  the  King.*^  Goodwin  had  already  asserted  this  meaning 
in  his  "Story  of  S'aneha"  and  in  \.\\^- Zeitschr.,  1874,  p..  38^ 

The  orthography  of  the  crocodile  name  here  played   upon  is 

remarkably  vague,  V\  c^^a  \\  =S3f=> ,  (  \\  ,  and  ^K\      ^    VOi 

rapax,  Louvre,  C,  26).     It  is  this  last  form  which  enables  us  to 

see   the  paranomasia   in   2^=*  s, — 3  y  (  <ssf=. ,    rapax  sicut  Raptor 

{crocodilus)  of  the  Prisse  papyrus  (VII,  6),  and  brings  the  word  into 
connection  with  dta,  or  aii,  '  he  who  is  seized '  of  the  Sovereignty 
(see  supra,  Ch.  40,  note  10). 

20.  Chemiu,   ® 


'one   who   overthrows.'      His 


the  Canobic 

appearance    is   made   at  Kauu,     '^  /wwna 

entrance  to  the  Nile,  which  the  Libyan  invaders  had  taken  possession 
of  in  the  time  of  Rameses  III  (Great  Harris  Pap.,  77,  2). 

The  transgression  here  disavowed  is  understood  by  some  of  the 
scribes  as  a  violation  of  ritual  precepts,  such  as  those  regarding 
sacred  seasons. 

*  On  the  other  hand  in  the  standard  ^!^  of  Dendera,  the  Crocodile  is  Sut, 

and  the  Feather  upon  his  head  is  Osiris. 




21.    JF/io   raises f   thy   voice words    of  Righteousness. 

c=^^  I    V  Q()   ^^  ^^^  attribute  assigned  to  Isis  in  the  Hymn  to  Osiris 

(line  14)  on  the  Stele  of  Amenemhait  in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  ; 
and  it  is  there  further  defined  through  the  addition  of  the  words 

'with  clearness  of  utterance'  {cf.  Ch.  i,  note  2). 

SUl  'Mighty  in  Words  of 

Power.'     She  is  also  described  in  the  Hymn  as  '  Most  potent  01 

7~:>      J  I  and  unfailing  of  speech.'* 

Her  name  Urit  hekait  may  have  suggested  the  name  Urit  as  the 
place  of  her  manifestation.  But  we  do  not  know  if  Urit  is  to  be 
taken  as  the  name  of  a  town  or  if  some  papyri  are  correct  in  reading 

^^  [[        ,  which  may  mean  tribunal. 

There    were   in    ancient    Eg3-pt    six    great    courts    of  justice, 

III       I 

One  of  the  chief  names  of  Isis  is 



I  I  i<=r>  11111, 

A  High  Priest  of  Ptah  of  Memphis,  named  Ptahmes,  in  the  early 

part  of  the  eighteenth  dynasty,  who  was  President  of  these  six  Courts,! 

has  left  a  very  remarkable  attestation  relative  to  the  24th  Precept,  on 

a   beautiful   scribe's   palette   in  basalt  (Louvre,  Inv.,  3026).     The 

inscription,  after  saying  that  the  whole  country  was  subject  to  the 

•      ■   J-     •  r  -o     ,  .  ~"^     ^     #     I  f?    ^   I 

jurisdiction  of  Ptahmes,  proceeds  ._;l»  /vww^  <:2;>  y  ,  w  , 

1 1 1 



"  He  turned  not  a  deaf  ear   to   the 

truth,  through  the  terrors  of  his  Eye;"  that  is,  "the  terrors  of  his 
Eye"  were  not  used  for  the  per\-ersion  of  Justice.  But  what  is 
meant  by  his  *'  Eye  "  ?  M.  Pierret  (in  his  Inscr.  inedites  du  Louvre, 
pt.  I,  p.  96)  suggested  the  '  Eye  of  Horus.'     I  think  it  has  reference 

*"  Her   son  Horus  inherited   these  gifts.     He  is  invoked  (Metternich  Stele, 

I   I 


Rechmara  filled  this  office  shortly  before  this,  in  the  time  of  Thothmes  HI, 
and  the  inscriptions  of  his  tomb  give  interesting  information  of  the  duties  d  s- 
charged.  His  clerks  are  praised  for  the  virtue  of  discretion  (i8th  Precejst). 
Fnch  heard  the  reports  read  bj-  others,  but  \\ithout  troubling  himself  with  what 
did  not  concern  him.     See  next  note. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  237 

to  the  position  of  Ptahmes  as  ^^^^^  ^^^^^  1  T  T  ^  •      ^^  '''''^^ 

'  the   King's  Eye,'  6  ftuaiXcw^-  6(/)Oa\^i6'.*  and  had  in  consequence, 
an  unlimited  power  of  defeating  justice  had  he  been  so  incHned. 
It   is   only   by   a    blunderf    that   the    papyrus    of  Ani   makes 

1)1  ""^^  ^^^^  nineteenth  Nome  of  Upper  Egypt)   the  scene  of 

the  divine  Babe's  manifestation,  which  is  unquestionably  Heliopolis. 
The  name  of    the  Nome    has  numerous  variants,  but  they  always 

consist  of  two  signs,  a  crooked  staff  i  |  ,  |,  [,    1 1  either  double  or 

with  a  twisted  cord  (  Q  >  T  ,  X  ,  H  ),   and  the  final  sound  of  the  name 

(when  expressed)  is  in  1,  — h— .  The  key  to  the  phonetic  reading 
of  the  name  of  the  Heliopolitan  Nome  is  to  be  found  in  the 
inscription  at   Edfu   (J.  de  Rouge,  Edfou,  pi.  46) ;    |\  a.^^   f  Q 

[11        ^     \  J\   I  vy  -^  n.      Here  the  crook  of  the  name  is 

identified  with  the  crook  andy?fl//^^\    ^\      1  ^='-7=' a;«.y,  (1  \|\ 

ams,  1   7  \  I     or  ^^\  I    e;;isit  of  Osiris,  who   is  called  in  the 

Book   of  the  Dead   (Todt.,    142,   9)    1  "SV    I  '^^^^    fll     ,  tke 

^■^^^k^^^k'^.       ^LU  /  f^  f^    \  111      © 

*  This  office  is  often  referred  to  by  Greek  writers  as  existing  in  the  Persian 
hierarchy.  Pseudartabas,  the  '  King's  Eye,'  is  one  of  the  Dramatis  Personse  in 
the  Acharnians  of  Aristophanes.  Herodotus  (i,  114)  tells  how  Cyrus  being 
chosen  king  by  his  playfellows,  selected  his  principal  c  fficers,  and  one  among  the 
boys  to  be  the  '  King's  Eye.'  Aeschylus  does  not  forget  in  his  Persae  (line  976) 
to  make  the  Chorus  bewail  the  loss  of  the  King's  faithful  Eye. 

The  most  ancient  personage  who  is  known  to  me  as  the  '  King's  Eye '  in 
Eg)'pt  is  Antuf,  whose  tablet  (of  the  12th  dynasty)  is  in  the  Louvre  (C.  2^).  His 
duties  are  detailed  on  this  magnificent  tablet,  and  they  are  very  similar  to  those 
of  Rechmaia.     He  is  described  not  only  as   the   King's    Eyes  which   see,  but 


^VW^ftA  — 

3^ the  "Tongue  which  speaks,  of  the  lord  of 

the  Palace." 

t  I  [  in  cursive  writing  might  be  mistaken  for  ]  ]  or  for  |  ],  and  the 
scribe,  to  show  his  learning,  might  interpolate  the  J ,  but  even  this  might  be  an 
error  for  | . 

2  r 

238  BOOK  OF   THE  DEAD. 

August  Dismembered*  one  of  the  Fo7vers  of  Amiu.  And  this  is  how, 
in  the  important  papyrus  Pc,  we  find  f  Q  1  in  Ch.  17  as  the 
equivalent  of  -  H  1 W  J],  a  few  words  after,  in  the  same  papyrus. 
Both  groups  are  to  be  read  amsu  ;  which  means  furnished  with  the 
crook  {or  sceptre)  and flail^  [  /\   or    y^.f 

22.   Hot  of  foot  "^"^^-^l 

The   Coptic   Onf  eJUL^^HT",  poenitentiam   agere,  would    be  the 
natural  representative  of  a  ^\    T  Qi)      '  ^"^  ^^^  meanings  of 

the  terms  cannot  be  the  same.  The  latter  is  expressive  of  a  passion, 
the  indulgence  in  which  may  be  laudable  in  the  gods  and  yet  blame- 
worthy in  men.  For  the  divine  wrath  is  necessarily  just ;  whereas 
human  anger,  even  when  it  seems  to  listen  to  reason,  listens,  as  the 
philosopher  says,  but  imperfectly.  | 

The    29th    god,    Kenemta,  l    ^\         l^,    has     also    for 

determinative  the  sign    j\  of  a  cynocephalus.     This  is   explained 

by  his  identity  with    the   constellation  which    occupies   the  whole 
month  of  Thoth  in  the  list  of  the  Decans.     But  though  the  name 

means    'in  Ape  form,'   the   word  V\     MA   in   the    Pyramid 

Texts  (Pepi  i,  408,  and  Merira  579)  is  used  in  the  sense  of  'vested,' 
'clad,'  perhaps  simply  'covered.' 

Brugsch  has  identified  the  locality  Kenemit  with  the  Great  Oasis 
at  Khargeh.  It  may  be  asked  if  the  Oasis  bore  this  name  at  the 
time    when     this     chapter    was     composed.       The    determinative 

■■  ^  ■<  proves  nothing  beyond   the  actual  sense  of  the  word,  but  it 

suggests  that  the  Dark  may  be  a  sufficient  translation.     From  the 
etymology  I  should  like  to  assimilate  it  to  the  iroiKikel^wv  vr^  of  the 

*  The  detenninatives  in 

n  °    no 

Sio/ifXttT^oc,   and    the    insect    (a    scolopendron)   in 

,    express  the   sense  of  division, 

n  ° 

exhibits  the   very 

notion  which  has  given  rise  to  the  Latin  insecta  and  the  Greek  ivTOfiov. 
t  For  more  particular  details,  see  P.S.B.A.,  viii,  p.  245,  and  following. 
J  'Akovhv  n  Tov  Koycv,  irapaKoiiiv  5t  :  Ethic.  Nick.,  viii.  "]. 



Prometheus  Vinctus,  or  to  the   '  furvo  circumdata   peplo '  of  the 
Latin  poet. 

23.   Of  inconstant  mind,    I 

24.  Another  intelh'gible  reading  of  the  precept  is,  "  I  rob  not  the 
dead  of  their  wrappings  " ;  but  the  text  is  so  corrupt  that  none  of  the 
readings  are  of  any  value. 

The  god  is  called     O    (j(]  '^  ^  or   1  ®  ^^  (](]  ^  ,    both  of 

which  words  I  understand  in  the  sense  of  busy-minded^  plafining, 
devising,  crafty,  wise. 

The  appellative  Horned  one,  ^'^zzy  -41-^  W  ^  \^  >  of  the  next 

precept,  is  the  exact  equivalent  of  the  Hebrew  D'^^lp  hy'3.    and  is 
the  attribute  of  Osiris  (Todt.,   144,  4),  especially  in  the  character 



;   under  which  name  he  was  worshipped  at  Sutenhunen. 


25.  Noisy  in  speech  '^^ 



26.  Striker 


A  name  of  Horus,  on  which  see  ch. 

103,  note. 

27.  There  is  no  locality  about  which   there  is  any  agreement 
between  the  older  papyri,  and  many  of  them  omit  the  mention  of  a 

locality ;  later  authorities,  like  the  Turin  text,  read  fjl      Annu. 

I  I  I 

There  is  no  virtue 

28.  No  unjust  preferences,  ■^=^[i    j 

more  frequently  extolled  on  the  funereal  monuments  than  the 
absence  of  favouritism.  Great  personages  in  their  epitaphs  are  strong 
in  their  declarations  that  they  made  no  distinction  between  great 
and  small,  rich  or  poor,  wise  or  simple.     The  declaration  of  Ameni 

{Denkm.,  ii,  122),  ^JU-  I 
is  a  type  of  many  others. 
29.   Of  raised  head,  ?=^ 



^-^^  @.     This,  like  the  last  two,  is  a  name  of  the  Nile  god, 

who  is  one  of  the  manifestations  of  Osiris. 

30.    IV/io  liftest  an  arm,   |\  ^ j,  not  '  aniener  son  bras.'      |\ ,  like 

the  Greek  cjyeiiciv,  means  bear  in  the  sense  of  holding  up,  supporting. 

2    12 

240  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

When  it  signifies  bring  the  collateral  notion  of  motion  is  imported 
from  the  context.  The  god  Shu,  who  is  called  A  v=^ ,  holds  Jip, 
supports,  the  sky,  but  does  not  bring  it.  The  god  tuho  holds  up  his  ar7n, 
is  of  course  the  ithyphallic  Amon  *  F ,  who  in  Ch.  1 7  is  identified 

not  only  with  Horus  but  with  Osiris. 

31.  This  introduction  to  Part  III  of  this  chapter  occurs  only  in 
the  Papyrus  of  Nebkat  {Pe).  Another  ancient  manuscript  {Fb)  has 
the  words  "Said  upon  approaching  triumphantly  to  the  Hall  of 
Righteousness."  But  the  texts  generally  begin  with  the  invocation, 
"  Hail  ye  gods,  I  know  you  and  I  know  your  names." 

■X2.  Reverse  of  mi?te,       ^M?^,  a   turn  of  the   wheel,   which   the 

context  implies  to  be  unfortunate.    A  very  absurd  reading  is  V 

/v>^  V  Vra  as  if  the  defendant  were  master  of  the  fates  of  his  divine 
III    I  ^ 


33,  The  King  who  re  side  th  within  His  own  Da  v.  A  very 
doubtful  passage  at  present.  The  words  do  not  occur  in  the  oldest 
text  of  the  chapter  (that  of  Nebseni),  and  they  are  omitted  here  in 
the  later  recensions.     Ad  is,  as  far  as  I  know,  the  only  authority  for 

—    I  u    \\  .   other  papyri  having   merely   4^'  >  which   might 

possibly  correspond  to  the  W^  immediately  preceding.     The 

Royal  tombs  have  [~[]  ^^\   ^  ,  and  one  of  the   papyri  has 

*  There  is  no  such  god  as  Min  or  Mitiu,  except  as  an  abbreviated  (or 
perhaps  primitive)  (7r//i(7frrt/'^?V  form  of  ^;«i?«.  v\  J^  and    1  i^  bear  to 

[1  i^  exactly   the   same   relationship   that     1  c^ ,  /wwv.  W' ,  ll  wl  ' 

have  to  [1    1  ^ ,  [1  ^^^  <^  and  [I  \d\- 

Neither  Amen  nor  the  shorter  form  can  be  the  phonetic  equivalent  of  ""  H>  . 
The  image  of  Horus  with  the  Flail  at  Edfu  is  described  (J.  de  Rouge,  pi.  C.  Ill)  as 
VN.     /         ^^^l  >  Horns  as  Amstc-Atnen,  and  I  have  elsewhere  quoted 

from   Tempel  insch.,  I,  32,  the  ^^    1  'm  Avisu-  Men  [or  Amen]  as  well  as 
^^  >Ov    A/usu  Horus. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  24 1 

(I  ^  instead  of  I    ^    j4 .     All  this  reminds  one  of  an  obscure 

passage  in  Chapter  115,  where  Ra  is  speaking  with    I 

nil  ^w  w|  according  to  the  Text  of  the  Turin  Todtenbiuh. 

Goodwin  conjectured  that  King  Amhauf  belonged  '  to  the  race  of 
mythical  kings  who  preceded  Menes,'  and  that  his  history  is  'a 
legend  somewhat  analogous  to  that  of  Deucalion  and  Pyrrha.'  There 
is  a  much  more  probable  solution  of  the  matter. 

I  w|  ^^  meant  for   I   .^i  Sut,  and  it  was  with  this  god 

^==|l]'^^^^^--or-|[-^[-g'^^^ffT*  'm\{\?, course '^ 

that  Ra  was  speaking  when  the  disaster  happened  to  the  latter 
divinity,  who  for  his  talk  had  chosen  a  wrong  moment,  which  really 
belonged  to  his  adversary.     Cf.  supra  note  3  on  Chapter  no. 

And  here  too  I  would  instead  of   I  read    I  ,  and  the 

sense  of  the  passage  would  be  "let  not  reverse  of  mine  come  to  pass 
through  Sutu,  when  his  time  cometh." 

34.  Cares,   ==--^  ^  in    the  later  texts.     The  older  texts  differ 

c.  W  111         _ 

greatly  from  each  other :  ^  'STP  ^^^    *v\  Q  is  the  most  frequent 


35.  The  Ass  and  the  Cat  ift  the  house  of  Hept-ro.  The  two  per- 
sonages who  take  part  in  this  dialogue  are  known  from  other  portions 
of  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  The  Cat  is  Ra  in  the  1 7th  chapter.  And 
the  Ass  appears  in  the  40th  chapter,  as  the  victim  of  the  devouring 
Serpent.  The  Sun-god  overcome  by  darkness  is  Osnis ;  and  he  is 
so  called  by  name  in  the  Demotic  version  of  this  chapter. 

Hept-ro,^  'iS:^  J^,  'god  of  the  gaping  mouth.'     The 

word   fi  g-g-:i  is  not  found  elsewhere,  but  the  meaning  of  it 

seems  to  be  indicated  by  the  determinative.  It  is  very  probably 
akin  to  the  more  common    ^  AA,  1.=-^^^,  which  does  not 

The  Luynes  papyrus  reads  - 

n   for    thinking   that    in  Cha 
written  without  its  phonetic  value. 


rn      v\  ,  M'hich  affords  good 

reason   for   thinking   that   in  Chapter   115,  as   elsewhere,  t;^-,     was   originally 

242  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

mean   '  squat '  or   '  sit,'  but    '  stretch   out,'  distetidi.      Cf.  Note   6, 
Chapter  63B, 

The  '  house  of  the  god  of  the  gaping  mouth,'  seems  to  be  the 
Earthy  considered  as  the  universal  tomb  (aW  uvrou  r^a7a  fieXaiva 
TTuai  xat'ot,  II.  14,  417).  And  here  Osiris  and  Ra  (the  Ass  and  the 
Cat)  meet  daily,  '  Yesterday '  speaketh  to  '  To-day.' 

"ir2«  TT  nvh  DV. 

A  note  of  M.  Guyesse  in  the  Reaieil,  X,  p.  64,  contains  references 
to  the  chief  passages  in  which  this  word  occurs.  I  will  add  a  very 
important  one,  the  picture  of  a  god  (Lefebure,  To77ibeau  de  Sefi, 
p.  Ill,  pi.  2,2))  ^^'^th  sword  in  hand,  whose  name  is  this  word.  The 
ideographic  signs  which  express  it  imply  (i)  '  a  adting  in  two,  parting, 
division,'  (2)  that  the  act  is  one  of  speech  or  intellect,  such  as  'judg- 
ment, decision,  verdict.'  The  phonetic  equivalence  of  the  signs  •^ 
and  'I'l'  or  j  I  j  show  that  the  value  is  that  of  Seb. 

•  37.  Covereth.  The  right  Egyptian  word  here,  as  in  a  similar 
passage  in  Chapter  1 7,  is  uncertain,  but  the  meaning  is  plain  enough. 
There  are  many  pictures  showing  a  divinity  (the  sun  or  moon-god) 
hidden  within  or  behind  a  tree. 

38.  That  tlie  Balafice  may  be  set  upon  its  stand  within  th£  bower 
of  amara?ith. 

Cf.  the  passage  (Rochemonteix,  Edfoit,  p.  191)  where  mention  is 
made  of  the  divine  powers  which  animate  the  Princes  who  are  in  the 
train  of  Osiris  and  who  lift  the  Balance  upon  the  stand  before  them 

^^  II  i^D^         i  D   I  y\  ^  I  I  I 

A7)iaranth  (see  Note  3  of  Chapter  26)  is  only  one  of  the  readings 
of  this  doubtful  text. 

39.  Disasters, 


[    V  [or  ^^^' '  ^^^  ^^^,  misfortune.     See 
my  note  on  this  word,  T.S.B.A.,  II,  p.  313. 

40.  Grasshoppers,    Ks>^  ^C\     v\  ^^^ .      The  similar  word 

_^    C    -m^  _ZI    I  I  I 

C^^TDj  which  only  occurs  in  Lev.  xi,  22,  does  not  appear  to  be 
Semitic.  It  is  a  sufficiently  familiar  word  in  Egyptian  to  serve  as  a 
term  in  comparison,  'as  plentiful  as  grasshoppers.' 

41.  The  text  here  is  quite  uncertain.     The  Turin  Todtenbiich  has 
"  the  fourth  hour  of  the  Night  and  the  eighth  hour  of  the  Day," 

BOOK  OF  THE   DEAD.  243 

which  does  not  agree  with  any  early  reading.  Cd.  has  "the  fourth 
hour  of  the  Night  and  of  the  Day."     Several  papyri  have  the  "  second 

hour  of  the  Night  and  the  third  r=L[)  —      of  the  Day."      It  was  in 

this  passage,  as  written  in  B.M.  9904,  that,  in  the  year  i860,  I  found 
the  phonetic  value  of  the  Egyptian  number  3  :  a  discovery  first 
ascribed  by  Brugsch*  to  Goodwin,  and  afterwards  by  others  to 
Brugsch  himself. 

42.  The  hearts  of  the  gods  are  appeased,  11221/]  JR   =      ^awv^  j  |   j , 

Cf.  rt^I,   l\dcTK€a6ai,    and    n^HT,  eXeij^twu,  otKTi'pfiwv.     This  ex 
plains  Pap.  Prisse  XVII,  6^fI^^n^^|^J^. 

43.  Let  him  come.     J\  v\  is  a  tolerably  certain  reading,  but 

it  is  not  possible  to  say  what  should  be  the  word  preceding  this. 
The  scribes  have  written  'there  he  cometh,'  'we  grant  that  he  come,' 
*  I  grant,'  '  let  him  be  brought  in,'  and  the  like. 

44.  He  who  groweth  under  the  Grass,  X5  <===>  j  n]/   [\\      1  • 

45.  A  thigh,    ^^^-^  ^  (2  ,    also  written  || . 

46.  See   the  greetifigs :   (jywvij   ^/ap    6pw,    to    (paTc^o/u.ei/ou,    Oedip. 

Col.  138 

I    w    I 

47.  The  Leaf,     J      ^ 

48.  Pointer  [or  Plummet']  of  Truth,  ^\>^  ^^^^  J]  "^  S^  I . 

49.  The  Scale  Pan,  \  ^  -^=:^\^^,    \   \  ^^^ ■ 

50.  The  Dragon  Brood,     m     V\  ^  Mr  . 

51.  27/1?  Truncheon  of  Hathor,   ^^     vo'-t^  does  not  appear  to 

be  a  very  familiar  word  to  the  scribes,  who  write  it  in  the  most 
diverse  ways  possible ;  one  of  them  even  understanding  it  as  the 

'  opening  of  heaven '  ^^      ^ .     All  that  we  can  say  is  that  the 

word   is   shown   by   its   determinative  to  be  of  wood,   and  by  its 

etymology  (cf   ^^  \\  ,  1  to  serve  for  striking,  blinding,   or 

slaying.     Scne  of  the  texts  name  Hathor,  and  others  Nephthys, 

*  Zeiischr.,  No.  3. 

244  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  sign   I       occurs  in  both  names,  and  the  scribes  have  read  the 
rest  of  the  name  as  best  they  could. 

52.  He  zvho  knoweth  the  heart  and  exploreth  the  person, 

"^  I  -_j1     j\  .   This  is  so  exactly  the  equivalent  of  "  Searchinsr 

I    !<=:>  (   I       ^  111  . 

the  heart  and  trying  the  reins"  of  Jeremiah  (xvii,  10),  that  we 
might  have  expected  to  find  something  like  it  in  the  Coptic  version 
of  the  Bible.  But  there  we  have  nothing  but  a  close  adherence  to 
the  sense  of  the  Septuagint,  and  even  to  such  a  word  as  CGKijud^etv. 

53.  Who provideth  for,     ^^  <::()=^^  QA  is  the  equivalent  of  the 

Greek  irpovoeiv  in  the  inscription  of  Tanis,  and  of  ^lipifxva  in  the 
Demotic  text  of  the  verses  of  Moschion.  The  Coptic  form  is 
JULeTI,  JULeexe,  which  stands  for  (f)poi>e7v  in  Phil,  iv,  10,  "Your 
care  of  me,  wherein  ye  also  were  careful." 

Thoth  is  thus  represented  as  the  divine  Providence,  which  takes 
care  of  the  universe.     The  same  view  is  found  in  a  text  at  Edfu. 

54.  The   Eye   of  Horus ;    see    latter    part  of   Note    2,    of  this 


Oh  ye  four  Harbingers  (i)  who  sit  at  the  prow  of  the  Bark  of  Ra, 
and  convey  the  fixed  ordinances  (2)  of  the  Inviolate  One,  ye  who 
are  judges  of  my  di«;tress  (3)  and  of  my  good  fortune,  and  propitiate 
the  gods  with  the  flames  from  your  mouths  :  ye  who  present  to  the 
gods  their  oblations  and  the  sacrificial  meals  to  the  Glorified  :  ye 
who  live  through  Maat  and  are  sated  with  Maat :  who  have  nothing 
wrong  in  you  and  execrate  that  which  is  disordered,  (4)  do  ye  put 
an  end  to  my  ills  and  remove  that  w-hich  is  disorderly  in  me  through 
my  being  smitten  to  the  earth.  (5) 

Grant  that  I  may  penetrate  into  the  Ammehit  and  enter  into 
Restau  ;  and  that  I  may  pass  through  the  mysterious  portals  of 

Be  there  given  to  me  the  Shensu  cakes  and  the  Persen  cakes 


BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 

CiiArTER  CXXVI      Papyrus  of  Ani. 


Musee  du  Louvre,  Papyrus  III,  36. 

Chapter  CXXVI. 
Papyrus.  British  Museum.    No.  9913. 

Chapter  CXXX.     Papyrus,  Leyden,  VI. 






Papyrus,  Musee  du  Louvre,  No.  3079. 

Chapter  CXXXII. 
Brit.  Mus.  Papyrus,  No.  9964. 


Papyrus,  Brocklehurst,  II. 

Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9900. 

Chapter  CXX.XIV.     Papyrus  of  Ani,  British  Museum. 

Chapter  CXXXIV.     Papyrus,  British  Museum,  No.  9900. 

Chapter  CXXXVI. 
Papyrus,  Brit.  Mus.,  No.  9913. 

Chapter  CXXXVI. 
Papyrus,  Brit.  Mus.,  No.  9900. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  245 

[and  all  things]  even  as  to  the  Glorified,  who  make  their  appearance 
on  entering  into  Restau  or  on  coming  forth.  (6) 

Enter  thou,  Osiris  N:  We  put  an  end  to  thine  ills,  and  we 
remove  that  which  is  disorderly  in  thee  through  thy  being  smitten 
to  the  earth.  We  put  away  from  thee  all  the  ills  which  thou  hast. 
Enter  thou  into  Restau  and  pass  through  the  mysterious  portals  of 
Amenta.  Enter  thou  in  and  come  forth  at  thy  pleasure,  like  the 
Glorified  ones;  and  be  thou  invoked  each  day  in  the  Mount  of 
Glory.  (7) 


In  the  older  papyri  the  vignette  of  this  chapter  is  unaccompanied 
by  any  text.  The  only  exception  as  yet  known  is  that  of  the  papyrus 
Ab,  of  the  XVIIIth  dynasty.  The  text  is  also  found  in  the  tomb 
of  Rameses  VI,  with  the  important  addition  of  the  answer  made  by 
the  four  Harbingers  to  the  prayer  of  the  deceased.  This  addition 
is  retained  in  all  the  later  recensions.  Other  discrepancies  between 
the  two  texts  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  even  the  older  one  has 
suffered  from  interpolation. 

1.  Harbingers   or   Saluters,  ^   v  r  1 '  *      ^^^    Chapter   5, 

Note  5,  for  an  explanation  of  the  name  of  those  Apes  who  salute* 
the  Daybreak.  "Utrefour  only  are  spoken  of,  and  this  was  probably 
the  original  number,  corresponding  to  the  four  portals  of  the  Mount 
of  Glory.  The  number  eight  (the  Chemunnu)  is  more  easy  to  explain 
than  six,  which  is  the  number  stated  in  the  text  quoted  from  the 
tomb  of  Rameses  VI. 

2.  Fixed  ordinances,  S^  .  ^  . ;  OeuKnei  in  the  different  accep- 
tations  of  that  word. 

3.  Distress,  ^^  I    y,    "^^^  •     "  Te  semper  anteit  saeva  neces- 

siias,"  Horace  says  to  Fortuna.  The  determinative  "^  and  the 
Coplic  JULp  evidently  point  to  the  notion  of  constraint,  but  the  few 
texts  in  which  the  word  is  found  imply  ivatit,  need  {angustice, 
av('riKi]),j  rather  than  captivity.     Amenemhat  at  Benihassan  (tomb  2) 

*  The  Gothic  Hana  (the  Cock),  German  Hahn  and  our  Hen  signify  the 
Singer,  and  are  words  cognate  to  the  Latin  can-ere.  The  Latin  Callus  is 
probably  related  to  onr  call. 

t  The  Greek  language  would  furnish  an  interesting  parallel  to  the  Egj-ptian  if 
it  could  be  shown  that  Sew,  bind,  and  Sew,  want,  need,  had  the  same  root.  But  the 
latter  was  originally  (5ffw. 

2    K 

24*5  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

boasts  that  in  his  days  and  under  his  government  no  one  was  seen 

"in  distress  ( ^  ^k\    [    y.     "^^-^jj  or  starving."     And  Horus 

at  Edfu  (Naville,  Mythe  d'Borus,  pi.  XXII)  is  said  to  protect  the 

needy  or  distressed  I  ^^^    ^    Q  |  against  the  powerful     This   is 

an  honour  already  claimed  by  Antuf  on  his  tablet  (Louvre,  C.  26 
line  17),  who  mentions  the  maarii  as  being  an  object  of  interest  to 
him,  like  the  orphan  and  the  widow. 

4.  Disordered,  [  ^  1  ^    1 ,  is  the  absence  of  S^  ,  strict 

i  U      ^^  I  _  _    a  r-^ 

order,  and  always  spoken  of  as  in  opposition  to  it.  One  is  Koa^o? 
and  the  other  is  ov  Kara  Koafxou,  and  may  be  predicated  of  whatever 
is  contrary  to  rule,  faulty,  defective,  out  of  line,  deformed,  or  dis- 
figured, not  only  in  a  moral  but  in  a  purely  physical  sense. 

^^^,  ///,  does  not  mean  wickedness  or  sin,  but  simply  physical 

evil,  mischief,  pain  or  sorrow.  There  are  many  texts  to  prove  this, 
but  perhaps  the  most  interesting  is  the  great  text  at  Dendera 
(Mariette,  Denderah,  IV,  pi.  73,  or  Diimichen,  Rec,  III,  pi.  96), 
where  Osiris  is  invoked  at  Apu  (Panopolis)  as  the  fiery  Bull,  hiding 
(or  scarcely  seen)  on  the  day  of  the  New  INIoon  .  .  ,  .  ,  but  at  length 
rising  into  full  strength,*  and  seeing  the  Golden  Horus  fixed  upon 

the  throne  of  the  universe.       v?    'V^    1        ^  [^  -"^^^  (continues  the 

text),  "Joy  cometh  round  afterf  pain,"  or  sorrow ;  most  certainly,  not 
after  sin. 

*  Such  is  the  real  meaning  of  -^^^  '^^^  ^^\  | ,  not  only  in  this  place,  but 
in  the  extremely  ancient  text  found  on  many  sarcophagi  and  already  in  the 
Pyramid  Texts  (see  Pepi  I,  33),     A     \\     ^     ^  ^^  -^d^  ^    |  ^a^^ 

z'/^/w^  AWAAA   I     "  Thy  mother  Nut  bringeth  it  to  pass  that  thou 


risest  into  full  strength,  without  an  adversary,  in  thy  name  o(  i/i£  Strong  one^ 

In  this  translation  it  is  assumed  that  the  second  '^'^^  is  the  negative  1— 'L-^i 
as  it  was  always  understood  in  later  times  (see  for  an  instance  Zeitschr.,  1869, 
p.  51,  and  the  beautiful  text  of  Bakenrenf,  Denkm.,  Ill,  263). 

The  true  meaning  of  is  not  simply  'this  god'  but  'the  Strong  one, 

1—1  *  /vwvw 

6  'Yax^'^v.      1  I    is  the  '  Strong  and  Beautiful ;'     |  A  is  ^■^t^'  7X)  '^  Hai  TOKpuTwp. 
t  That  is,  'succeedeth.' 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  247 

The   meaning   of    <zz>,   which   governs    the   noun,    has   been 

1, 0  ° 

explained  (Chapter  40,  Note  6)  as  stoppmg,  britiging  io  an  end ;  not 
destroying,  and  still  \t%%  forgiving. 

5.   Through   tny  being  [or  because  I  am]  smitten  to  the  earth, 

(I  v\  in  this  position,  without  a  suffix  or  nominal  subject,  is  not 

an  auxiliary  verb,  but  a  particle  of  correlation,  used  when  a  cause, 
motive,  or  circumstance  is  asserted  or  implied  in  connection  with  a 
preceding  statement. 

Like  all  such  particles,  of  which  the  function  was  originally  only 
deictic,  it  is  susceptible  of  very  many  shades  of  meaning,  and  it 
would  be  impossible  in  this  place  to  do  justice  to  a  word  so  frequently 
occurring,  especially  in  the  hieratic  papyri  of  a  secular  character. 
The  following  examples  are  only  intended  to  illustrate  \ts  grammatical 
use  in  our  text. 

The  particle  occurs  three  times  before  as  many  propositions  at 
the  beginning  of  Chapter  123;  'I  have  balanced  the  divine  Pair,' 

'I  have  put  a  stop,  etc.,^  'I  have  ended  their  complaints;'  [  ^ 

connects  each  of  these  statements  with  the  preceding  one,  '  I  am 
Thoth.'  It  is  as  if  the  speaker  said,  '//  is  in  co?tseqieence  of  my  being 
Thoth,  that  I  have  balanced,'  etc. 

In  Chapter  36,  '  I  am  the  bearer  of  the  divine  words '  is  followed 

by  (J  Y^    '  X  t    V  ^  ^ '  '  ^"^  ^'^  ^^  comes  that  I  make  the  report.' 

In  Chapter  15,  line  7,  'I  am  one  of  those  who  honoured  thee 

upon  earth '  is  followed  by  (  v\  — -^  "  let  me  therefore 

attain  to  the  Land  of  eternity." 

Aahmes,  the  son  of  Abana,  says  in  his  inscription  (line  5)  that 

he  was  young  and   unwedded,    (   v\    1   O^  'V^  v^     '■'■and  so    I 

continued  to  wear"  a  certain  dress. 

Amenemheb  was,  he  tell  us  {Zeitchr.,  1S73,  P-  3))  high  in  the 
favour   of    the    King,  '■^  and  so  it  comes  that  I   followed  my  Lord 

Una  was  sent  by  his  sovereign  on  a  certain  mission,  and  the 
negro   chieftains  of  certain   districts   furnished   the   wood    for   his 

2    K    2 

248  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

purpose,  "  and  so  it  came  to  pass  that  he  spent  I  ^  a  year  in 

this  wise." 

After  verba  dicendi  (I  v\  corresponds  to  our  as  how,  cotnttie  quoi\ 

or  the  guod  or  quia  of  late  Latinity.      It    often    needs    no   more 
translation  than  the  Greek  on  in  such  a  relation. 

In  the  inscription  of  Pianchi  (line  2)  one  came  to  tell  his 
Majesty  "that  {comme  quoi)  a  prince  [or  magnate]  had  started  up 

(1  Y^  -^^  1^  "  and  seized  upon  a  part  of  the  kingdom. 

C   V^  ^^^  most  certainly  does  not   mean  ^est,  est/  any   more 

than  it  means  '  Dominus  meus  mortuus  est.' 

Nebuaiu  {Zeitschr.,  1876,  p.  5)  in  the  time  of  Thothmes  III  cS^ 
A  Tv      O     f^'^'^/'j^  pg    ^  f  "" — 

(]  v\  <r:z=>  v^   ^  ^^^  "  says,  as  how  '  I  have  presided  over  many 


The    Naophoros    of    the   Vatican   in  like  manner   ^^^  (I  V\ 

vf2^    "  says  that  '  I  made  a  petition  ' "  to  Cambyses. 

Long  before  this  Chnumhotep  of  Eenihassan  begins  his  biography 

(line  14)      I      ^=S^  [1  V:>  j5 □  v\  M^  "  his  mouth,  it  says  as  how 

'his  Majesty  appointed  me '  to  the  dignity  oi  Erpd  hd." 

The  absence  of  Verbal  character  becomes  especially  apparent  in 

such  combinations  as(vi^  ,(^'y),["\^J    • 

6.  The  older  texts  finish  here.  What  follows  in  the  tran'-lation 
is  taken  from  the  later  recensions.  It  is  the  reply  made  by  the  four 
Harbingers  to  the  prayer  addressed  to  them. 

7.  AToioit  of  Glory  .     This  is  the  real  meamng  of  the  word, 

^  n 

and  there  is  no  reason  why   we  should  continue  to  use  the  mis- 
leading term  horizon. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  249 


The  Book  (i)  for  irivoking  the  gods  of  the  Bouftds,  (2)  which  the  person 
rcciteth  when  he  approacheth  them,  that  he  may  efiter  and  see  the 
Strong  one  (3)  in  the  Gnat  Abode  of  the  Tuat. 

Hail,  ye  gods  of  the  Bounds,  who  are  in  Amenta. 

Hail,  ye  Doorkeepers  of  the  Tuat,  who  guard  this  Strong  one, 
and  who  bring  the  reports  before  Osiris  ;  ye  who  protect  them  who 
worship  you,  and  who  annihilate  the  adversaries  of  Ra :  who  give 
light  and  put  away  your  darkness  :  ye  who  see  and  extol  your  Great 
one,  who  live  even  as  he  liveth,  and  invoke  him  who  is  in  his  Solar 

Guide  me,  and  let  the  gates  of  Heaven,  Earth,  and  the  Tuat  be 
opened  to  me. 

I  am  the  Soul  of  Osiris  and  rest  in  him. 

Let  me  pass  through  the  Gateways,  and  let  them  raise  acclamation 
when  they  see  me. 

Let  nie  enter  as  I  will,  and  come  forth  at  my  pleasure,  and  make 
my  way  without  there  being  found  any  defect  or  any  evil  attaching 
to  me. 


The  text  which  has  been  followed  in  the  translation  of  this 
chapter  is  that  of  the  Royal  Tombs  of  Rameses  IV  and  Rameses  VI, 
called  by  M.  Naville  Chapter  1 2  7  a.  The  lost  Busca  papyrus,  of  which 
Lepsius  had  a  tracing,  furnishes  a  different  text,  (127  b),  and  the 
text  of  the  Turin  Todteftbuch  has  been  enlarged  by  means  of 
numerous  interpolations.  M.  Naville  has  called  attention  to  the 
close  relationship  between  this  chapter  and  the  second  part  of  the 
"  Solar  Litany." 

I.  Book  ^~^  0  ,  properly  a  Roll;  a  title  given  to  several  of 
the  chapters  (125,  127,  129,  130,  140,  141,  142  and  148  in  the 
Turin  TodtenbucJi),  instead  of  the  usual  ,  .  Too  much  im- 
portance should  not  be  attached  to  the  difference  of  terms  This 
chapter  is  called  ,  by  the  Busca  papyrus;  and  Chapter  125, 
which  is  called  '^~p^  in  the  earliest  texts  containing  it  whenever  a 
title  is  given,  is  called  '7^    0  ^  ever  since  the  time  of  Rameses  IV. 

250  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

2.  Bounds^  'c^^'^n'  '"  ^^  ^^^  form,  though  <^  *^^^^  Ivi 
is  not  unfrequent,  here  and  in  other  places.  The  English  word  is 
not  a  translation  of  the  Egyptian  one,  which  has  to  be  explained 
before  any  equivalent  for  it  can  be  proposed.  And  the  explanation 
of  it  has  to  be  sought  in  the  '  Solar  Litany,'  first  completely  pub- 
lished by  M.  Naville. 

There  we  find  the  Sun-god  Ra  invoked  as  a  Power  potiring  itself 

forth  or  overfIowi?tg  "^l^  .        .  It  <^ji  '  *  ^"75  fo^"^^  ^i^d  ihe  fortns 

I    \v    I 

in  7=;   <:::r>        I.     Each  of  these  divine  forms  (    v5     "l  1  I  has  its 

own  {}\         as  a  dwelling-place,  to    which    however  it  is  not 


The  seventy-five  Forms  in  question  (each  of  which  is  a  god)  are, 
as  the  text  itself  shows,  simply  so  many  names  of  the  Solar  god 

or  solar  phenomena.     Each  of  them  is  addressed  as       r^^T  Y' 

'  Ra,  supreme  of  power,'  after  which  some  attribute  of  the  deity 
is  mentioned,  and  the  name  of  the  deity  is  connected  with  this 

In  Greece,  Apollo  was   called   eicrj/SoXo?,  Karai^daio^,  a7roTpo7ra?09, 

veour'jviov,  and  by  ever  so  many  other  names  expressive  of  the 
attributes  with  which  he  was  credited.     These  names  correspond  to 

what  Egyptian  mythology  called  the     vi     (  1  of  a  god,  and  each 

of  the  names  has  but  a  limited  application.  The  god  is  not  always 
thought  of  as  'Far-darting';  under  the  conception  of  'Neo- 
menios,'  he  dwells  in  what  Egyptian  mythology  called  another 
„_^-^[^,  which  is  the  local  habitation,  or,  as  mathematicians  would 
say,  the  locus  of  the  concept. 

M.  de  Rouge,  without  giving  any  reason,  but  probably  guided 
by  what  Champollion  had  written,  translates  the  word  zone. 
M.  Naville,  who  has  carefully  studied  the  word,  prefers  sphere.     And 

*  M.  Naville  leaves  this  word  untranslated,  though  he  rightly  conjectures 
it  to  be  the  origin  of  XCOCtl  effundere,  effusio,  infundere,  t»imergere. 

lA   ^^  ^       ■    at  chapter  64,  23,  is  undoubtedly  the  overf  owing,  or  otitpouring. 

There  are   the   reduplicated    Coptic   forms    (T^CtjCTcy   and   (TeCLJf^^Cy  ; 

and  (Tecye,  a  name  of  the  goose,  has  its  origin  in  a  ^>  1  w  1  (jO  X  ^i*:, 
and  has  the  same  sense  etymologically  as  the  Latin  mergus. 

BOOK    OF   THE   DEAD.  25  I 

no  better  word  could  be  thought  of,  if  we  used  it  as  we  do  in 
speaking  of  '  moving  in  a  certain  sphere,'  '  each  in  his  own  sphere,* 
or,  'the  sphere  of  action  ;'  without  applying  a  strict  geometrical  sense 
to  the  word.  For  the  Egyptian  ^^_^^  S  was  a  hollow  cylinder  like 
a  round  tower,  a  chimney,  or -a  deep  well  rather  than  a  sphere. 

With  the  explanation  I  have  just  given,  I  prefer  Boimds  as  a 
more  expressive  translation.  The  word  appears  in  the  dual  form 
on  account  of  the  presence  of  the  god. 

The  name  was  given  to  the  fabulous  Source  of  the 

Nile,  supposed  to  be  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Elephantine.  The 
inscription  of  Seti  I  at  Redesieh  {Denkm.,  Ill,  140B)  compares 
the   abundance   of    water   at    the    King's   cistern   to   that   of  the 

/I   ^\\n  nfk  o 


u  ^  ?   H^^      "the  cavern  of  the   Double  Well  of 

aXQ<r:=>00  I  J  Jf  111 

Elephantine."  ..c^^^^^^ 

In  the  later  orthography  the  word  is  written  1^^^  or  Z**^ 

It  has  been  supposed  that  the  Coptic  KOpI  cataracts  might  be 
connected  with  the  old  Egyptian  name.  But  the  history  of  the 
Coptic  word  is  not  sufficiently  known  to  justify  any  inferences. 

3.  The  Stro?2g  one,  'l^^^^,  the  name  of  Osiris.     See  footnote 
to  Chapter  126,  Note  4. 


Invocation  of  Osiris, 

Hail  to  thee,  Osiris  Unneferu,  son  of  Nut  and  eldest  son  of 
Seb  :  the  Great  One  who  proceedeth  from  Nut  ;  the  king  in 
Taa-urit ;  (i)  the  Prince  in  Amenta;  the  Lord  of  Abydos  ;  the 
Lord  of  Forces ;  the  most  Mighty  ;  the  Lord  of  the  Atef  crown 
in  Suten-hunen,  the  Lord  of  Power  in  Taa-urit,  (2)  the  Lord  of 
the  Mansion  :  most  Powerful  in  Tattu  :  Lord  of  Administration,  (3) 
and  of  many  festivals  in  Tattu. 

Horus  exalteth  liis  father  Osiris  in  every  place ;  associating  Isis 
the  Great  with  her  sister  Nephthys. 

Thoih  s^jeaketh  to  [Horus]  with  the  potent  utterances  (4)  which 

'252  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD, 

have  in  himself  their  origin  and  proceed  from  his  mouth,  and  which 
strengthen  the  heart  of  Horus  beyond  all  gods. 

Rise  up  Horus,  son  of  Isis,  and  restore  thy  father 
Osiris ! 

Ha,  Osiris  !  I  am  come  to  thee  ;  I  am  Horus  and  I  restore 
thee  unto  life  upon  this  day,  with  the  funereal  offerings  and  all  good 
things  for  Osiris. 

Rise  up,  then,  Osiris  :  I  have  stricken  down  for  thee  thine 
enemies,  I  have  delivered  thee  from  them. 

I  am  Horus  on  this  fair  day,  at  the  beautiful  coming  forth  (5) 
of  thy  Powers  :  who  lifteth  thee  up  with  himself  on  this  fair  day  as 
thine  associate  god.  (6) 

Ha,  Osiris  !  thou  hast  come  and  with  thee  thy  Ka,  which  uniteth 
with  thee  in  thy  name  of  Ka-hotep.  (7) 

He  glorifieth  thee  in  thy  name  of  the  Glorified  :  he  invoketh  thee 
in  thy  name  of  Hekau  :  he  openeth  for  thee  the  paths  in  thy  name 
of  Ap-uat.  (8) 

Ha,  Osiris  !  I  am  come  to  thee  that  I  may  set  thine  adversaries 
beneath  thee  in  every  place,  and  that  thou  mayest  be  triumphant  in 
presence  of  all  the  gods  who  are  around  thee. 

Ha,  Osiris  !  thou  hast  received  thy  sceptre,  thy  pedestal  and  the 
flight  of  stairs  beneath  thee.  (9) 

Regulate  thou  the  festivals  of  the  gods,  and  do  thou  regulate  the 
oblations  to  those  who  reside  in  their  mansions. 

Grant  thou  thy  greatness  to  the  gods  whom  thou  hast  made, 
great  god,  and  make  thine  appearance  with  them  as  their  Ensign.  (10) 

Take  thou  precedence  (11)  over  all  the  gods  and  listen  to  the 
Voice  of  Maat  on  this  day. 

Said  over  t/te  oblations  made  to  the  Strong  One  on  the  Festival 
of  Uaka,  (12) 


The  ancient  papyri  do  not  contain  this  chapter.  The  translation 
follows  the  text  of  the  Turin  Todtenbuck,  occasionally  corrected  by 
other  papyri  of  the  later  period.  There  is  nothing  specially  in- 
teresting in  the  chapter :  the  first  portion  of  it  is  an  invocation  to 
Osiris  under  certain  names,  as  in  many  other  hymns*  to  the  god 

*  Cf.  the  Hymn  to  Osiris  in  the  Bibl.  Nationale,  the  Hymn  of  Tunrei  (Marietta, 
Mou.  div.,  pi.  57),  and  an  inscription  copied  hy  Mariette  from  the  temp'e  of  Ptah 
at  Memphis  [Alon.  div.,  pi.  28  e).     There  are  plenty  others  of  the  same  kind. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  253 

from  the  time  of  the  Xllth  dynasty  down  to  the  latest  times :  the 
latter  portion  consists  of  evocations  addressed  by  Horus  to  his 
father.  Their  prototype  is  to  be  found  in  formulas  frequent  in  the 
Pyramid  Texts.  These  were  much  admired  and  imitated  in  the 
Saitic  and  the  later  periods. 

1.  King  in   Tau-urit    I  ^  2_J       ^^  <^  •      Osiris  is  also 
called  [  1 1](  jI  ^  ^^  ^  l"^  ^t  Philae.     And  in  the  second  line  of 

this  chapter  he  is  called  ^^37  ()  Jfj  in  Tau-urit  which,  if  not  identical 

with  Abydos,  must  have  been  a  part  of  that  town  or  in  its  immediate 

2.  ^^'  8  ^  ^=  Iy2      ^^  g  is  equivalent  to  ^  -  -  ^  ,  the 
title  of  Osiris  in  Pepi  /,    line  8.      And  the  Power  is  defined  as 

"thy  Power  which  is  upon  the 


X.  Administration    r-^-^  ;     literally    things.      See    note    3    on 

Chapter  18. 

4.  Utterances  %^®'~^-     See  note  2  on  Chapter  i,  and  compare 

Merenrd,  103,  and  FeJ>i  /I,  13. 

5.  Coming  forth  Q^^.  Cf.  cy^-I,  iwcneWcn',  <h'oro\,),  and  the 
meanings  e^oBei'a  and  Lo/m)  which,  on  the  tablet  of  Canopus,  corres- 
pond to  the  Egyptian    ^n-     The  first  hour  after  sunrise  was  called 

I  I  ® :  so  that  "  the  beautiful  Coming  forth  of  thy  Powers  "  may 
"vl  0  I  I 
be  a  mere  technical  periphrasis  for  daybreak. 

Besides  the  ^  %>  "^^^  Vi>  of  Ra  in  Chapter  1 7,  it  is  well  to 
remember  such  proper  names  as      ^    ^    •  ,  p>nrtq   ^    3,  T 

III'  L_J  I    ^^_^ 

:^  Q  ^^  )  with  several  others. 
6.   Thine  associate  god,  or  one  of  those  about  thee,    \  \ 

O    ff^  I  I  I 

See  Note  2  on  Chapter  18,     M.  Chabas  in  his  commentary  upon 
the  fine  hymn  translated  by  him  in  the  Rev.  Arch.,  1857,  considers 

2   L 

254  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

it  "  line  circonstance  bizarre  "  that  Osiris  is  several  times  included 
among  his  '  Djadjou.^  The  bizarrerie  is  easily  explained  by  parallel 
expressions  known  to  every  Greek  scholar,  ol  uf.i(f)l  YletaiffrpuTov  in 
Herodotus  means  Pisistratus  with  his  troops,  and  in  Thucydides, 
ol  Trepi  Qpa(Tv/3ov\oi'  means  Thrasyhulus  with  his  soldiers.  In  the 
Iliad  (3,  146)  ol  «/(0t  Wpiafiov  is  explained  by  the  Scholiast  as 
meaning  Priam  Inmself :  tovt"  iaTtv.,  o  Ylpiafio-}. 

7.  This  passage  as  it  stands  is  the  alteration  of  one  of  the 
Pyramid  Texts  (Teta,  284;  Pepi  I,  54):  "  Horus  hath  brought  to 
pass  that  his  Ka  [?  image]  which  is  in  thee  should  unite  with  thee  in 
thy  name  of  Ka-hotep." 

8.  This  whole  passage  is  also  taken  from  tlie  Pyramid  Texts. 
Its  chief  value  in  this  place  is  in  evidence  of  a  truth  not  yet 
generally  acknowledged  by  Egyptologists,  that  Ap-uat  (or  as  written 
in  the  Pyramid  Texts,  Up-uat)  is  really  Osiris.  The  proofs  are 
numerous  and  overwhelming. 

I  produced  evidence  of  this  identity  in  the  P.S.B.A.  of  June  i, 
1886,  from  an  obelisk  of  the  Xllth  dynasty  now  at  Alnwick  Castle, 
and  in  1891  Brugsch  published  in  his  Thesmirus  (p.  1420)  a  tablet, 
now  in  the  Louvre,  of  the  same  period  as  the  obelisk,  which  also 
treats  Ap-uat  as  one  of  the  names  of  Osiris.  But  the  earliest  as  well 
as  the  most  instructive  evidence  is  that  of  the  Pyramid  Texts.  The 
later  form  of  it  is  thus  given  on  the  coffin  of  Nes-Shu-Tefnut  at 
Vienna  (see  Bergman,  Pecueil,  VI,  p.  165):  "Horus  openeth  for 
thee  thy  Two  Eyes  that  thou  mayest  see  with  them  in  thy  name  of 

But  the  Pyramids  of  Teta  (1.  281)  and  Pepi  (1.  131)  say,  "Horus 
openeth  for  thee  thine  Eye  that  thou  mayest  see  with  it  in  its  name 
Ap-uat."  Each  of  the  Eyes  of  Osiris  is  Ap-uat,  one  of  them  is  the 
Southern  and  the  other  is  the  Northern  Jackal.  These  two  facing 
each  other  fcrm  part  of  the  symbolism  explained  in  Note  2  upon 
Chapter  125. 

The  figure  of  the  Jackal  is  wholly  insufficient  as  an  argument 
that  Ap-uat  is  identical  with  Anubis.  Much  better  evidence  is  found 
in  the  fact  that  the  name  of  Anubis  is  sometimes  written  over  the 
figure.*  But  the  true  explanation  of  this  is,  what  might  have  seemed 
incredible  to  some  of  our  older  scholars,  that  Anubis  is  itself  only 
one  of  the  names  of  Osiris. 

*  See  Mariette,  Mon.  div  ,  pi.  61,  where  each  of  the  jackals  is  surmounted 
with  the  Eye  and  bears  the  name  Anpu. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  25 

The  Pyramids  of  Pepi  I  (line  474  and  following)  and  Pepi  II 
(1.  1262  and  following)  give  imaginary  etymologies  of  certain  names 
of  Osiris  which  are  repeated  in  the  inscriptions  of  the  tomb  of 
Horhotep,  published  by  M.  Maspero  {Aliss.  Arch.,  I,  260).     One  of 

these  names  is  ^^r-::^  ^(tf  '  which  is  said  to  be  derived  from  v t , 

J)=3,  -^1   AnJ)u,  which 

is  derived  from  v\  !      The  true  meaning  of  (I  V  ^^  ^^''■ 

jackal,  but  7tihelp  ;  the  fierce  young  of  an  animal ;  not  only  of  jackals 

or  lions  but  of  men,  kings  or  gods,  (J  SI  •     Thus  Orestes  speaks 

(Eur.,  Orest.,  i)  of  gkv^ivov  uvonlov  TTttT/joV,  and  the  Chorus  of  another 
play  talks  of  the  reception  of  yhv  *Ax''A-Xe(oi/  aicvfivov  [Atidr.,  1170). 
And  Shakespeare  speaks  of  "the  young  whelp  of  Talbot's  raging 

9.  Pedestal,  L  ^v  >.  y.  ■ ;  the  statid  upon  which  the  images  or 
emblems  of  the  god  were  carried  in  procession.  The  \  |  is  very 
frequently  supported  by  it ;   ^'-j  ^ . 

Flight  of  stairs,  ^  .      See  Note  2  on  Chapter  22. 

10.  Ensign,  i.e.,  ins/_i::nis,  one  who  bears  the  distinguishing  mark 

or  sign  of  investiture  Q    \\  ^  .*    See  Note  4  on  Chapter  78. 

Osiris  is  here  presented  as  the  Sahu  of  the  gods  whom  he  has 
called  into  existence.     The  Hymn  of  the  Bibliotheque   Nationale 

(line  7)  calls  him  ^^  '^^  j'  ||  " 

The  importance  of  this  sign  is  manifest  in  the  Pyramid  Text  (A/erenrd,  634), 

HR 0 

"^Vmaketh  his  appearance  as  King,  he  hath  possession  of  his     I  X      O      and  of 
his  throne.  '      [Since  the  above  was  in  print  M.  Naville  has  published  an  inscrip- 
tion of  Queen  Hatshepsit,  in  which  the  remarkable  expression    1    ?     J\^    'V 
occurs  three  times.] 

The  word   written       '  |  "~Q^'    ' D  |  "TT,    but   also      '    y  |  MT 

or      I    Yr^  Q  S   (^"'-'  ^^^°  without  any  vowel,  though     ^v     is   understood),    has 

determinatives  in  Pe/ti  I,  635,  and  Merenrd,  509,  which  imply  the  sense  oi girdle, 
zone.     Hence  the  sense  of  neighbourhood,  "  the  men  or  places  round  about  one." 

2   L   2 

1  J  -^J5^  .      I  take  the  word  in  the  same 

256  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Chnumhotep  at  Benihassan  says  of  the  king,  ^^  v^ 

/wwsA^OA^  fi  J    "  he  distinguished  me  above  all  his  nobles^' 

that  is  the  order  of  men  bearing  the  sign  of  investiture. 

1 1.  Take  precedence, 

sense  as  where  it  occurs  (without  the  determinative  of  sound)  in 
Denkm.,  Ill,  29a;   in  parallelism  with  '^^      . 

1 2.  Uaka,   ^\  S  ^^\      ^    ;   in  the  older  texts  X  ]  S  f    1  (as 

in  Pepi  I,  98) ;  one  of  the  oldest  festivals  of  the  Egyptian  calendar, 
kept  on  the  17th  and  18th  of  the  month  Thoth. 

The  Pyramid  Text  says  "Behold,  he  cometh  to  thee  as  Orion 

(1    Q   ^    )'   bs^o^^    Osiris    cometh   as   Orion    the  Lord  of  Wiite 

I  ^^Z^  U  ,  vinosus,  full  of  wine),  who  cometh  on  the  fair  festival 

of  Uakar 

Uaka,  "v\S'v\3^3:  or  -C]^  ^i\T=^   is  also   one  of  the 
names  given  to  the  Nile. 

is  a  repetition  of  Chapter  C. 


A  Book  ivherehy  the  Soul  is  ?>iade  to  lire  for  ei-er,  on  the  day  of 
entering  into  the  Bark  of  Rd,  and  to  pass  the  She?iizi  of  the  Tuat. 
Made  on  the  Birthday  of  Osiris,  (i) 

Opened  be  the  gates  of  Heaven  ;  opened  be  the  gates  of  Earth  ; 
opened  be  the  gates  of  the  East ;  opened  be  the  gatf  s  of  the  West ; 
opened  be  the  gates  of  the  Southern  and  of  the  Northern  sanctuaries. 

Opened  be  the  gates  and  thrown  wide  the  portals  as  Ra  riseth 

*  Does  1331  represent  what  we  call  the  Belt  of  Orion  with  its  three  bright  stars.' 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  257 

up  from  the  Mount  of  Glory ;  opened  to  him  be  the  doors  of  the 
Sektit  boat,  thrown  open  to  him  be  the  portals  of  the  Maatit,  as  he 
scenteth  Shu  and  setteth  in  motion  Tefnut,  and  those  follow  who 
are  in  the  train  of  the  Osiris  N,  who  foUoweth  Ra  and  takeih 
possession  of  his  arms  of  steel.  (2) 

I  am  coffined  in  an  ark  like  Horus,  to  whom  his  cradle  (3)  is 
brought :  and  secret  is  the  place,  hard  by  his  own  shrine,  which  the 
god  openeth  to  whom  he  willeth. 

And  so  it  cometh  that  I  lift  up  Right  to  the  Lord  of  Right,  and 
that  I  make  fast  the  cord  which  windeth  about  the  shrine. 

The  Osiris  iVavoideth  the  raging  storm  :  the  Osiris  JV  is  not  to 
be  kept  away  from  Ra,  not  to  be  repulsed  is  he. 

Let  not  the  Osiris  N  advance  into  the  Valley  of  Darkness :  let 
not  the  Osiris  N  enter  into  the  dungeon  of  the  captives :  let  him 
not  leap  into  the  grip  of  Fate,  let  him  not  fall  among  those  who 
imprison  souls  or  come  forth  among  those  who  would  drag  him 
behind  the  slaughtering  block  of  the  Armed  god.  (4) 

Salutations  to  you,  ye  sejant  gods.  (5) 

The  divine  Sword  (6)  is  concealed  in  the  hands  of  Seb,  at 
daybreak,  for  he  delighteth  in  drawing  to  himself  both  old  and 
young  at  his  own  season. 

And  now  behold  Thoth  in  the  secret  of  his  mysteries.  He 
maketh  purifications  and  endless  reckonings ;  piercing  the  steel 
firmament  and  dissipating  the  storms  around  him. 

And  so  it  cometh  that  the  Osiris  N  hath  reached  every  station 
of  his. 

He  hath  fashioned  his  staff,  and  received  the  oblations  of  Ra, 
the  swift  of  speed  and  beautiful  in  his  rising  and  almighty  through 
what  he  hath  done. 

He  putteih  an  end  to  his  pain  and  suffering,  and  the  Osiris  N 
putteth  an  end  to  his  own  pain  ;  yea,  he  gladdeneih  the  counten- 
ance of  Thoth  by  the  worship  of  Ra  and  Osiris. 

The  Osiris  N  entereth  the  Mount  of  Glory  of  Ra,  who  hath 
made  his  Bark  and  saileth  prosperously,  lightening  up  the  face  or 
Thoth,  that  he  may  listen  to  Ra  and  beat  down  the  obstacles  in  his 
way,  and  put  an  end  to  his  adversaries. 

Let  not  the  Osiris  N  be  shipwrecked  on  the  great  voyage  hy 
him  whose  face  is  in  his  own  lap :  (7)  for  the  name  of  Ra  is  upon 
the  Osiris,  and  his  token  of  honour  is  on  his  mouth,  which  speaketh 
to  him  w^ho  listeneth  to  the  words  of  the  Osiris  N, 

258  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Glory  to  thee,  O  Ra,  Lord  of  the  Mount  of  Glory.  Hail  to 
thee,  who  purifiest  the  generations  yet  unborn  and  to  whom  this 
great  quarter  of  heaven  oflfereth  homage. 

The  steering  keepeth  clear  from  misadventure. 

Lo,  here  is  Osiris  who  proclaimeth  Right,  because  of  the  marvel 
in  the  West,  for  he  hath  put  an  end  to  the  rage  of  Apepi,  for  he  is 
himself  the  god  in  Lion  form  among  the  associate  gods  and  pro- 
tecteth  Ra  against  Apepi  daily,  that  he  may  not  approach  him, 
and  he  keepeth  watch  upon  him.  Osiris  seizeth  the  scrolls  and 
receiveth  the  offerings. 

And  Thoth  supplieth  the  Osiris  N  with  that  which  he  shall 
perform  for  him.  It  is  granted  that  the  Osiris  shall  carry  Maat  at 
the  head  of  the  great  Bark,  and  hold  up  Maat  among  the  associate 
gods,  and  that  Osiris  gain  endless  triumphs. 

The  Sheniu  marshal  the  Osiris  N,  and  they  procure  for  the 
Osiris  a  voyage  amid  acclamations. 

The  Satellites  of  Ra  make  their  round,  in  the  train  of  the 
exaltation  of  Ma5t,  who  followeth  her  Lord.  And  glory  is  given  to 
the  Inviolate  one. 

The  Osiris  receiveth  the  Amsu-staff  (8)  wherewith  he  goeth 
round  Heaven. 

The  unborn  generations  of  men  give  him  glory,  as  to  one  who 
standeth  without  ever  resting.  Ra  exalteth  him  by  this,  that  he 
alloweth  the  Osiris  to  disperse  the  cloud  and  behold  his  glories.  He 
maketh  firm  his  rudders  that  the  Bark  may  go  round  in  Heaven  and 
that  he  may  make  his  appearance  in  Antu.  Thoth  is  in  the  centre 
of  his  eye,  sejant  in  the  great  Bark  of  Chepera.  The  Osiris 
becometh  one  whose  words  come  to  pass.  He  it  is  who  passeth 
over  Heaven  unto  the  West,  and  the  Chabasu  gods  of  Light 
rise  up  to  him  with  acclamation.  They  receive  the  cable  of  Ra 
from  his  rowers,  and  Ra  goeth  on  his  round  and  seeth  the  Osiris 
who  issueth  his  decrees ;  (9)  the  Osiris  N,  the  Victorious ;  in  peace  ! 
in  peace  ! 

Not  to  be  repelled  is  he ;  not  to  be  caught  by  the  fire  of  thy  fate. 
Let  not  the  tempest  of  thy  mouth  come  forth  against  him. 

Let  not  the  Osiris  iV  advance  upon  the  paths  of  misfortune  :  let 
him  avoid  disasters,  let  them  not  attain  him. 

The  Osiris  N  enters  into  the  Bark  of  Ra,  he  succeedeth  to  thy 
throne ;  he  receiveth  thine  insignia. 

The  Osiris  N  inaugurateth  the  paths  of  Ra  and  prayeth  that  he 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  259 

may  drive  off  the  Lock  which  cometh  out  of  the  flame  against  thy 
Bark  out  of  the  great  Stream. 

But  the  Osiris  N  knoweth  it,  and  it  attaineth  not  thy  Bark.  For 
the  Osiris  N  is  within  it ;  the  Osiris  N  who  maketh  the  divine 

Said  over  a  Bark  of  Rd.  coloured  in  pure  green,  (10)  And  thou 
sh alt  place  a  picture  of  the  deceased  at  the  prow  thereof.  And  make  a 
Sektit  boat  on  the  right  side  of  it  and  an  Aiit  boat  on  the  left  side 
of  it.  (11) 


1.  This  title  is  given  to  the  Chapter  in  the  later  recensions,  and 
nearly  resembles  that  given  in  the  Berlin  papyrus  of  Nechtu-amen 
(of  the  XlXth  dynasty).  That  given  in  another  papyrus  of  the  older 
period  is  quite  different, — "  Chapter  -whereby  the  Chu  is  fortified.'^ 
Instead  of  the  Sheniu  of  the  Tieat,  Ba  (the  papyrus  of  Nechtuamen) 

has  the  Sheniu  of  Fire  0  0  [p|  rVf  '  "  1 '  ^  reading  sug- 

gested  by  the     -^    [,  [  \\the  circuit  of  fire,  which  occurs 

yw\AAA    I  1  \ly     /^    (~\    »y 

in  the  title  of  another  chapter.  The  Sheniu  of  this  chapter  are 
living  personages  who  attend  upon  the  Osiris  and  greet  him  with 
their  acclamations.  The  word  is  often  translated  'princes,'  'oflficers, 
but  it  signifies  those  ivho  are  in  the  circle  of  a  king  or  god,  hence 
'  ministrants,'  'courtiers,'  as  in  the  rubric  of  Chapter  CXXV. 

The  words  made  on  tlie  Birth-day  of  Osiris  are  only  found  in  the 
later  texts,  but  the  old  papyrus  Lc,  which  has  another  title,  has  the 

words  f  1  n  ^  ^X  ^  ■  ^^^  important  word  ^  %  ^  which  is 
here  carelessly  omitted  is  supplied  by  the  rubric.  For  the  Birth-day 
of  Osiris,  was  the  first  of  the  five  supplementary  days,  added  to  the 
year  of  360  days.  On  this  day  the  chapter  was  to  be  recited  and 
the  usual  oblations  offered  (see  Note  11),     So  we  must  understand 

a^    ,  *  which  is  to  be  made  or  done,' 

2.  Anns  of  steel,       [\  ^\  I  . 

3.  Cradle  or  Nest,  ~"^  S ;  the  'Nest  of  Reeds'  ^  #'  so 
often  represented  in  pictures  of  the  later  periods, 

4.  The   Armed  god,   A  J   Septu,  called  0  A     °     ^  A  R 



{Unas  282)  and    I  A  c— =-^  ^  \  sepfu  dbu,  'armed  with  horns/  that 

is,  rays  of  light.  In  pictures  he  is  represented  as  a  hawk  armed  with 
bow  and  arrows,  and  there  is  one  picture  in  which  he  is  in  the  form 
of  Bes,  destroyer  of  the  Menti. 

5.  Sejant  gods  ^^  [  *?  Wl  ' •      ^  ^™  compelled  for  want  of  a 

better  word  to  use  the  heraldic  term  which  most  nearly  expresses  the 
posture  of  gods  sitting  on  the  ground  with  their  knees  raised  up 
acfainst  their  breasts.  The  posture  is  a  very  common  one  in 
Egyptian   pictures.      The   second    Sallier    Papyrus   represents   an 

•  •      Ik"^    ^  (?  (?   "S  n 

unfortunate  artisan  as  sittmg,  ^^:/  J  \\  ^  _i  l 

with  his  two  knees  at  the  pit  of  his  stomach." 
r  o  ^  is  the  limb  between  the  knee  and  the  pelvis. 



6.   This  divine  Szvord 

Unseen  fate  brings  down  the 

old  and  the  young  alike  to  the  Grave  ever  ready  to  receive  them. 
Seb,  the  (fyvai^oo^  aJa,  is  here,  as  elsewhere,  spoken  of  in  reference 
to  his  icaToxrj  of  the  dead  in  the  Tuat,  as  in  Unas  210. 

7.    Whose  face  is  in  his  own   lap, 

o  W^ 



Cf.  Note  5. 

8.  The  Atnsti  staff.     The  name   of  it   is   phonetically   written 

^K\    ^\      1  Y     ii^  the  later  texts.     It  is  the  emblem  both  of  Osiris 

and  of  Horus,  and  is  constantly  represented  along  with  bows,  arrows, 
and  other  weapons,  in  the  oldest  coffins,  as  belonging  to  the 
celestial  armoury  of  the  deceased  person. 

9.  Who  issiietk  his  decrees.      See  INIaspero,   Bibl.  Egyptol.  II., 

p.  3  (note)  and  39. 

<^     o  . 

10.  Green.     The  Egyptian  ^-^^^^^      is  probably  nearer  in  meaning 

to  the  Greek  ■xkwpo'i,  'pale  green,  yellowish-green.' 

11.  The  Rubric  ends  here  in  Pb.  Zr.  adds,  They  shall  offer 
bread,  beer,  and  all  good  things  on  the  Birth-day  of  Osiris.  A7id  if 
these  rites  are  performed  for  him,  his  soul  luill  rise  iij>  and  live  for 
ever ;  he  will  not  ever  die  a  s(C07id  time  in  the  divine  Nether  world" 

The  later  texts  add  the  information  that  the  text  was  discovered 
in  the  great  hall  of  the  palace  in  the  time  of  king  Septa,  and  that  it 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  26 1 

was  found  in  a  pit  or  chamber  in  the  rock,  '^    .     It  wa*; 

made  by  Horus  for  his  father  Osiris  Unneferu.  Septa  is  the  fifth 
royal  name  on  the  great  tablet  of  Abydos. 

chaptp:r  cxxxi. 

Chapter  whereby  one proceedeth  into  Heaven  by  the  side  cf  Rd.  (i) 

Oh  Ra  (2)  who  art  shining  this  night :  if  there  be  any  one  among 
thy  followers,  let  him  present  himself  living  as  a  follower  of  Thoth, 
who  causeth  Horus  to  come  forth  this  night. 

The  heart  of  the  Osiris  is  glad,  because  he  is  one  at  the  head  of 

His  adversaries  are  brought  to  a  stop  by  the  warriors  (3)  of  the 
Osiris  N,  who  is  a  follower  of  Ra,  and  hath  taken  his  arms  of  steel. 

He  Cometh  to  thee,  his  father  Ra,  he  followeth  Shu  and  calleth 
for  the  Crown.  He  putteth  on  Hu  (4)  and  is  arrayed  with  the 
Lock  which  is  on  the  path  of  Ra  and  is  his  glory. 

And  he  aniveth  at  the  Aged  one,  at  the  confines  of  the  Mount 
of  Glory,  and  the  crown  awaiteth  him. 

The  Osiris  iVraiseth  it  up. 

Thy  Soul  is  with  thee,  and  strong  is  thy  Soul  through  the  terror 
and  the  might  which  belong  to  thee,  Oh  Osiris  N,  who  utterest  the 
decrees  which  Ra  hath  spoken  in  Heaven. 

Hail  to  thee,  great  god  in  the  East  of  Heaven,  who  enterest  into 
the  Bark  of  Ra  in  the  form  of  the  Divine  Hawk  and  executest  the 
decrees  which  have  been  uttered  ;  thou  who  strikest  with  thy  sceptre 
from  thy  Bark. 

The  Osiris  iV^entereth  into  thy  Bark  and  saileth  peacefully  to  the 
Fair  West ;  and  Tniu  saith  to  him  :  Art  thou  coming  in? 

Mehenit  is  millions  upon  millions  in  length  from  Amur  to 
Ta-ur  (5)  an  endless  river  wherein  the  gods  move. 

(6) whose  path  is  in  the  fire ;  and  they  travel  in 

the  fire  who  come  behind  him. 


I.  None  of  the  oldest  papyri  yet  known  contain  this  chapter. 
This  of  itself  is  not  an  argument  against  its  antiquity,  and  there  is 

2  M 

262  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

really  no  reason  for  supposing  it  to  be  less  ancient  than  the  chapter 
which  precedes  it.  The  latter  portion  of  the  text  is,  however,  very 
corrupt  and  we  have  unfortunately  no  means  as  yet  of  correcting  it. 

2.  O  Ha.  The  name  of  the  god  is  sometimes  omitted  in  MSS. 
The  context,  however,  requires  its  presence.  It  may  nevertheless 
be  asked :  how  can  the  Sun-god  be  said  to  be  shining  in  the  night  ? 

The  question  might  as  pertinently  be  asked :  how  can  Horus  (in 
the  very  same  line)  be  said  to  come  forth  in  the  night  ?  The  answer 
to  both  these  questions  is  ihat  the  Sun,  whether  as  Ra  or  as  Horus 
or  Osiris,  shines  in  the  night  through  the  agency  of  Thoth,  the  Moon. 
For  further  information  see  Notes  to  next  chapter. 

3.  Warriors     ^    jjl    I .     I  take  this  group  as  =  *-•  1    or  ^  iM  1  . 

— *—  11   I  or  II  I     !^    I 

But  a  papyrus  gives  the  variant     -^    (,  [   "^  i  • 

4.  He  putteth  on  Hu.  This  is  certainly  obscure ;  but  it  is  not 
the  less  in  conformity  with  the  doctrine  of  the  Pyramid  texts.  The 
deceased  {Pepi  I.  432,  Merira  618)  is  borne  to  a  region  where  he  is 
fed  from  night  till  daybreak,  and  then  seizes  upon  the  god  Hu, 

=="=s^  Q  Q  V^  X   \\  jq>-.     And  according  to  other  texts  {Unas,  446, 

Teta,  250)  the  deceased  seizes  (^5t^)  upon  Hu,  and  after  Sau  has 
been  fastened  to  his  feet  enters  the  bark  and  seizes  upon  i^jf^)  the 
Mount  of  Glory. 

5.  Mehenit  ^'^^  \  I  A.  ,  or  in  the  masculine  form         ^  (/-  , 

is  the  name  of  the  mythological  serpent  which  personifies  the  sub- 
terranean path  from  West  to  East  of  the  Sun's  nightly  course.  In 
the  Book  of  Hades  {e.g.  on  the  Sarcophagus  of  Seti,  passim)  it  is 
represented  as  extending  over  the  back,  top  and  front  of  the  shrine 
in  which  the  Sun-god  is  borne  in  his  Bark.  The  many  folds  of  the 
serpent  are  symbolical  of  the  turnings  and  windings  of  the  river  or 
canal  (  ^  1 )  over  which  the  god  is  conveyed.  This  river  is  here 
described  as  infinite  in  length.     This  is  one  of  the  instances  from 

which  it  is  clear 


like  the  corresponding  Coptic  OTGI, 

has  the  meaning  oi  length.     See  P.S.B.A.,  XVII,  190. 

The  length  '  from  West  to  East '  is  described  as  '  from  Atnur  to 

7fl?/r'    ^v    -Vr-  ^\    ^^^  ®  <zr=>  -^-^  ^^*  © .      Amur   is    known 

from  many  texts  to  signify  the  West  (see  supra,  Chapter  64,  note  13). 

ROOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  263 

The  East  is  known  as  Ta-ur  or  Ta-urit,     The  royal  Ritual  at  Ahydos 
(Mariette,    I.   37)   says    ^=^^c^^f-fl-^cv£^^^:'^    ^    f 

I    U 


"^=5-  i\y\^  .     And  as  one  of  the  values  of  the  sign   )y  ^  is  ta  as  in 

p-j  ■>^  .^  (Louvre,  B.  14),  I  feel  sure  that  we  should  read  Ta-iir  (or 

in  the  feminine  Ta-urit)  rather  than  Nif-ur  or  Nif-urif,  even  in  such 
passages  as  those  quoted  sup?-a  in  Chapter  128,  notes  i  and  2,  which 
have  no  necessary  references  to  earthly  geography. 

6.  There  is  a  corrupt  passage  here,  which  I  have  at  present 
no  means  of  correcting  by  manuscript  authority.  M.  Pierret  thus 
renders  it:  " Le  dieu  qui  partage  les  paroles  y  fait  son  chemin  do 
millions  d'annees,  seigneur  sans  egal,  dont  le  chemin  est  dans  le  feu." 


Chapter  whereby  a  person  is  enabled  to  go  round,  to  visit  his  dwelling 

in  the  Netherworld. 

I  am  the  Lion-god  who  issueth  from  the  Bow,  (i)  and  therefore 
have  I  shot  forth.  (2) 

I  am  the  Eye  of  Horus ;  and  the  Eye  of  Horus  is  opened  at  the 
instant  that  I  reach  the  strand,  coming  with  happy  issue. 

I  advance  and,  lo  !  there  is  no  defect  found  in  me,  and  the 
Balance  is  relieved  of  my  case.  (3) 


I.    The  Bow,  c— =-^,  often  written  wnth  the    determinative  J\,  of 

stretching,  which  is  the  conception  implied  in  this  name  of  the 
instrument.  This  mythological  Bow,  as  1  explained,  Proc.  Soc. 
Bill.  Arch  ,  VI,  131,  is  the  moon's  crescent,  which  during  its  course 
through  the  sky  is  always  turned  towards  the  sun ;  so  that  a  line  at 
right  angles  to  the  chord  of  the  arc  passes  through  the  sun's  centre. 
From  this  "  very  delicate  observation,"  as  Arago  calls  it,  the 
Alexandrian  astronomer  Geminus  infers  that  the  moon  derives 
its  light  from  the  sun.  The  observation  evidently  had  been  made 
in  Egypt  some  thousands  of  years  before  Geminus,  and   explains 

264  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

why  in  several  chapters  the  sun  is  spoken  of  as  shining  in  or  from 
the  moon. 

See  also  Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch.,  XVII,  37,  on  another  form  of 
the  myth. 

2.  I  follow  the  Turin  text  in  omitting  a  word  about  which  the 
earlier  texts  are  not  agreed,  but  which  seems  to  have  originated  in  an 

alternate  reading  for      |^  . 

3.  See  end  of  Chapter  i  and  note.     These  words  are  omitted  in 
Turin  text. 


Book  whereby  the  Deceased  acquireth  Might  ( i )  in  the  Netherworld  in 
presmce  of  the  great  Cycle  of  the  gods.  [^Said  011  the  first  day  of 
the  MontK\.  (2) 

Ra  maketh  his  appearance  at  the  Mount  of  Glory,  with  the 
Cycle  of  gods  about  him  :  the  Strong  one  issueth  from  his  hidden 

The  Twinklers  (3)  fall  away  from  the  Mount  of  Glory  at  the 
East  of  Heaven,  at  the  voice  of  Nut  as  she  buildeth  up  the  paths  of 
Ra,  before  the  Ancient  one  who  goeth  round. 

Be  thou  lift  up,  O  Ra  who  art  in  thine  shrine  ;  breathe  thou  the 
breezes,  inhale  the  north  wind  ....  (4)  on  the  day  when 
thou  discernest  the  Land  of  Maat, 

Thou  dividest  them  that  follow ;  the  Bark  advanceth  and  the 
Ancient  ones  step  onwards  at  thy  voice. 

Reckon  thou  thy  bones,  and  set  thy  limbs,  and  turn  thy  face 
towards  the  beautiful  Amenta. 

For  thou  art  the  golden  Form,  (5)  with  a  couch  of  the  heavenly 
orbs,  with  the  Twinklers  amongst  whom  thou  goest  round,  and  ait 
renewed  daily. 

Acclamation  cometh  from  the  Mount  of  Glory,  and  greeting 
from  the  lines  of  measurement.  (6) 

The  gods  who  are  in  heaven,  they  see  the  Osiris  N,  they  present 
to  him  their  adorations  as  to  Ra. 

He  is  the  Great  one,  who  seeketh  the  Crown  and  reckoneth  up 
that  which  is  needful. 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  265 

He  is  the  One,  who  cometh  forth  this  day  from  the  primeval  womb 
of  them  who  were  before  Ra,  and  his  coming  forth  taketh  place  upon 
earth  and  in  the  Netherworld.     His  coming  forth  is  like  Ra  daily. 

Without  haste,  but  unresting,  is  the  Osiris  N  on  this  Land  of 

Twice  blessed  is  he  that  seeth  with  his  eyes  and  heareth  with 
his  ears. 

Right,  right  is  the  Osiris  N:  and  his  future,  his  future,  (7)  is  in 

His  oars  are  lifted  as  in  the  service  of  Nu. 

The  Osiris  N  hath  not  told  what  he  hath  seen  ;  he  hath  not 
repeated  what  he  hath  heard  in  the  house  of  the  god  who  hideth 
his  face. 

There  are  hailing  and  cries  of  welcome  to  the  Osiris  N,  the 
divine  body  of  Ra,  on  traversing  the  Nu,  and  whilst  the  ka  of  the 
god  is  being  propitiated,  according  to  his  pleasure. 

The  Osiris  JV  is  the  Hawk,  rich  in  variety  of  Forms. 

The  Deceased  acquireth  might  with  Ra,  and  is  enabled  to 
possess  power  among  the  gods,  for  the  gods  are  made  to  regard  him 
as  one  of  themselves,  and  when  the  Dead  ones  see  him  they  fall  upon 
their  faces.    He  is  seen  in  the  Netherworld  even  as  the  beams  of  Ra. 

Said  over  a  Boat  of  fotir  cubits  in  length,  painted  green.  And  let 
a  starry  sky  be  tnade,  clean  and  purified  with  natron  and  incense. 
And  see  thou  make  an  image  of  Rd  upon  a  tablet  of  light  greeti  colour 
at  the  prozv  of  the  Boat.  And  see  thou  make  an  image  of  the  Deceased 
7vhom  thou  lovest,  that  he  may  be  made  strong  in  this  boat,  atid  that 
his  voyage  be  made  in  the  Bark  of  Rd,  and  that  Rd  himself  may  look 
upon  him.  Do  not  do  this  for  any  one  except  for  thine  ozvti  self,  thy 
father  and  thy  son.  And  let  them  be  exceedingly  cautious  for  them- 
selves. The  Deceased  acquireth  might  with  Rd,  afid  made  to  possess 
power  among  the  gods,  who  regard  him  as  one  of  themselves,  and  when 
men  or  the  Dead  see  him  they  fall  upon  their  faces.  He  is  seen  i?i  the 
Nethenvorld  as  the  image  of  Rd.  (8) 


The  earliest  known  text  of  this  chapter  is  that  of  the  Tomb  of 
Amenemhait  at  Thebes  {Ta),  of  the  time  of  Thothmes  HI.  It  is 
almost  as  inaccurate  as  that  of  Nebseni  {Aa),  or  the  Brockelhurst 
Ax.  Nor  is  the  text  of  Ani  of  any  use  towards  clearing  up  any  of 
the  difficulties. 

2   N 

266  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I.  Acquireth  Might.      (1  <rp>  does  not  signify  7i'ise,  nor  has  it 

anything  to  do  with  instruction  or  perfection,  as  supposed  by  other 
translators.  As  an  adjective  it  is  used  to  quaUfy  not  only  animate 
but  inanimate  things,  such  as  an  egg,  beer,  and  incense.     The  well- 

\\     A  ^   \\     A     ® 

known  expressions  <cir>  I.  <:r:>  and  (.  «c=^      exactly  correspond  to 

the  Hebrew  li>^r2  1i^  and  -l^^?3  li^?2-  The  notion  implied,  as  in 
the  Hebrew  "11^^,  is  that  oi  strength. 

(1  <:zr>,  in  the  Prisse  Papyrus,  is  not  a  wise  man,  but  a 


poiverful  one,  a  man  of  ra7ik  or  infinence,  hwa^cvo'i,  cwmo'^. 

This  is  the  meaning  of  the  word  in  such  passages  as  [  ^^^n^ 

^    y  ^^     (Rouge,  Inscr.  hier.,  8o)  (I  '^\j'  \j  ^^     (/nscr.   of 

<d      .J:>    ^  1    <^-__^!>    /VSA.AAA    A 

Una     repeatedly)   (1'^       ^'^^O, p<=r=>^[|^ 

{Pap.  Prisse  17,  i).     These  expressions  are  the  exact  equivalents  of 
the  Greek  Svfd/icuo^  Tmpd  rw  ftaaiXJjt,  Herodot.  7,  5. 

The  might  acquired  by  the  deceased  is  stated  in  the  final  rubric 
and   in   all   the   titles  of  the  chapter  in  the  later  recensions  to  be 

^  "O"  ^.^^  o  ^ ,  with  reference  to  Ra. 

2.   Said  on  the  first  day  of  the  Month.     These  words  first  appear 
on  the  Papyrus  of  Ani 

3.   The  Twinklers.     The  oldest  texts  in  this  place  have 


',  though  the  equivalent  and  corresponding  word  a  little 

M     : 

further  on   is  ^^.     vN^^^^^,    which  is    the  usual    reading 

here  in  the  later  recensions.     The  same  meaning  may  be  made  out 
of  both  groups.     The  stars  are  manifestly  alluded  to,  as  being  made 

to    disappear   when  the  Sun  makes  his  appearance.     "^--^ ,  oi'  in 

reduplicated  form     ^)         |  O ,  is  the  pupil  of  the  eye  ;    I  ^^--^  is 

to  ogle,  far  Focchiata.  ^^    V  ^^  ^'^   ^^^  other    hand 

signifies  the  little  tremblers,  "  tremulo  fulgore  micantes."    The  glance 
of  the  eye  is 

1^  ^  VX  ^-^5-.*     The  stars  are  here  considered 
as  so  many  eyes,  characterised  b)  their  tremulous  motion. 

*  The  Egyptian  word  signifying  tremble  is  written  either  wiih  c:S>  or  with  o. 

BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD.  iCiJ 

4.  The   true   text   is    here   quite  lost.      Some  sense  might  be 

restored,  if  we  miglit  read  A  )  1  "2  ()  instead  of    \a\   \>  y.-     '^  he 

latter  word  is  absolute  nonsense  in  this  place,  whatever  determinative 
it  may  have,  but  the  former  is  the  weil  known  name  of  a  tree  held 
sacred  at  various  places  in  Egypt.  The  whole  passage  then  might 
mean  "  Enjoy  the  north  wind,  and  may  the  Kabasu  trees  of  thine 
abode  refresh  thee." 

5.  The  golden  Form.  The  whole  of  this  passage  will  become 
clear  after  reading  the  final  rubric  and  examining  the  Vignettes  of 
the  chapter. 

6.  Line  of  measurement,     ^  V  X     "     ^''^'"'  explanation  of  this 

will  be  found  in  the  pictures  and  text  of  the  Book  of  Hades.  In 
Bonomi's  Sarcph.,  Plates  VII  and  VIb,  twelve  personages  are  repre- 
sented in  the  act  of  acclamation,  and  twelve  others  carry  the  line 

/I\  <zz=>  V\  1^ ^  V  5  ^  •     ^^^  ^^^  intended  for  the  line  is  stated 

in  the  text.  "  I'he  bearers  of  the  line  are  those  who  settle  the  fields 
of  the  Chu,  0"^^^^""'^^^.  I  ^  ..wwv'^^  1."     They  are  called 

upon  to  take  their  line  and  to  fix  the  ~~^    ( (1  ^^.        9  ,  ceoiO^^I, 

upovpri,  the  arable  land  of  each  allotment.  Ra  expresses  his  .satis- 
faction at  the  measurement,  and  tells  the  gods  and  the  Chu  that 
their  domains  are  theirs,  and  that  he  provides  their  food. 

8.  The  rubric  is  taken  from  Ax. 

Chapter  whereby  the  Deceased  acquireth  might. 

Hail  to  thee  who  art  in  the  midst  of  thine  Ark,  Oh  rising  Sun 
who  risest,  and  declining  (i)  one  who  declinest :  at  whose  will  millions 
spring  forth,  as  he  turneth  his  face  to  the  unborn  generations  of 
men  :    Chepera  in  the  middle  of  his  Bark,  who  overthroweth  Apepi. 

Here  are  the  children  of  Seb  who  overthrow  the  adversaries  of 
Osiris  and  destroy  them  from  the  Bark  of  Ra. 

2   N    2 

268  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Horus  cutteth  off  their  heads  in  heaven  when  in  the  forms  of 
winged  fowl,  their  hinder  parts  on  earth  when  in  the  forms  of  quad- 
rupeds or  [in  the  water]  as  fishes. 

All  fiends,  male  or  female,  the  Osiris  N  destroyeth  them, 
whether  descending  from  heaven  or  coming  forth  upon  the  earth,  or 
issuing  out  of  the  water  or  travelling  along  with  the  Stars. 

Thoth  slaughtereth  them,  the  Son  of  the  Rock,  proceeding  from 
the  place  of  the  Two  Rocks.  (2) 

The  Osiris  IV  is  dumb  and  deaf  (3)  for  the  Strong  one  is  Ra,  the 
puissant  of  stroke,  the  Almighty  one,  who  washeth  in  their  blood 
and  walloweth  in  their  gore. 

The  Osiris  N  destroyeth  them  from  the  Bark  of  his  father  Ra. 

The  Osiris  N  is  Horus  :  his  mother  Isis  bringeth  him  forth,  and 
Nephthys  nurseth  him,  as  they  did  to  Horus,  who  repelleth  the  dark 
ones  of  Sutu  :  who,  when  they  see  the  Crown  fixed  upon  his  brow, 
fall  upon  their  faces. 

Osiris  Unneferu  is  triumphant  over  his  adversaries  in  heaven  and 
on  earth,  and  in  the  cycle  of  each  god  and  goddess. 

Said  over  a  Hawk  in  a  Boat,  7uith  the  White  Crown  npon  its 
head,  atid  the  figure  of  Tnni,  Shu,  Tefnut,  Seb,  Nut,  Osiris,  Isis, 
Sutu,  (4)  Ahphthys,  painted  yellowish  green  on  a  fresh  papyrus  placed 
in  this  Boat,  together  ivith  the  figure  of  the  Deceased,  anointed  with 
the  Heknu  oil.  Let  there  be  offered  to  them  i/icense  burning  and  roast 
fowl.  It  is  the  adoration  of  Ra,  and  his  voyage,  for  it  is  granted  to 
him  to  make  his  appearance  each  day  luith  Ra,  ivhiihersoever  lie 
fourneyeth ;  and  it  is  the  Slaughter  of  the  adversaries  of  Ra ; 
positively  and  ttndeviatingly  for  times  infinite. 


1.  Declining  — h — m.     This  word  frequently  occurs  in  contrast 

with     V    1     fri    ■     ^    understand    the    latter   in    all   such   cases    to 

signify  the  shining  of  the  sun  on  his  rising,  and  the  former  to  signify 
the  shining  of  the  sun  in  his  afternoon  course. 

2.  The  son  of  the  Rock,  proceeding  from  the  place  of  the  T700 
Rocks.     The  only  explanation  I  can  think  of  is  derived  from  the 

identification  (in  chapter  6  2)  of  Thoth  with  the  Nile,  1^^  X     D    Jj. 

BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD.  269 

P>om  this  point  of  view  the  god  is  both  the  son  of  the  Rock  and 
issues  from  the  place  of    the  Double  Rock,  [  1    ■    1 ,  or  of  the 

I  *- -"      o    o 

two  Rocks,  called  in  ihe  time  of  Herodotus  Krojihi  and  Mophi. 
3.  Dumb   and  deaf,  QAl      a   ■      It    i^   strange    that    this 

meaning  of  the  passage  has  so  long  been   misunderstood.      The 

sense  of  the  first  word  has  long  been  recognised,  and  'deaf  is  the 

meaning  rightly   assigned   to    [      ^     in   Birch's  Dictionary.      One 

instance  like  the  following  (from  Unas,  608)  is  sufficient  to  settle 

the  question—  .^JU      ^      ^   >=n:  ^  ^..^   I  T|  ^^    ^    J  ^=:^ , 

"  He  is  not  so  deaf  that  he  should  not  hear  thy  voice." 

That  the  subject  of   these  attributes  is  the   Osiris  is    seen   by 
reference  to  At,  where  instead  of  'the  Osiris 'the  deceased  speaks 

in  the  first    person,  ^  \&   0    ^     \^  ^  "^  ''^"^  dumb,  I  am 


4.  Sutii.     This  divine  name  occurs  in  the  text  of  Amenhait  in 
the  reign  of  Thothmes  HI.     And  I  have  noted  another  instance 

where  the  name  is  written    ^     I  J].     Dr.  Birch  called  the  papyrus 

Miss  Brockelhurst's.     It  cannot  however  be  the  Ax  of  M.  Naville, 
which  does  not  contain  the  chapter. 

The  disappearance  of  the  god's  name  from  all  other  documents 
is  a  fatal  argument  against  their  claims  to  high  antiquity. 


Another  chapter  recited  when  the  Moon  renews  itself  on  the  first 

day  of  the  month. 

Osiris  is  enveloped  in  storm  and  rain  :  he  is  enveloped  :  but 
the  fair  Horus  lendeth  succour  daily,  the  Lord  of  high  attributes 
.     .     .     (1)  he  driveth  off  the  storm  from  the  face  of  the  Osiris  N. 

Behold  him  coming  :  he  is  Ra  on  his  journey  :  he  is  the  four 
gods  who  are  over  the  upper  region. 

The  Osiris  VVarriveth  at  his  own  time  :  and  by  means  of  his 
lines  is  brought  to  the  light  of  day. 

2/0  BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

If  this  chapter  be  kti07c<n  he  hecotnefh  a  Chu  of  Might  in  the 
Nethenc'orld  ;  he  dieth  not  a  second  time,  in  the  Netherworld ;  but  he 
eateth  by  the  side  of  Osiris. 

If  it  be  kno7i>n  upon  earth  he  7i<ill  become  like  Thoth,  so  as  to  be 
worshipped  by  the  living :  he  tvill  not  fall  a  victim  to  a  king's  ivrath  (2) 
or  to  the  fierce  heat  of  Basil,  but  will  be  made  to  advance  to  a  most 
blissful  old  age. 

This  chapter  is  not  found  in  the  papyri  of  the  older  period. 

1.  The  words  vX^^^-  ^^=  ^.v^  ^C\         Offerings  of  (or  to)  the 

Moment  have  the  appearance  of  an  interpolated  rubrical  direction. 
See  next  note. 

2.  A  kinifs  tcrath   \\   ^  I  .     ^^\  "^  in  the  cases  of 

gods  and  men  is  an  impulse  which  cannot  be  stopped,  but  carries 
everything  before  it. 


Chapter  7i'hereby  one  is  conveyed  in  the  Bark  of  Rd. 

Lo  the  Light  (i)  which  riseth  up  in  Cher-aba.  (2) 

He  is  born,  he  of  the  strong  cord,  (3)  his  cable  (4)  is  at  an  end, 
and  his  rudder  (5)  hath  been  taken  in  hand. 

I  poise  the  divine  machinery  (6)  by  which  I  raise  up  the  Bark  to 
the  cord  above  head,  by  means  of  which  I  come  forth  into  Heaven, 
and  am  conveyed  to  Nut. 

I  am  conveyed  by  it  along  with  Ra.  I  am  conveyed  by  it  like 
the  Kaf.  (7) 

I  stop  the  path  at  the  Uarit  of  Nut,  at  the  staircase  where  Seb 
and  Nut  bewail  their  hearts. 

HOOK   OF   TIIK    DEAD.  27 1 


Chapter  whereby  one  is  conveyed  in  the  Great  Bark  0/  Rd  to  pass 
through  the  orbit  of  flame. 

0  bright  flame  which  art  behind  Ra,  and  dividest  his  Crown  ! 
The  Bark  of  Ra  feareth  the  storm. 

Ye*  are  bright  and  ye  are  exalted. 

1  come  daily  with  Sek-hra  (8)  from  his  exalted  station,  so  that  I 
miy  witness  the  process  of  the  Maat  (9)  and  the  lion-forms  (10) 
which  belong  to  them  ....  so  that  I  may  see  them  there. 

We  are  rejoicing:  their  great  ones  are  in  jubilation,  and  their 
smaller  ones  in  bliss. 

I  make  my  way  at  the  prow  of  the  Bark  of  Ra,  which  lifteth  me 
up  like  his  disk. 

I  shine  like  the  Glorious  ones,  whom  he  hath  enriched  with  his 
wealth,  holding  fast  like  a  Lord  of  Maat. 

Here  is  the  Cycle  of  the  gods,  and  the  Kite  of  Osiris. 

Grant  ye  that  his  father,  the  Lord  of  them,  may  judge  in  his 

And  so  I  poise  for  him  the  Balance,  which  is  iSIaat,  and  I  raise 
it  to  Tefnut  that  he  may  live. 

Come,  come,  for  the  father  is  uttering  the  judgment  of  Maat. 

Oh  thou  who  callest  out  at  thine  evening  hours,  grant  that  I  may 
come  and  bring  to  him  the  two  jaws  of  Restau,  and  that  I  may  bring 
to  him  the  books  which  are  in  the  Annu  and  add  up  for  him  his 

And  so  I  have  repulsed  Apepi  and  healed  the  wounds  he  made. 

Let  me  make  my  way  through  the  midst  of  you. 

I  am  the  Great  one  among  the  gods,  coming  in  the  two  Barks 
of  the  Lord  of  Sau,  the  Figure  of  the  great  saluter,  who  hath  made 
the  Flame. 

Let  the  fathers  and  their  Apes  make  way  for  me,  that  I  may 
enter  the  Mount  of  Glory,  and  pass  through  where  the  Great 
ones  are. 

I  see  who  is  there  in  his  Bark,  and  I  pass  through  the  orbit  of 
Flame  which  is  behind  the  Lord  of  the  Side-lock,  over  the  serpents. 

*  Sic. 

272  BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Let  me  pass  :  I  am  the  powerful  one,  the  Lord  of  the  powerful. 

I  am  the  Sahu,  the  Lord  of  Maat,  the  creator  of  every  Dawn,  (i  i) 

Place  me  among  the  followers  of  Ra  :  place  me  as  one  who 
goeth  round  in  the  Garden  of  Peace  of  Ra, 

I  am  a  god  greater  than  thou  art. 

Let  me  be  numbered  in  presence  of  the  Divine  Cycle  when  the 
offerings  are  presented  to  me. 


The  two  chapters  which  are  numbered  by  M.  Naville  as  136A 
and  136B  are  represented  in  the  later  recensions  by  a  single 
chapter,  which  has  been  made  out  of  them.  There  is  very  much 
obscurity  in  the  ancient  texts,  though  the  MSS.  containing  them 
are  numerous,  and  the  more  recent  versions  are  quite  as  difficult 
to  understand.  We  must  be  satisfied  for  the  present  by  a  strict 
literal  and  grammatical  translation,  wherever  this  amount  of  success 
is  attainable.  The  royal  sarcophagus  32  of  the  British  Museum 
gives  the  latest  form  of  136A. 

1.  Light  T         '    v^^"     ^  common  noun  signifying  lamp,  but 

the  determinative  here  shows  that  a  heavenly  body  is  meant.  The 
sun  is  here  spoken  of  exactly  in  the  same  poetical  way  as  when 
Antigone  (879)  speaks  of  16(0.  \a/n7rdco^  le/ioi'  o/u^ui,  or  Virgil  of  the 
Phoeboea  lampas. 

2.  The  later  recension  speaks  of  "  the  Lamp  in  Annu  and  the 
Hammemit  in  Cheraba.  This  reading  is  already  found  in  a  few 
of  the  Theban   texts.      The  royal  sarcophagus   32   of  the   British 

Museum  gives  the    important  variant   /I\  Y  ®  ^     ^    Q-^ 

whence  it  follows  that  Q^  is  phonetically  —  Y-     The  latter  sign  has 

only  two  known  values   , 0  v  - -^  '^h'^^-:  -'I'ld  ^  '^^"■^-    That 

the  latter  is  the  true  equivalent  of  Lf^-^  is  certain,  in  consequence 
of  the  complementary  vowels  ^^,  ,  which  commonly  accompany 
that  sign,  in  the  word  signifying  battle,  or  in  the  name  of 

BOOK   OF   TIIK    DEAD.  273 

a  place.     It  is  impossible  that o  Y  d  should  be  the   right 

reading,  and  no  one  has  a  right  to  convert   ^   ''""to  a  simple   Q . 

The  well  known  word   R  ^,    "strike,"  takes   the  prothetic(l, 

and  is  found  under  the  form  [  9  Qy^  ,  in  the  name  of  one  of  the 
hours  of  the  night.*  No  fresh  information  is  derived  from  the 
discovery  by  M.  Daressy  of  the  same  word  under  the  form  (1  8  o, 

that  is   (.  ft  i=5,  as  it  should  be  corrected  if  cited.     To  strike  and 

to  fight  are  different  words,  though  they  may  often  be  used  synono- 
mously,  and  admit  of  being  substituted  one  for  the  other.f 

3.  He  of  the  strong  cord,     |T-   This  is  grammatically  the  subject 

of  the  verb  is  born,  and  I  consider  it  as  a  compound  expression  in 
which  the  adjective   precedes   the   substantive,  as  in  longimanus. 

I  understand  T  as  =  1^^^  (^^^  Zeitsch.,  j868,  p.  70,  and  1870, 

70  press  the  identity  of    Q-/^    and  [j  ^  Q^    in  the  name  of  this  hou 

r  IS 

to  forget  that  its  variants  would  equally  prove  thai    V  iS^  =:=    [r\         '=^ 

t  See  F.S.B.A.  IX,  p.  313,  and  two  previous  articles  of  mine  there  referred  to. 
The  corrections  I  have  to  make  are  the  following  : — I  wrongly  assumed  that  i\\e/ish 

which  in  hieratic  papyri  crosses  the  foot  of  the  sign   j  in  the  variants  of   fW\ 
was  the  same  fish  as  we  find  in  the  group  I   '^^  T  ^^^  <zz^ , 

The  fishes  are  different.  On  referring  to  M.  Naville's  Festival  Hall  of  Osorkon  II, 
pi.    18,  pictures   will  be  found  of  the    ^  <0<    and  the    Q^  <g<.       The 

first  of  these  is  clearly  the  fish  in  .^^^  j  >   heui-reii,  and  the  corresponding  sign 

in  the  variant  is  to  be  read  ^ ,  hem,  in  harmony  with  the  other  evidence 
produced  by  W.  Max  Miiller  {Recueil,  vol.  IX).  The  picture  of  it  does  net 
enable  one  to  determine  its  species.  The  pictures  at  Bubastis  of  the  {\^\  ^^5=4 
seem  to  indicate  the  Synodontis,  but  a  picture  found  by  Petrie  (Aledum,  pi.  12) 
shows  an  immense  fish  which  has  been  identified  with  the  Latus  or  Perca 
Nilotica.  This  being  of  the  Acanthopterygian  family  is  of  course  a  very 
formidable  Tffl:r;-/(7r,  like  our  own  small  perch,  which,  as  Mr.  Ward  says,  "does 
not  yield  its  life  without  endangering  the  person  of  its  captor,  for  the  formidable 
rows  of  spinous  rays  belonging  to  the  first  dorsal  fin  have  wounded  the  hands  of 
many  an  incautious  angler." 

2    O 

274  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

p.  154,  155).     In  the  later  recessions  (e.g.,  Todt.  136,  and  B.M.  32) 
it  is  omitted  in  this  place,  but  not  in  the  passage  which  follows. 

4.   His   cable,  1  v^i         .     See   Bonomi,    Sarc.  8   D,  and  cf.   a 

passage  in  the  Pyramid  Texts  {Pepi  I,  413,  Merenrd  590)  which 
refers  to  this  or  a  similar  voyage.  M.  Maspero  thus  translates  it : — 
"  Fais  amener  a  Pepi  ta  barque  sur  laquelle  naviguent  tes  purs  et 
quand  tu  auras  regu  ta  libation  d'eau  fraiche  sur  cette  Cuisse  des 

Indestructibles   (the    Uarit     v^  <:r::>  ^^gj  of  the   Circumpolar 

Stars),  fais  naviguer  Pepi  dans  cette  barque  avec  ce  cable  d'etoffe 
verte  et  blanche  par  lequel  I'CEil  d'Hor  est  remorque,"  &c.  The 
Uarit,  or  Leg  (on  which  see  Ch.  74,  Note  i)  of  Nut  is  mentioned  at 
the  end  of  this  chapter. 

6.  Machinery  ^  < — ^  .     The  word  has   disappeared  from 

the  later  texts  and  been  replaced  by  various  conjectural  emendations 
of  the  scribes. 

7.  The  Kaf,  j\  ^^  ^-^    SiP^'    °"^  ^^  ^^^  divinities  in  form  of 
apes.     Etymologically  the  word  signifies  "  the  hot  one." 

8.  Sek-hra,     \\   ^       <^   ^^    ^^^    more    common    reading,    but 

§  "^  ^  also  occurs  and  so  does     '^  r^  n  5     *i     oJ[-      I   cannot 

remember  where   I   found     '^YvnO^  {P.S.B.A.  VI,  191)  which 

would  identify  this  divinity  with  Thoth. 

9.  The    Madt,    the   series   of    phenomena    occurring   in    strict 
conformity  with  Law,  that  is  with  the  laws  of  Nature. 

10.  Lion  ]orms,  I^S,    phonetically   <cz>  ,  in  most  of  the 

I^  ^^     III 

papyri.  Some  of  the  words  which  follow  are  evidently  in  very 
corrupt  condition. 

1 1 .  Every  Dawn,  |  I  0  ^  |/ri  ^^^^- 








"^     ^ 









o  ^ 

«  •  r 
H  CQ 





<  w 

I— I  u 

>-  3 

><  3 

u  S 











1— 1 

































PLATE   XLIII.         BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD, 

Chapter  CXL.     Mus.  du  Louvre.     No.  Ill,  52. 


Chapter  CXXXVIII.     Papyrus,  Busca. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  275 

Chapter  whereby  a  Light  is  kifidled  ( i )  for  a  person. 

Oh  Light !  let  the  Light  be  kindled  for  thy  Ka,  O  Osiris 
Chentamenta.  Let  the  Light  be  kindled  for  the  Night  which 
followeth  the  Day  :  the  Eye  of  Horus  which  riseth  at  thy  temple  (2) : 
which  riseth  up  (3)  over  thee  and  which  gathereth  upon  thy  brow  ; 
which  granteth  thee  its  protection  and  overthroweth  thine  enemies. 

Undefiledly  (bis)  and  successfully  (bis) : 

The  light  is  kindled  for  Osiris  Unnefer  :  with  fresh  vases  and 
raiment  like  the  Dawn. 


Chapter  whereby  a  Light  is  kindled  for  a  persofi. 

The  Eye  of  Horus  cometh,  the  Light  one  :  the  Eye  of  Horus 
Cometh,  the  Glorious  one. 

Come  thou,  propitiously,  shining  like  Ra  from  the  Mount  of 
Glory,  and  putting  an  end  to  the  opposition  (4)  of  Sutu. 

The  prescription  (5)  of  her  (6)  who  hath  raised  him  up,  and 
seized  upon  the  Light  for  him,  and  who  putteth  an  end  to  the 
troubles  against  thee,  like  the  Mount  of  Glory. 


The  two  most  ancient  authorities  for  this  chapter,  as  it  is  found 
in  the  Turin  Todtenbuch  and  the  late  recension,  are  one  of  the  four 
tablets  of  the  Museum  of  Marseilles,  published  by  M.  Naville  {Les 
qiiatre  steles  orient'ees  dii  Miis'ee  de  Marseille),  and  the  Berlin  papyrus 
of  Nechtuamon.  The  chapter  which  M.  Naville  has  published  as 
137A,  in  the  first  volume  of  his  own  Todtenbuch,  and  which  is  taken 
from  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni,  is  manifestly,  I  think,   not  the  original 

2   0   2 

2/6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

text,  but  another  edition  very  considerably  revised  and  enlarged. 
And,  in  imitation  of  the  rubric  of  ch.  64,  it  concludes  with  a  veracious 
statement,  that  it  was  discovered  by  Prince  Hortatef  in  a  secret 
chest  in  the  temple  of  Unnut,  and  was  brought  away  by  the  royal 

These  texts  are  found  among  the  texts  preserved  in  the  tomb 
of  Petamenemapt  (see  Zeiischr.,  1883,  Taf  i),  but  with  various 
additions,  and  have  been  appropriated  by  the  Ritual  of  Amnion, 
published  by  Dr.  O.  von  Lemm. 

The  solemn  ceremony  of  Kindling  the  Light  for  the  dead  is 
repeatedly  mentioned  in  the  Siut  inscriptions  of  Hapit'efae. 

I.  Kindle 

I  £55  conveys  the  same  notion  as    I  r-,  ^^,  \\ 

in  the  title  of  137B.      The  Amnion  Ritual  has    I     ^    '  n  ^v'A 

strike  a  Light.     Dr.  von  Lemm  thinks  that  by  a  play  of  words  it  is 
implied  not  only  that  a  light  but  Sut  is  struck. 

2.  At  thy   temple  ^^v       1       Ba  and  Marseilles :    ^^^^  y 

1     _.    v\  in  Abydos,  Aa  and  Fetafnenemapt. 

3.  Riseth  up  D,  Ba,    0^    Marseilles;  /ni\  ^  K 


3  (£ 

Aa,   lp\   fl  Petamenemapt. 

4.   Oppositiofi    Y  Y  Y '    ^^'^'^^''^    T    ^^  ~  [\£\   ^^   ^"    ^^^^    Sallier 

Calendar.      The   sense    is    made    clear    in   the   parallel   passages 
. — . .  — M-^  /v^/vv\    w    ^  I      n 

I  \\  I !; fl .    V '  ^^  ^^^  ^^  error  of  recent  transcribers, 

is  a  wrong  reading  for  Y  >  which  is  very  distinctly  written  in  the 
Nebseni  papryus. 

5.  Prescription       "^^"^^^   y^l' 

6.  Her.      The  Vignette   in   the   Nebseni  papyrus  exhibits  the 
goddess  Apit,  in  hippopotamus  form,  lightmg  the  light.     Over  her 

are  the  words  t  5A      nV  x  »   "  ^'^pit>   mistress   of    divine 

I  Hi*  <=>  ili    o    A  I  I  I 


BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  277 


Chapter  whereby  one  is  enabled  to  enter  into  Abydos. 

Oh  all  ye  gods  who  are  in  Abydos,  [each  one  and  his]  (i) 
divine  circle  likewise  in  its  entirety,  who  are  coming  with 
acclamation  to  meet  me :  let  me  see  my  father  Osiris :  let  me 
be  held  as  one  who  cometh  forth  as  of  his  house  (2). 

I  am  Horus,  the  Lord  of  Kamit,  and  the  heir  of  Tesherit,(3) 
which  I  have  also  seized.     I,  the  invincible  one,  whose  eye  is  potent 

against  his  adversaries  :  who  avengeth  his  father,  and  is  fierce  at 
the  drowning  of  his  mother  ;  (4)  who  smiteth  his  adversaries  and 
putteth  an  end  to  violence  on  their  part.  .  .  .  (5). 

oh  thou  of  the  potent  Lock,  king  of  hosts,  who  art  seized 
of  the  Two  Worlds  ;  whose  father's  house  is  seized  (6)  [by  him] 
in  virtue  of  the  writs  (7);  my  balance  is  perfectly  even,  my  voice 
is  law,  and  I  prevail  over  all  mine  adversaries.  (8) 


I.  \Each  one  and  his?[  These  words  are  necessary  for  the 
purpose  of  bringing  out  the  meaning  of  the  text.  Every  god,  it 
has  already  been  said,  has  his  circle  of  associates.     The  feminine 

I     shows     the     concordance     with 

sufifix    — M —    after 


W       '^  rJf  I )  which,  like  other  collective  nouns,  is  of  the  feminne 
(iii  (ii)  I— f— 1  lli  I 


2.  The  exact  text  here  is  doubtful,  and  the  sense  of  fllil  ^c-^ 

depends  upon  it.     ^^^^  \\\^  or  -lU  r[m  is  the  well  known  title  of  a 

priestly  official,  whose  presence  was  required  in  the  ritual  of  the  dead. 
He  is  sometimes  in  attendance  upon  royal  personages.  Here 
according  to  its  etymological  sense  the  word  might  simply  mean  a 

3.  Artw/V  ^mi  ^  ^ ,  the  "Black   Land"  is  Egypt;    Tesherit 

278  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

^^1    ^',  the  '"'Red  Land,"   is  whatever   Hes  beyond  the  limits  of 


4.   T/ie  drowning  of  his  mother  <^<=\  Q  [![  ^  ^aaaaa  ^  'V\  ^1|  ^^__  . 

Droivningmayhe.  too  strong  a  word,  but  immersion  at  least  is  meant. 
We  are  at  present  without  any  other  reference  to  this  incident  in  the 
career  of  the  goddess  Isis. 

5.    Here  occurs  a  word, 

1    /I\    ^  or   n    ^    d|) '   of  doubtful 

meaning.  As  the  next  word  to  it  begins  a  sentence,  it  must  be 
considered  as  connected  with  the  words  preceding  it.  I  am  not 
satisfied  that  "  silently  "  or  "  causing  silence  "  would  be  a  grammatical 
solution  of  the  question. 

6.  Seized  (throughout  this  chapter)  in  the  juridical  sense  o(  seisin 
or  feudal  possession. 

7.  Writs    ■ 0  jp]  ,  a  reading  of  three  early  papyri,  which 

has    disappeared    in   the   later   ones.     The    Turin    Todtenlnich   has 

Q  ^    >\ 

^^-^  ,  "  with  his  two  hands." 

8.  Here  the  chapter  ends  in  Pi,  and  even  sooner  in  the  later  texts. 
The  three  older  papyri  differ  as  to  the  words  which  immediately 
follow,  and  are  certainly  corrupt  and  untelligible. 

Identical  with  CHAPTER  CXXHI. 

This  completes  Sir  P.  Le  Page  Renotifs  translation  of  the  Book  of 
the  Dead,  so  far  as  he  had  prepared  it  for  publication  at  the  time  of 
his  death. 

HOOK   OF   TIIK   DEAD.  279 

BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 
Bv  Edouard  Naville,  D.C.L.,  &^c.,  •^c. 

Introductory    Note. 

During  the  last  days  of  his  life,  the  lamented  Sir  Peter  Le  Page 
Renouf,  foreseeing  that  he  would  not  be  able  to  reach  the  goal  he  had 
been  striving  to  attain,  the  completion  of  his  translation  of  the  Book 
of  the  Dead,  expressed  the  wish  that  the  writer  of  these  lines  should 
continue  and  complete  his  work.  I  did  not  feel  at  liberty  to  go 
against  the  desire  of  the  eminent  master,  who  had  done  me  the 
honour  to  choose  me  as  his  successor,  and  to  leave  unfinished  a 
work  which  he  had  kept  in  view  all  his  life  long,  and  which  he  con- 
sidered to  be  the  choicest  fruit  of  his  Egyptological  researches. 

But  I  had  hardly  set  myself  to  the  task,  when  I  realised  the 
difficulties  which  were  in  my  way.  It  is  never  easy,  even  for  a 
translator,  to  put  himself  into  the  place  of  another,  to  enter  fully 
into  his  views,  to  reconstitute  the  conception  he  had  formed  of  the 
book  he  had  to  interpret.  To  these  difficulties  must  be  added,  that  I 
had  hardly  any  help  with  regard  to  that  part  of  the  book  which 
Renouf  has  not  published  himself.  Renouf,  like  many  eminent 
scholars,  had  his  learning  chiefly  in  his  head ;  his  notes  are  very 
scanty,  mere  scraps  without  any  methodical  order.  There  is  not  a 
line  of  written  translation  left,  beyond  what  he  printed  himself. 
Thus,  for  the  translation  of  the  following  chapters,  I  was  entirely 
dependent  on  the  part  already  published,  and  I  had  constantly  to 
refer  to  those  chapters,  in  order  to  know  the  sense  which  Renouf 
would  have  given  to  words  and  sentences  I  came  across  in  the 
course  of  my  work. 

I  endeavoured  as  much  as  I  could,  to  translate  as  Renouf  would 
have  done.  Whenever  it  was  possible,  I  used  his  words  or  his 
readings,  though  I  did  not  always  agree  with  them.  I  followed 
his  choice  of  texts.      He  generally  took  the  oldest  one   he  had, 

28o  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

which  he  frequently  found  in  my  edition.  On  the  whole  I  tried 
to  continue  the  work  on  the  lines  which  Renouf  himself  adopted. 
Thus  it  cannot  be  said  absolutely  that  this  translation  is  my  work ; 
Egyptological  scholars  will  soon  recognize  what  is  mine,  and  the 
interpretations  for  which  I  am  not  responsible.  I  beg  the  reader 
to  look  at  my  work  in  this  light,  and  to  remember  that  at  present 
any  translation  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  tentative  and  provisional, 
and  liable,  with  the  progress  in  our  knowledge  of  Egyptian,  to 
undergo  considerable  changes.  Nevertheless,  I  hope  that  this  joint 
work  will  not  compare  too  unfavourably  with  the  part  done  by  my 
illustrious  predecessor. 



The  book  read  on  the  last  day  of  Alechir,  when  the  Eye  is  full  on  the 

last  day  of  Mechir. 

There  rises  a  form  which  shines  on  the  horizon.  Atmu  rises 
pouring  out  his  dew,  and  the  bright  one  who  shines  in  the  sky. 
The  abode  of  the  obelisk  is  in  joy  because  of  them,  because  they 
are  complete.  There  are  shouts  of  joy  in  the  sanctuary  and  loud 
cheering  fills  the  Tuat.  They  fall  down  before  Atmu  Harmachis. 
For  His  Majesty  gave  orders  to  the  cycle  of  his  followers.  His 
Majesty  ordered  to  give  praise  to  the  Eye,  and  behold,  my  flesh  he 
gave  it  strength,  and  all  my  limbs  are  renewed,  as  soon  as  the  order 
came  out  of  the  mouth  of  Ra. 

His  glorious  Eye  rests  on  its  place  on  His  Majesty  in  this  hour 
of  the  night.  When  the  fourth  hour  is  accomplished,  the  world  is 
joyous  in  the  last  day  of  Mechir,  for  the  Majesty  of  the  Eye  is  in  the 
presence  of  the  cycle  of  the  gods,  and  His  Majesty  rises  as  from  the 
beginning,  with  the  Eye  on  his  head  as  Ra  Atmu. 

The(i)  eyes  of  Shu,  Seb,  Osiris,  Suti,  Horus,  Menthu,  Ptah, 
Raneheh,  Thoth,  Chati,  Nai,  Eternity,  Necht,  Mert,  the  land,  he 
who  is  born  by  himself.  After  the  computation  of  the  eye  has  been 
made  in  the  presence  of  this  god,  and  when  it  is  full  and  completed, 
all  these  gods  are  joyous  on  that  day,  they  who  were  silent ;  (2)  and 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  28 1 

behold  there  is  a  festival  made  to  every  god ;  and  they  say  :  hail  to 
thee,  praise  from  Ra,  the  boatmen  tow  his  boat,  Apepi  is  struck 
down.  Hail  to  thee,  praise  from  Ra  who  causes  the  form  of 
Chepera  to  exist ;  hail  to  thee,  praise  from  Ra,  there  is  joy  in  him, 
his  enemies  are  conquered ;  hail  to  thee.  })raise  from  Ra,  who  has 
repelled  the  chiefs  of  the  sons  of  the  rebellion.  Acclamation  to 
thee  and  praise  to  Osiris  N. 

Said  on  an  eye  of  pure  lapis-lazuli  or  mak  stone,  ornamented 
with  gold ;  an  offering  is  made  before  it  of  all  things  good  and  holy, 
when  Ra  puts  it  on  (on  his  head)  on  the  last  day  of  Mechir  ;  another 
one  is  made  of  jasper,  which  a  man  will  put  on  any  of  his  limbs  he 
likes.  When  this  chapter  is  read  by  one  who  is  in  the  boat  of  Ra, 
he  is  towed  like  the  gods,  he  is  like  one  of  them,  and  he  prescribes 
what  is  done  to  him  in  the  Netherworld. 

When  this  chapter  has  been  read  to  its  end,  this  is  the  copy  of 
the  order  of  offerings  made  when  the  Eye  is  full :  four  burning 
altars  for  Ra,  four  for  the  Eye,  and  four  for  these  gods  ;  what  there 
is  on  each  of  them  is  :  five  good  pointed  white  loaves  ;  five  pointed 
fruit  cakes,  five  baskets  of  pastry,  one  measure  of  incense,  one  of 
fruit  and  one  of  roast  meat. 

The  ancient  papyri  do  not  contain  this  chapter.  The  translation 
is  made  from  the  Turin  Tcdtenbuch,  supplemented  and  corrected 
from  hieratic  papyri  in  Paris.  Its  real  meaning  is  difficult  to  under- 
stand. It  seems  that  under  symbolical  expressions  it  refers  to  an 
astronomical  phenomenon,  the  renewal  of  the  sun  after  the  winter 
solstice.  According  to  the  principle  which  I  have  adopted,  to  main- 
tain my  predecessor's  interpretations,  I  translated  ^"^  v 


"the  Eye  is  full"  {cf.  Notes  on  ch.  125,  p.  214).  But  as  it  seems 
evident  that  here  the  two  eyes  of  the  sun  are  the  two  periods  of  his 
apparent  course,  the  decrease  and  the  growth,  I  should  translate 
"  the  period  is  accomplished,"  this  period  being  that  of  the  decrease 
after  which  the  sun  enters  its  ascending  course,  or  according  to 
Egyptian  ideas  begins  again  to  grow.  It  is  natural  that  the  com- 
pleting of  the  period  should  be  hailed  with  joy  by  Ra,  since  it  is  the 
final  victory  over  his  enemies,  which  sets  him  free  and  allows  him  to 
rise  again  as  at  the  beginning.     The  sign  of  his  triumph  is  that  he 

puts  the  \\  I   ^^^"^P^  °"  ^^^  head,  as  we  see  in  the  vignette. 

2    P 

e:82  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

T.  Why  this  hst  of  gods  comes  here,  it  is  difficult  to  understand. 
It  seems  quite  out  of  place.  Their  number  varies  according  to  the 
papyri.  In  some  of  them,  they  are  put  after  the  text  in  vertical 
columns.  I  presume  they  are  the  divinities  often  alluded  to  as  these 
gods.  They  are  the  witnesses  of  the  scene  of  Ra  rising  with  the  Eye 
on  his  head. 

2.  I  have  adopted  the  reading  of  the  Paris  papyrus.  III,  58, 

n     n  ^ . 

^  W       I  I  I  I    <^ 

The  vignettes  consist,  in  the  Turin  papyrus,  of  the  deceased 

worshipping  a  black  Anubis  lying  down  on  a  naos,  and  having  on 
his   back  the   sign  y.      This  god  is  the   y  ^    first  mentioned. 

Behind  him  are  the    v\  \  V\  -^^ ,  a  human  form  with  the  Eye 

on  its  head,  and  Harmachis.     Several  papyri  have  only  the  Eye  and 

Chapters   CXLI   to   CXLIII. 

The  hook{\)  said  by  a  man  or  his  father  or  his  sofi  in  the  festival  of 
the  Amenta,  and  wherewith  he  acquires  might{2)  with  Rd,  and 
with  the  gods  when  he  is  ivith  them.  Said  on  the  day  of  the  netu 
moon,  when  offerings  are  made  of  bread,  beer,  oxen,  geese,  and 
burnt  incense  to 

Osiris  Chentamenta, 



The  boat  of  Ra, 


The  Cycle  of  the  great  gods. 

The  Cycle  of  the  small  gods, 

Horus  the  lord  of  the  double  diadem, 







The  house  of  the  ka  of  the  inviolate  god,  (3) 


BOOK    OJ    THE    DEAD. 

Chapters  CXLI  and  CXLII.     Berlin  Mus.,  2. 

Chapter  CXLVI. 
Leyden,  No.   II. 

Chapter  CXL.     Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 



Chapter  CXLVI. 
Berlin  Mus.,  No.  2. 

Ch.^pter  CXLVI. 
Louvre,  III,  i. 


Chapter  CXLVI.     Leyden,  No.  VI. 



CiiAi'TERS  CXLI  AND  CXLII.     Leydcn  Museum,  No.  VII. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  283 

The  storm  of  the  sky  which  raises  the  god, 

The  hidden  one  in  her  dwelling, 

Chebt  the  mummified  form  of  the  god. 

The  greatly  beloved,  with  red  hair, 

The  abundant  in  life,  the  veiled  one. 

Her  whose  name  is  powerful  in  her  works, 

The  bull  of  the  cows. 

The  divine  force,  the  good  one,  the  good  rudder  of  the  Northern 

Him  who  goes  round  and  piloteth  the  double  earth,  the  good 

rudder  of  the  Western  sky, 
The  shining  one,  who  dwelleth  in  the  house  of  the  devouring 

monster,  the  good  rudder  of  the  Eastern  sky. 
The  inner  one  in  the  house  of  the  red  ones,  the  good  rudder  of 

the  Southern  sky, 


The  Southern  part  of  heaven, 
The  Northern  part  of  heaven, 
The  Sektit  boat. 
The  Atit  boat, 

The  gods  of  the  South, 
The  gods  of  the  North, 
The  gods  of  the  West, 
The  gods  of  the  East, 
The  sejant  gods,  (4) 
The  resting  gods. 
The  great  house. 
The  house  of  flame, 
The  gods  of  the  abodes. 
The  gods  of  the  horizon. 
The  gods  of  the  field, 
The  gods  of  the  houses,  (5) 
The  gods  of  the  thrones, 
The  ways  of  the  South, 
The  ways  of  the  North, 
The  ways  of  the  West, 

2  P  2 



The  ways  of  the  East, 

The  halls  of  the  Tuat, 

The  holds  of  the  Tuat, 

The  mysterious  doors, 

The  doorkeepers  of  the  halls  of  the  Tuat, 

Those  with  hidden  faces,  the  guards  of  the  roads, 

The  guardians  of  those  who  are  lamenting, 

The  guardians  of  those  whose  faces  are  joyous,  (6) 

The  burning  ones  who  put  the  flame  on  the  altar, 

The  door  openers  who  extinguish  the  flames  in  the  Amenta, 


Unneferu,  (7) 

Osiris  1 

the  living, 

Osiris  1 

the  lord  of  life, 

Osiris  1 

the  inviolate  god, 

Osiris  1 

n  Kau, 





Osiris  ] 

n  Tanenit, 

Osiris  ] 

n  the  South, 


n  the  North, 

Osiris  ( 

creator  of  millions  of  men. 

Osiris  1 

;he  spirit  in  the  crouching  figure  (?), 


Ptah  lord  of  life, 


n  Restau, 


fnside  the  mountain. 

Osiris  1 

n  the  water  of  Heliopolis, 


in  Hesert, 


m  Siut, 


in  Net'eft, 


n  the  South, 


in  Pu, 


in  Neteru, 


in  Lower  Sais, 


in  Bak, 


n  Sun  (Syene), 


in  Rohenen, 


in  Aper, 


m  Keftennu, 


Sokaris  in  Petshe, 


m  his  city, 

ROOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  285 

Osiris  in  Pesekro, 

Osiris  in  his  abodes  in  the  land  of  the  North, 

Osiris  in  heaven, 

Osiris  in  his  abodes  in  Restau, 

Osiris  in  Nest, 

Osiris  in  Atefur, 

Osiris  Sokaris, 

Osiris  the  lord  of  eternity, 

Osiris  the  begetter, 

Osiris  the  lord  of  Heliopolis, 

Osiris  in  the  monstrance, 

Osiris  the  lord  of  eternity, 

Osiris  the  prince, 

Osiris  of  the  gate  of  judgment, 

Osiris  in  Restau, 

Osiris  on  his  sand, 

Osiris  in  the  hall  of  the  cows, 

Osiris  in  Tanenit, 

Osiris  in  Netit, 

Osiris  in  Sati, 

Osiris  in  Beteshu, 

Osiris  in  Upper  Sais, 

Osiris  in  Tepu, 

Osiris  in  Shennu, 

Osiris  in  Henket, 

Osiris  in  the  land  of  Sokaris, 

Osiris  in  Shau, 

Osiris  in  Faur, 

Osiris  in  Maati, 

Osiris  in  Hena, 

Osiris  the  great  god  the  everlasting. 


The  old  texts  which  v/e  follow  here,  join  in  one  chapter,  141, 
what  in  the  Turin  Todtenbuchx^  divided  into  two,  141,  142  ;  143  being 
merely  the  vignettes  which  accompany  them.  This  chapter  is  the 
first  of  a  series  in  which  the  deceased  has  to  show  his  knowledge. 
His  being  well-informed  as  to  the  names  of  the  gods  and  of  their 
sanctuaries,  and  also  of  the  doors  through  which  he  passes,  the  halls 

286  BOOK   OF    THE   DEAD. 

which  he  enters,  confers  upon  him  certain  privileges.  Here  the 
deceased  has  to  recite  the  names  of  the  gods  while  offerings  are 
made  to  them  ;  the  second  part  of  the  chapter  refers  only  to  Osiris 
in  all  his  forms,  and  in  his  numerous  sanctuaries,  which  have  not  all 
been  identified.  The  old  versions  differ  only  slightly  in  length, 
from  one  or  two  of  the  gods  being  omitted.  The  translation  follows 
mainly  the  Cairo  papyrus,  Cc^  with  a  few  variants  taken  from  other 
papyri,  one  of  the  best  of  which  is  the  papyrus  is  Nu  of  the  British 
Museum  (ed.  Budge). 

1.  The  title  of  the  later  texts  is  much  longer :  the  book  where- 
with the  Chjiu  acquire  might,  knowing  the  names  of  the  gods  of  the 
Southern  sky,  and  of  the  Northern  sky,  of  the  gods  of  the  Boufids,  of 
the  gods  who  are  the  guides  in  the  Tuat.  If  it  is  said  by  a  7nan,  to 
his  father  or  to  his  mother,  in  the  festival  of  the  Amenta,  he  acquires 
might  with  Rd,  and  with  the  gods  when  he  is  ivith  them.  Spoken  on 
the  day  of  the  new  moon  by  Osiris  N  when  offerings  are  made  to  him 
of .  .  .  etc.,  and  offerings  are  made  to  Osiris  under  all  his  names  by 
Osiris  N. 

2.  See  note  i  to  ch.  133.     I  cannot  quite  agree  with  Renouf  as 

to  the  meaning  of  the  word    l[  'I.     It  seems  to  me  that  its 

sense  is  not  so  much  that  of  "  making  someone  mighty,"  as  of  "  distin- 
guishing him,  making  him  eminent"  in  the  opinion  of  his  god  or 
his  master,  so  that  he  may  become  his  lord's  favourite.     I  consider 

the  meaning  of  [ 


'^  wvAAA    as  similar  to  that  of  ^T^ 

■O"  "0"  I 

3.  The  following  names  are  those  of  the  seven  celestial  cows 
which  are  represented  with  the  bull  in  chapter  148,  together  with 
the  rudders  of  the  four  cardinal  points. 

4.  See  ch.  130,  note  5. 

5.  ''^  pertiu,  the  adjective  form  of  the  noun  ^ 

"  a  house,"  the  gods  of  the  houses,  contrasted  with  those  of  the  fields. 
This  word  shows  that  in  the  complete  spelling  of  the  word 
the  <r:r>   has  not   fallen   off,  as  it   probably  was  the   case  in  the 
pronunciation,  and  in  composite  names  such  as:  ^ ,  Dns; 

I         N|ll    IE 



BOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 


Chapter  CXLVIII.     Louvre,  III,  89. 

Chapter  CXLVIII.     Leyden  Mus.,  No.  IL 

Chapter  CXLIV.     Brit.  Mus.,  9913. 

Chapter  CXLIII. 
Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Chapter  CXLIV. 
Brit.  Mus.  Pap.  Brocklehurst  IL 





































BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  287 

6.  I  read   here  according  to  Ld.   -^  "^^^  7"  O  f"^  flQ '^  ' 

*   T  .     Instead   of   „       D  V\  Lc.    writes  1  ,    and   Nu 

I — I — 1  pvAy^  G\  I    w  I 

,  which  does  not  give  any  sense.      &jf  might  here 

be  translated  companiotis. 

7.  In  the  Turin  Todtenbuch,  ch.  142  begins  here  with  this  title  : 
Chapler  ivhereby  the  deceased  acquireth  mighty  whereby  is  given  him  to 
go  and  to  tuiden  his  steps,  coming  forth  by  day  in  ail  the  forms  he  likes, 
knoiuing  the  nafties  of  Osiris  in  all  the  places  he  likes  to  be. 

Chapter  CXLIV. 
The   Chapter  of  the  Arrival  (i). 

The  first  gate.  He  whose  face  is  overturned,  who  has  many 
attributes,  is  the  name  of  the  occupant  of  the  first  gate.  The 
adjuster,  is  the  name  of  the  warden  thereof,  and  he  with  the  loud 
voice  the  name  of  the  herald. 

The  second  gate.  He  who  raises  his  face,  is  the  name  of  the 
occupant  of  the  second  gate  ;  he  with  the  revolving  face  (2)  is  the 
name  of  the  warden  thereof ;  the  consuming  one  is  the  name  of  the 

The  third  gate.  He  who  eats  his  own  filth,  is  the  name  of  the 
occupant.  The  watchful,  is  the  name  of  the  warden  thereof,  the 
curser  is  the  name  of  the  herald. 

The  fourth  gate.  He  who  opposes  garrulity,  is  the  name  of  the 
occupant  of  the  fourth  gate  ;  the  attentive  one  is  the  name  of  the 
warden  thereof,  the  great  one  who  drives  back  the  crocodile  is  the 
name  of  the  herald. 

The  fifth  gate.  He  who  lives  on  worms,  is  the  name  of  its 
occupant,  the  consuming  flame,  is  the  name  of  the  warden  thereof, 
the  horn  which  strikes  the  furious,  is  the  name  of  the  herald. 

The  sixth  gate.  He  who  makes  the  loaves,  with  a  thundering 
voice,  is  the  name  of  its  occupant ;  he  who  shows  his  face,  is  the 
name  of  the  warden  thereof,  the  stoneknife  which  belongs  to  the 
sky,  is  the  name  of  the  herald. 

The  seventh  gate.  He  who  takes  possession  (3)  of  their  knives, 
is  the  name  of  the  occupant  of  the  seventh  gate ;  the  high  voice  is 

288  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

the  name  of  the  warden  thereof,  he  who  drives  back  the  enemies 
is  the  name  of  the  herald. 

O  ye,  these  gates,  who  are  the  gates  to  Osiris,  ye  who  guard  their 
gates,  ye  who  herald  the  things  of  the  world  to  Osiris  every  day. 
Osiris  N.  knows  you — he  knows  your  names  ;  for  he  is  born  in 
Restau,  where  all  the  glory  of  the  horizon  was  given  him.  AK 
receives  the  investiture  in  Pu,  like  the  purification  of  Osiris.  N. 
receives  the  saying  in  Restau,  w'hen  he  leads  the  gods  on  the 
horizon  with  the  ministrant,  the  protectors  of  Osiris.  I  am  one  of 
them  in  their  leading.  N'.  is  the  glorious  one,  the  lord  of  the 
glorious,  a  glorious  one  who  performs  the  rites.  JV.  celebrates  the 
festival  of  the  first  day  of  the  month  ;  he  is  the  herald  in  the 
fifteenth  day  of  the  month.  O  thou  who  revolvest.  N.  carries 
the  sacred  flame  to  the  hand  of  Thoth  in  the  night  when  he  sails 
through  the  sky  as  victor.  iV.  passes  on  in  peace,  he  navigates  in 
the  boat  of  Ra.  The  attributes  (5)  of  N.  are  the  attributes  of  the 
boat  of  Ra.  N.  has  a  name  greater  than  yours,  mightier  than  you 
who  are  on  the  roads  of  Maat.  A^.  hates  what  is  corrupt.  The 
attributes  of  N.  are  the  attributes  of  Horus,  the  firstborn  of  Ra, 
who  accomplishes  his  will.  iV.  is  not  fettered,  he  is  not  driven 
away  from  the  gates  of  Osiris.  JV.  is  perfect,  the  lion  god,  the  pure 
one  who  loUows  Osiris  Khent  Amenta  every  day.  His  domains  are 
in  Sechet  hotepu  among  those  who  know  the  sacred  rites,  among 
those  who  perform  the  sacred  rites  to  Osiris.  N.  is  on  the  side  of 
Thoth,  among  those  who  bring  offerings.  Anubis  ordered  to  the 
bearers  of  offerings,  that  there  should  be  offerings  to  N.  of  his  own, 
and  that  they  should  not  be  taken  from  him  by  those  who  are  in 
captivity.  N.  has  come  like  Horus,  when  he  adorns  the  horizon  of 
heaven.  A',  directs  the  march  of  Ra  towards  the  gates  of  the 
horizon ;  therefore  the  gods  rejoice  in  the  presence  of  JV.  The 
divine  scent  (6)  is  upon  Osiris,  the  god  with  the  lock  (7)  will  not 
reach  him ;  the  keepers  of  the  gates  will  not  be  hostile  to  him. 
N.  is  the  one  whose  face  is  hidden  inside  the  palace,  in  the 
sanctuary  of  the  god,  the  lord  of  Tuat.  A\  has  reached  it  after 
Hathor.  AL  gathers  his  hosts  ;  he  brings  Maat  to  Ra,  he  drives 
away  the  Mighty  One,  Apepi.  N.  pierces  the  steel  firmament  (8), 
and  repels  the  raging  storm  ;  he  gives  life  to  the  seamen  of  Ra.  N. 
carries  offerings  to  the  place  where  it  (the  boat)  is.  N.  causes  that 
the  boat  gives  him  a  successful  voyage.     A\  marches,  and  when  he 

COOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  289 

reaches  it,  the  face  of  N.  is  Hke  the  Oreat  One,  and  his  back  like  the 
lofty  one.  N.  is  the  lord  of  the  mighty.  N.  is  well  pleased  on  the 
horizon.  JV.  is  valiant ;  he  strikes  you  down  ;  you  wakers ;  he 
makes  his  way  to  your  lord,  Osiris. 

This  is  on  the  copy  which  is  in  the  books  (9).  It  is  written  in 
yellow  ink,  on  the  sacred  circle  of  gods  in  the  boat  of  Ra  (10), 
where  offerings  are  made  of  victuals,  geese,  incense,  in  their 
presence,  in  order  to  revive  the  deceased,  to  make  him  powerful 
among  the  gods,  and  that  he  may  not  be  repulsed  nor  driven 
back  from  the  pylons  of  the  Tuat.  If  thou  readest  it  to  the  statue 
of  this  deceased  in  their  presence,  it  causes  him  to  have  access 
to  every  hall  of  those  which  are  in  the  books. 

This  is  said  at  the  entrance  of  every  gate,  of  those  which  are 
in  the  books,  and  to  each  of  them  an  offering  is  made  of  the 
haunch,  the  head,  the  heart,  and  the  hoof  of  a  red  bull,  and  four 
vases  of  blood  which  does  not  come  from  the  heart,  and  scent 
vases,  and  sixteen  pointed  white  loaves,  and  eight  round  loaves, 
and  eight  chenfu  loaves,  and  eight  hebennu  loaves,  eight  casks  of 
beer,  eight  vases  of  dry  corn,  four  tanks  of  earthenware  filled  with 
the  milk  of  a  white  cow,  fresh  herbs,  fresh  olive  oil,  green  eye 
paint,  antimony,  odoriferous  oils,  and  burning  incense.  Said  while 
putting  on  a  clay  seal  twice. 

After  this  copy  has  been  read,  if  the  fourth  hour  is  going  round  in 
the  day,  beware  of  what  is  threatening  in  the  sky  ;  but  if  thou  hast 
read  this  book  without  any  human  being  seeing  it,  it  will  widen  the 
steps  of  the  deceased  in  heaven  or  earth,  and  in  the  Tuat ;  because 
this  book  exalts  the  deceased  more  than  any  ceremony  performed  to 
him,  henceforth,  from  this  day  undeviatingly  for  times  infinite. 


This  chapter  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  four  (144 — 147),  in  Avhich  the 
old  versions  differ  considerably  from  the  Turin  text.     144  and  147 

refer  to  the  ( (I  CTz^ ,  145  and  146  to  the    I    j      Si. 

The  word  1/  ir"^]   has   been  translated  in  various  ways. 

Brugsch  calls  them  "watch-towers,  pylons,"  Pierret  "stations." 
Maspero  considers  them  as  the  old  "ergastules,"  a  kind  of  vaulted 
hall.      Jequier  speaks   of    them    as    "  magazines,"    but    generally 

2   Q 



translates  the  word  by  *'  pylons."     Renouf,  in  his  introducton  to  the 
Papyrus  of  Ani,  calls  the  [(,  ir^i  "gates,"  and  the    I 

«d^>     II    111  -:iJ    O 

"pylons."     In  another  place  he  says  the    I    j 

gate,  but  a  hold  or  keep. 

If  we  refer  to  the  old  texts  where  this  chapter  is  mixed  together 

with  chapter  146,  we  see  that  the 

is  not  a  mere 


is  a  door,  a  gate, 
which  has  to  be  passed  in  order  to  reach  the    I  S.      Behind 



\\  a 

1i  CTZD 

is  represented  as  a  shrine  close  to 

which  is  its  god. 

And  also  in  the  book  called  - 


book  of  what  is  in  the  Tuat,  we  see  that  Ra  has  to  go  through  the 

iX  and  make  a  long  navigation  before  he  reaches  the 

gods  of  the  Tuat. 

144  and  147  are  two  different  versions  of  the  same  chapter,  and 
no  old  papyrus  has  them  both.  It  is  the  same  with  chapters  145  and 
146.  Evidently  before  the  Saitic  period,  for  these  chapters,  as  for 
the  15th,  there  was  no  received  text,  and  the  writers  had  the  choice 
between  various  versions  which  the  compilers  of  the  Turin  text 

collected  together.     There  are  seven  [(I  nr^y,  and  the  deceased 

who  approaches  them  has  to  know  three  names ;  first,  the  [  V^t'  i 

[j(,  whom  Renouf  calls  the  porter^  evidently  from  his  being 

styled  in  chapter  147(1    v\     \\\  % [\-     But  if  we  consider   that  in 

some  of  the  old  papyri  the  name  of  the  man  is  that  of  the  gate  itself, 
•    has  to  be  translated  he  who  belongs  to,  the  occupant, 


the    inhabitant,   a  sense  which    does  not   disagree  with  the  word 

(I  V^r'  J-         since,  according  to  Oriental  customs,  the  master  of 

a  house  is  generally  met  with  at  the  door,  at  the  entrance. 

The  doorkeeper,  the  watcher  (Budge),  or  the  7varder  (Renouf), 

\\   he    who   guards 

is  the  second  person,    ^^ 

the  gate.      The  third   person     I  y  (,  ^  [,  ^|\      1 ,   as   the  text  says 



reports  to  Osiris  every  day  the  tilings  of  the  world,  and  I  suppose 
also,  who  is  coming  towards  the  gate.  Renouf  calls  this  person  the 
teller.     I  shall  use  the  word  herald,  which  I  adopted  previously. 

In  the  six  old  texts  which  I  collated,  we  find  only  the  reciting  of 
the  three  names.  The  Papyrus  of  Nu  in  the  British  Museum  alone 
contains  the  allocution  to  the  gates  of  the  Turin  text.  It  is  there- 
fore from  the  Papyrus  of  Nu  that  this  chapter  has  been  translated. 
(Budge,  The  Book  of  the  Dead) 

1.  The  title  is  taken  from  Papyrus  Ax.  The  Turin  text  calls 
this  chapter  "  the  chapter  of  ktiowittg  the  occupafits  of  the  seven  gates." 

2.  A  flame,  judging  from  the  determinative 



Ill   III 


as  we  read  in  chapter  147. 
I  lit.  "receives  the  saying." 

I  suppose  it  means  receives  the  right  or  the  privilege  to  say  the 
words  which  follow  :  "  I  am  one  of  them." 

?5  J   I  a  word  which  lias  various  meanings.     Renouf 

J  i 

translates  :  "protection,  safeguard,  powers,  attributes."  I  believe  in 
many  cases  it  corresponds  to  what  we  call  "the  nature,"  and  that 
it  is  used  as  a  periphrase  instead  of  an  abstract  adjective,  which 
does  not  exist  in  Egyptian.     The  real  sense  of  such  an  expression 


;   I 




seems   to   be 

'  such  as  he  is,  such  am  I,  and  such  is  Ra.' 

6.  I  read  with  the  Turin  text  /        ]  rfl  •     '^^^  papyrus  Pb, 
which   reproduces    this   sentence   in    an   addition   to    136A   writes 

7.  1      Yh    w|  •     'The  god  of  the  lock,  or  the  curling  god,' 

another  name  for 


Apepi,  an  evil  power  which  must  be 

driven  away.  Chapter  130,  line  39,  I  should  translate:  'Osiris 
follows  the  path  of  Ra  in  the  morning,  and  drives  away  the  curling 

8.  '  The  steel  firmament 


,  generally  mentioned  in 

connection  with  storms  and  bad  weather,  so  that  possibly  we  have 

2   0   3 

292  BOOK    OF   THE   DEAD. 

to  consider  here  the  colour  of  the  metal,  and  translate  '  the  dark  sky 
the  black  sky.' 

9.  The  books  of  Thoth,  the  divine  writer. 

10.  Probably  the  name  of  the  book  or  of  the  page  which 
contains  also  the  catalogue  of  the  offerings. 

The  vignettes  of  chapter  144  represent  the  gates,  the  warder, 
and  the  herald ;  the  occupant  is  not  seen,  as  he  is  in  the  vignettes  of 
chapter  147.  There  seems  to  be  no  definite  order  or  rule  in  these 
figures,  just  as  in  the  names,  which  are  not  always  attributed  to  the 
same  member  {cf.  Introd.  to  the  Todte?ibuch,  p.  172). 


The  knowing  of  the  pylons  of  the  house  of  Osiris^  in  the  Garden  of 


The  first  pylon  (i)(is  named) :  the  lady  of  trembling  whose  walls 
are  high,  the  lady  of  destruction,  who  directs  the  words  which  drive 
away  the  storm,  she  who  forces  back  the  violent  (2)  coming  towards 
her.     The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :   the  brave. 

The  second  pylon  (is  named) :  the  lady  of  heaven,  mistress  of  the 
world,  the  consuming  one,  the  lady  of  mankind,  who  counts  the 
human  beings.     The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  Meshept. 

The  third  pylon  :  the  lady  ot  altars,  rich  in  offerings,  with  whom 
all  the  gods  are  gathered,  on  the  day  when  they  sail  to  Abydos. 
The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  the  anointer. 

The  fourth  pylon  :  she  who  holds  the  knives,  the  mistress  of  the 
world,  who  destroys  the  enemies  of  the  god  whose  heart  is  motion- 
less, who  gives  advice,  who  is  free  from  impurity.  The  name  of 
the  doorkeeper  is  ;  the  bull. 

The  fifth  pylon  :  the  flame,  the  lady  of  the  words  of  power  (3), 
who  gives  joy  to  him  who  addresses  his  supplications  to  her,  to 
whom  no  one  who  is  on  earth  (4)  will  come  near.  The  name  of 
the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who  coerces  the  rebels. 

The  sixth  pylon  :  the  lady  of  light,  who  roars  loud  ;  whose  length 
and  breadth  are  not  known,  and  the  like  of  whom  never  was  found 
from  the  beginning.  There  are  serpents  on  her,  the  number  of 
which  is  not  known  ;  they  were  born  before  the  god  whose  heart  is 
motionless.     The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is,  the  consort. 

The  seventh  pylon  :   the  shroiid  which  enwrappeth  the  dead  ;  the 





s  3 



1=:        o 

ig  I.   \\  wi  til  'u  PI  r'  r^ 






























DDoa  c 



■iwr — 






























BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  293 

monster  who  seeks  to  hide  the  body.  'I'he  name  of  the  doorkeeper 
is  :  Akesti. 

The  eighth  pylon :  the  burning  flame  whose  fire  is  never 
quenched  ;  she  who  is  provided  with  burning  heat,  who  sends  forth 
her  hand,  and  slaughters  without  mercy.  Nobody  goes  near  her 
for  fear  of  being  hurt.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who 
protects  his  body. 

The  ninth  pylon  :  the  foremost,  the  Mighty  One,  the  joyous  who 
gives  birth  to  her  lord  ;  whose  circumference  is  350  measures  (5) ; 
she  who  shines  like  southern  emerald,  who  raises  Besu,  and 
encourages  the  dead,  she  who  provides  her  lord  with  offerings  every 

The  tenth  pylon  :  she  with  a  loud  voice ;  who  shouts  curses  to 
those  who  make  supplications  to  her;  the  very  brave,  the  dreadful, 
who  does  not  destroy  what  is  within  her.  The  name  of  the  door- 
keeper is  :  he  who  embraces  the  great  god. 

The  eleventh  pylon  :  she  who  renews  her  knives,  who  consumes 
her  enemies,  the  mistress  of  all  pylons,  to  whom  acclamations  are 
given  in  the  daytime  and  in  the  twilight.  She  will  prepare  the 
enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  twelfth  pylon  :  she  who  addresses  her  world  and  destroys 
those  who  come  through  the  morning  heat,  the  lady  of  brightness, 
who  listens  to  the  words  of  her  lord  every  day.  She  will  prepare 
the  enwrappmg  of  the  dead. 

The  thirteenth  pylon  :  Isis  extends  her  two  hands  upon  her ;  she 
lightens  the  Nile  in  its  hidden  abode.  She  will  prepare  the 
enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

l"he  fourteenth  pylon  :  the  lady  of  fear,  who  dances  on  the 
impure,  to  whom  the  Haker  festival  is  celebrated  on  the  day  of  the 
hearing  of  yells.     She  will  prepare  the  enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  fifteenth  pylon  :  the  evil  one,  with  red  hair  and  eyes,  who 
comes  out  at  night,  who  binds  her  enemy  all  round,  who  puts  her 
hands  over  the  god  whose  heait  is  motionless,  in  his  hour  (of 
danger),  who  goes  and  comes.  She  will  prepare  the  enwrapping  of 
the  dead. 

The  sixteenth  pylon  :  the  terrible,  the  lady  of  the  morning  dew, 
who  throws  out  (6)  her  burning  heat,  and  sprinkles  her  sparks  of  fire 
over  her  enemies  when  she  appears.  She  who  creates  (reveals  ?) 
the  mysteries  of  the  earth.  She  will  prepare  the  enwrapping  of  the 

294  ROOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  seventeenth  pylon  :  she  who  revels  in  blood  ;  Aahit,  the  lady 
of  the  unuai  plants.     She  will  prepare  the  enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  eighteenth  pylon  ;  she  who  likes  fire,  who  washes  her  knives, 
who  loves  cutting  heads,  the  welcome  one,  the  lady  of  the  palace, 
who  slays  her  enemies  in  the  evening.  She  will  prepare  the 
enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  nineteenth  pylon  :  she  who  directs  the  morning  light  in  her 
time,  and  observes  the  midday  heat,  the  lady  of  the  books  written 
by  Thoth  himself.     She  will  prepare  the  enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  twentieth  pylon  :  she  who  is  within  the  cavern  of  her  lord, 
who  covers  her  name,  and  hides  what  she  creates,  who  takes 
possession  of  hearts,  which  she  swallows.  She  will  prepare  the 
enwrapping  of  the  dead. 

The  twenty-first  pylon  :  she  who  cuts  the  stone  by  her  word,  and 
sacrifices  him  on  whom  fall  her  flames.  She  follows  the  hidden 


Chapters  145  and  146  are  two  versions  of  the  same  text.  They 
are   the  chapter  of  the  arrival  of  the  deceased  to    the    I    y^F 

of  the  house  of  Osiris.     It  is  difificult  to  know  what  these    I    jP^  F 

really  are.  Renouf  translates  the  word  by  pylon.  At  the  same  time 
he  says  they  are  not  mere  gates,  but  keeps  or  holds.  I  shall  use  his 
word  pylon ;    but    the  word   which   seems  to   me  to  convey  most 

exactly    the    meaning    is    a    cell,    since    each    of   the     I    1       ip  i 

has  an  inhabitant.  There  are  various  versions  of  these  chapters. 
The  oldest.  No.  146,  is  found  in  several  papyri,  and  has  been 
translated  from  Lc.  (Ley den),  the  only  one  which  has  the 
chapter  complete.  It  consists  of  21  paragraphs,  each  of  which 
begins   with   a   sentence   giving   the   names   of  the   pylon.      It  is 

followed   by   that  of  the  (.     n\    "fj r  '< °  >    which   I  translate,  with 

Renouf,  the  porter  or  doorkeeper  though  I  should  prefer,  he  who  is 
within  the  door,  since  the  vignettes  show  that  the  so-called  porter  or 
doorkeeper  is  the  god  who  occupies  the  cell.  There  are  21  pylons, 
out  of  which  the  papyri  give  us  a  certain  number.  Brugsch  finds 
in  their  names  those  of  some  of  the  hours  of  night  or  day  ;  but  the 

HOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  295 

fact  of  their  being  21,  absolutely  precludes  the  idea  of  these  pylons 
being  the  hours. 

The  papyrus  of  Nu  in  the  British  Museum  gives  a  slightly  different 
version  of  this  chapter  146.  Each  pylon  is  introduced  by  these 
words,  "  said  by  Nu  when  he  arrives  at  the  first  pylon  :  I  have 
arrived,  I  know  thee,  I  know  the  name  of  the  god  who  guardeth 
thee  ;  the  lady  of  trembling,  &c.,  is  thy  name,  the  name  of  the 
doorkeeper  is  the  brave.'"'  The  other  version  which  constitutes 
chapter  145  shows  that  the  god  who  guardeth  the  pylon  and  the 
doorkeeper  are  the  same  person. 

Chapter  145  is  the  same  text  which  has  been  spun  out  a  little 
more  We  have  no  older  copy  of  it  than  the  fragments  in  the  tomb 
of  Meneptah  Siphtah  and  queen  Tauser,  which  give  us  only  eleven 
pylons,  with  a  very  incorrect  teft.  As  for  the  Turin  text,  it  is  so 
hopelessly  corrupt,  especially  in  the  most  important  part,  the  names, 
that  I  did  not  attempt  to  translate  it.  Then  chapter  145  is  the  text 
of  Nu  for  146  still  more  developed.  In  the  version  of  the  royal  tomb, 
each  paragraph  is  called  :  "  The  salutation  of  Osiris,  the  king,  to  the 
pylon  :  I  know  thee,  I  know  thy  name,  I  know  the  name  of  the  god 
who  guardeth  thee."  Then  follow  the  name  of  the  pylon,  and  that 
of  the  god,  and  after  having  said  them,  the  deceased  describes  the 
purifications  he  goes  through,  the  oils  with  which  he  has  been 
anointed,  and  the  text  ends  with  these  words  :  pass  on,  thou  art  pure. 

It  is  curious  that  both  in  145  and  146  there  is  a  change  at  the 
pylon  No.  11.  In  our  text,  Lc^  the  name  of  the  doorkeeper 
disappears,  and  each  time,  after  the  name  of  the  pylon,  we  find  these 

In  145  the  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  still  mentioned,  but  this 
sentence  takes  the  place  of  the  description  of  the  purifications  and 
ointments  which  occurred  in  the  previous  paragraphs.  I  should  trans- 
late these  words  :  she  ivill  direct  or  prepare  the  enwrapping  or  clothing 
0/  the  dead.  I  think  that  the  dead  is  supposed  to  wear  a  different 
garment  at  each  pylon,  which  is  provided  to  him  by  the  pylon  itself. 
A  still  more  detailed  version  of  145  is  found  in  the  Paris  papy- 
rus Fg,  of  which  we  have  only  a  very  short  fragment.  At  each 
pylon  there  is  a  dialogue  between  the  deceased  and  doorkeeper, 
who  asks  whether  the  deceased  has  been  purified,  in  what  water, 
with  what  oil  he  has  been  anointed,  which  garment  he  wears,  which 
stick  he  holds  in  his  hand. 

296  BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD. 

Chapters  145  and  146  are  among  the  most  incorrect  texts  of  the 
Book  of  the  Dead,  and  until  we  have  new  copies  of  the  old  versions, 
there  will  always  be  a  large  measure  of  conjecture  in  any  attempt  to 
translate  them. 

(i)  I  II  HV.  Being  feminine,  the  name  is  that  of  a  woman  or 
a  goddess. 

Hathor,  the  consort  of  Thoth  at   Hermojiolis  (Mariette,  Denderah, 
II,  pi.  27,  15). 

(3)  0  \    \  ^v\     W"  5?)  '•     Renouf  translates,  "words  of  power." 
I  should  prefer  "  magic  power."      « 

(4)  I  read  with  the  Turin  text  -^^  ^   ' . 

(5)  .     According  to  Lepsius,  the  G-^^owiof,  40  cubits. 
^  I 

(6)  I   read   with    the   text   of  chapter  145  in   the   royal    tomb 

fl     □ 



The  vignettes  vary  considerably,  according  to  the  papyri.  In 
Lc  all  the  pylons  are  alike,  with  a  god  sitting  inside ;  evidently 
the  artist  was  free  to  draw  them  according  to  his  fancy.  The 
vignettes  of  the  papyrus  of  Ani,  and,  still  more,  /V,  are  remarkable 
for  their  fine  colours. 


The  first  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is :  he  whose  face 
is  overturned,  who  has  many  attributes.  The  name  of  its  warder  is  • 
the  adjuster.     The  name  of  the  herald  is  :  he  with  a  loud  voice. 

Said  by  A"  when  he  approaches  the  first  gate. 

I  am  the  mighty  one,  who  createth  his  own  light,  (i) 

I  come  to  thee,  Osiris,  and  I  worship  thee. 

Pure  are  thine  effluxes,  which  flow  from  thee,  and  which  make 
thy  name  in  Restau  (2)  when  it  hath  passed  there, 

Hail  to  thee,  Osiris. 

Arise,  thou  art  mighty,  Osiris,  in  Abydos. 


BOOit   OF   THE   DEAD. 





.  «^ 












































































BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  •  297 

Thou  goest  round  the  sky,  thou  sailest  with  Ra,  thou  surveyest 
mankind,  thou  art  alone  going  round  with  Ra,  for  thou  art  called 

I  am  the  divine  mummy.     What  I  say  takes  place. 

I  shall  not  be  driven  back  from  it  (the  gate) ;  its  walls  of  burning 
coals  show  the  way  in  Restau.  I  have  soothed  the  pain  of  Osiris, 
when  he  supports  him  who  balances  his  pedestal,  when  he  arrives 
from  the  great  valley.     I  have  made  my  way  to  the  light  of  Osiris.(3) 

The  second  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who 
shows  his  face.  The  name  of  its  warder  is :  he  with  a  revolving 
face.     The  name  of  the  herald  is  :  the  consumer. 

Said  by  N  when  he  approaches  the  second  gate.  He  sitteth 
and  acts  in  accordance  with  the  desire  of  his  heart,  weighing  the 
words  as  the  second  of  Thoth.  The  attributes  of  N  are  those  of 
Thoth.  When  faint  the  Maat  gods,  the  hidden  ones  who  live  on 
truth,  whose  years  are  those  of  Osiris,  (still)  I  am  mighty  in  offerings 
at  the  appointed  time.  I  have  made  my  way  out  of  the  fire.  I 
march,  I  have  made  my  way.  Grant  that  I  may  pass  on  freely,  that 
I  may  see  Ra  among  those  who  give  offerings. 

The  third  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is :  he  who  cateth 
his  own  filth.  The  name  of  its  warder  is  :  the  watchful.  The  name 
of  the  herald  is  :  the  great  one. 

Said  by  JV  when  he  approaches  the  third  gate. 

I  am  he  whose  stream  is  secret,  who  judgeth  the  Rehui.  I  have 
come  to  remove  all  evil  from  Osiris. 

I  am  the  girdled  (4)  at  his  appointed  time,  coming  forth  with  the 
double  crown. 

I  secured  firmly  my  suit  in  Abydos,  and  I  opened  my  path  in 
Restau.  I  have  soothed  the  pain  of  Osiris  who  balances  his  pedestal. 
I  have  made  my  way  when  he  shines  at  Restau. 

The  fourth  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is :  he  who 
opposes  garrulity.  The  name  of  its  warder  is  :  the  attentive  one. 
The  name  of  the  herald  is  :  he  who  drives  back  the  crocodile. 

Said  by  N  when  he  approaches  the  fourth  gate. 

I  am  the  bull,  (5)  the  son  of  the  Kite  of  Osiris.  Behold,  his 
father  the  Fiery  One  sat  in  judgment.  I  poised  the  balance  for  him. 
Life  has  been  brought  to  me.  I  live  for  ever.  I  have  made  my 
way.     I  am  the  son  of  Osiris,  I  live  for  ever. 

2  R 

298  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  fifth  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who  hves 
on  worms.  The  name  of  the  warder  is  :  the  consuming  flame.  The 
name  of  the  herald  is  :  the  bow  which  strikes  the  furious  (?). 

Said  by  i\^when  he  approaches  the  fifth  gate. 

I  have  brought  the  two  jaws  of  Restau.  (6)  I  have  brought  to 
thee  the  books  (?)  which  are  in  the  Annu,  and  I  add  up  for  him  his 
hosts.  I  have  repulsed  Apepi  and  healed  the  wounds  he  made.  I 
made  my  way  through  the  midst  of  you.  I  am  the  great  one  among 
the  gods.  I  purified  Osiris.  I  restored  him  as  victor.  I  joined 
his  bones,  and  put  together  his  limbs. 

The  sixth  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who  makes 
the  loaves,  with  a  thundering  voice.  The  name  of  its  warder  is  :  he 
who  shows  his  face.  The  name  of  the  herald  is  :  the  stolen  knife 
which  belongs  to  the  sky. 

Said  by  N  when  he  approaches  the  sixth  gate. 

I  come  every  day,  I  go.  I  who  was  created  by  Anubis,  I  am  the 
lord  of  the  diadem.  I  ignore  the  magic  words  (however).  I  avenge 
Maat,  I  avenge  his  eye.  I  gave  his  eye  to  Osiris  himself.  I  have 
made  my  way.     N  goes  along  with  you. 

The  seventh  gate.  The  name  of  the  doorkeeper  is  :  he  who 
takes  possession  of  their  knives.  The  name  of  its  warder  is :  he 
with  a  high  voice.  The  name  of  the  herald :  he  who  drives  back 
the  enemies. 

Said  by  N  when  he  approaches  the  seventh  gate. 

I  have  come  to  thee,  Osiris,  (7)  pure  are  thine  efHuxes.  Thou 
goest  round  and  thou  seest  the  sky  with  Ra.  Thou  seest  mankind, 
thou  the  only  one.  Thou  addressest  Ra  in  the  Sektit  boat  of  the 
sky,  when  he  goes  round  the  horizon.  I  say  what  I  wish,  my 
mummy  is  mighty.  What  I  say  takes  place  like  what  he  says.  I 
shall  not  be  driven  back  from  thee.     I  have  made  my  way. 

Said  near  the  seven  gates.  (8)  When  the  deceased  arrives  at  the 
pylons,  he  is  not  driven  back,  nor  repulsed  from  Osiris.  It  is  given 
him  to  be  among  the  glorious  ones,  the  most  excellent  of  them,  so 
that  he  may  have  dominion  over  the  first  followers  of  Osiris. 

Every  deceased  to  whom  this  chapter  is  read  is  like  the  lord  of 
eternity,  he  is  of  one  substance  with  Osiris,  and  in  no  place  has  he 
to  encounter  a  great  fight. 

BOOK   OF  THE   DEAD.  299 


Chapter  147  is  very  like  144,  in  fact,  it  is  the  same  more  deve- 
loped. It  refers  also  co  the  seven  gates  ;  and  whenever  the  deceased 
approaches  one  of  the  gates,  he  has  to  say  the  name  of  the  door- 
keeper, which,  as  we  saw  before,  is  that  of  the  gate  itself;  and  also 
the  name  of  the  warder  and  that  of  the  herald.  Besides  the  deceased 
has  to  address  the  gate,  probably  in  order  to  open  it  so  that  he  may 
pass  through.  The  words  he  utters  are  found  in  chapters  117,  119 
and  136B.  The  two  first  have  nearly  the  same  title, //^^  amz^^r/ a/ 
Restau,  near  Abydos.  If,  as  is  most  probable,  the  various  parts  ot 
the  Book  of  the  Dead  did  not  originate  in  the  same  place,  we  may 
safely  assert  that  these  chapters,  as  well  as  those  of  the  gates  and 
the  pylons,  come  from  Abydos. 

On  the  whole  the  Papyrus  of  Ani  is  more  complete  for  chapter 
147  than  the  Leyden  text  Lc  which  is  published  in  my  edition. 
Therefore  this  chapter  has  been  translated  from  Ani,  using  Lc 
whenever  Ani  is  too  corrupt. 

1.  Chapter  119,  vide  p.  206,  "Chapter  whereby  one  entereth 
and  goeth  forth  from  Restau." 

2.  I  should  translate  :  which  give  to  Restau  its  name.  This  is  an 
instance  of  those  wonderful  etymologies  often  met  with  in  religious 

texts.     From  the  word    1       V\  to  fioiv,  is  derived  the  name 

I  I      Q£^* 

3.  The  Osiris  of  the  first  gate  whom  the  deceased  addresses 

seems  to  be  the  moon.     The  word  ^^^       is  often  used  in  speaking 
of  the  pale  and  silvery  light  of  the  moon  (Naville,  Litanie  du  soieil, 

P-  54). 

The  last  sentences  are  found  in  chapter  117,  line  3. 

4.  Chapter  1 17. 

5.  Chapter  136B,  line  14. 

6.  Chapter  136B,  line  18.  I  repeat  Renouf's  translation, 
though  I  differ  from  him  in  various  points.  For  instance,  I  should 
translate  :  /  have  closed  the  doors  iti  Restau  (cf.  Inscr.  of  Piankhi, 
line  104). 

7.  An  abridged  version  of  chapter  119. 

8.  The  rubric  is  taken  from  the  Paris  papyrus  Fc. 

There  also  the  vignettes  vary  considerably  according  to  the  fancy 

2   K    2 

300  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

of  the  artist.  In  Lc  the  gates  and  the  gods  are  all  alike.  In  Pc 
the  god  is  always  represented  in  human  form  -with  a  ram's  head.  In 
the  Papyrus  of  Ani,  where  there  are  three  figures  for  each  gate,  these 
figures  are  all  different. 


Giving  sustena7ice  {\)  to  the  deceased  in  the  Netherworld^  and 
delivering  hi7n  from  all  evil  things.  (2) 

Hail  to  thee  who  shinest  as  living  soul,  and  who  appearest  on 
the  horizon,  N.  who  is  in  the  boat  knows  thee ;  he  knows  thy  name, 
he  knows  the  names  of  the  seven  cows  and  of  their  bull ;  they  give 
bread  and  drink  to  the  glorified  soul.  You  who  give  sustenance  to 
the  inhabitants  of  the  West,  give  bread  and  drink  to  the  soul  of  N.^ 
grant  that  he  may  be  your  follower,  and  be  between  your  thighs.  (3). 

(Then  follow  the  names  of  the  seven  cows.) 

The  house  of  the  ka,  of  the  inviolate  god, 

The  storm  of  the  sky,  which  raises  the  gods, 

The  hidden  one  in  her  dwelling, 

Chebt  the  mummified  form  of  the  god. 

The  greatly  beloved,  with  red  hair. 

The  abundant  in  life,  the  veiled  one. 

She  who  is  powerful  in  her  works,  or  on  her  pedestal, 

The  bull of  the  Nether^vorld. 

(Then  the  deceased  calls  on  the  four  rudders  of  the  sky,  the  four 
cardinal  points.) 

Hail !  divine  form,  the  good  one,  the  good  rudder  of  the 
Northern  sky. 

Hail !  thou  who  goest  round  and  pilotest  the  double  earth,  the 
good  rudder  of  the  Western  sky. 

Hail !  the  shining  one,  who  dwellest  in  the  house  of  the 
devouring  monsters,  the  good  rudder  of  the  Eastern  sky. 

Hail !  the  inner  one  who  dwelleth  in  the  house  of  the  red  ones, 
the  good  rudder  of  the  Southern  sky. 

Give  bread  and  drink,  oxen,  geese,  all  things  good  and  pure  to 
N.  Give  him  sustenance,  give  him  joy,  may  he  rest  on  the  earth, 
and  may  he  be  victorious  on  the  horizon  of  Annu,  in  the  Tuat,  in 
the  sky,  and  on  the  earth,  eternally. 

Ye  fathers  and  mothers,  gods  of  the  sky,  and  of  the  Netherworld, 


deliver  iV;  from  all  things  pernicious  and  evil,  from  all  liarm  and  evil, 
from  the  cruel  huntsman  and  his  swords,  and  from  all  evil  things; 
and  order  what  is  to  be  done  to  him  by  the  men,  the  glorious  ones, 
and  the  dead,  in  this  day,  in  this  night,  in  this  month,  and  in  this 

Said  (4)  by  a  man,  when  Ra  is  put  before  these  gods,  painted  in 
green,  and  standing  on  a  wooden  board,  and  when  they  give  him 
the  offerings,  and  the  sustenance  which  is  before  them,  bread  and 
drink,  geese,  and  frankincense,  and  when  they  present  mortuary 
gifts  to  the  deceased  before  Ra. 

(The  book  called)  giving  sustenance  to  a  deceased  in  the 
Netherworld,  delivers  a  man  from  all  evil  things.  Thou  shalt  not 
read  to  any  other  man  than  thyself  the  book  of  Unnefer.  He  to 
whom  this  has  been  read,  Ra  is  his  steersman  and  his  protecting 
power,  he  will  not  be  attacked  by  his  enemies  in  the  Netherworld, 
in  the  sky,  on  the  earth,  and  in  every  place  he  goes,  for  (the  book) 
giving  sustenance  to  the  deceased  has  its  effect  regularly. 


This  chapter  in  the  Turin  text  begins  with  a  long  title  which  is 
found  by  itself  in  the  papyrus  of  N'u.  Dr.  Budge  considers  it  as  a 
special  chapter,  to  which  he  has  given  No.  190.  But  the  proof  that 
it  is  not  a  chapter,  is  that  the  whole  of  it  is  written  in  red,  which 
means  that  it  is  a  title  ;  besides  this  title  is  that  of  one  of  the  hymns 
which  constitute  chapter  15,  the  hymn  to  the  setting  sun  (15  b,  3). 
The  chapter  itself  begins  with  the  last  word  in  line  7  of  the  Turin 
text.  We  have  a  nearly  complete  version  of  it  in  the  tomb  of 
Senmut,  the  architect  of  queen  Hatshepsu.  The  text  from  which  I 
translate  is  compiled  from  several  Theban  papyri. 

1.  Renouf  translates  the  word  in  various  ways  :  "  sustenance, 
nutriment,  dainties,  delicacies." 

2.  Note  the  connection  between  these  two  ideas  which  occurs 
throughout  the  chapter :  the  giving  nourishment  to  the  deceased 
delivers  him  from  all  evil. 

3.  To  be  suckled  by  the  divine  cows,  like  Hatshepsu  at  Der  el 
Bahari,  by  Hathor. 

4.  Several  papyri  have  here  the  rubric  of  30B,  with  the  name  of 
Mycerinus.     The  rubric  which  is  here  translated  is  taken  from  the 

302  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

papyrus  of  N^i/.  Lepsius  calls  148c  the  vignettes  belonging  to  this 
chapter.  In  a  columned  hall  stands  Osiris,  and  behind  him  the 
cows,  the  rudders,  and  the  four  gods  of  the  cardinal  points.  Osiris 
is  sometimes  left  out.  In  the  papyrus  of  Ani  the  god  has  his  hair 
painted  green,  and  he  stands  on  a  green  basement. 


The  first  domain.  O  this  domain  of  the  Amenta,  where  they 
live  upon  bread  of  the  plant  tej>  sent.  Take  off  your  head  dress  in 
my  presence,  for  I  am  the  great  one  among  you,  he  who  joins  his 
bones  and  establishes  firmly  his  limbs.  Ahi,  the  lord  of  hearts, 
came  to  me,  he  joined  my  bones,  and  as  he  fixed  the  diadem  of 
Tmu,  he  fastened  on  me  the  head  of  Nehebkau,  and  estabhshed  my 
balance.     I  am  lord  among  the  gods,  I  am  Amsi  the  builder. 

The  second  domain,  (i)  I  am  the  great  proprietor  in  the  garden 
of  Aarru.  O  this  garden  of  Aarru,  the  walls  of  which  are  of  steel ; 
the  height  of  its  wheat  is  seven  cubits,  the  ears  are  two  cubits,  and 
the  stalks  five  cubits.  The  glorified  ones,  each  of  whom  is  seven 
cubits  in  height,  reap  them  in  presence  of  Harmachis. 

I  know  the  inner  gate  of  the  garden  of  Aarru,  out  of  which 
cometh  Ra,  in  the  East  of  the  sky ;  the  South  of  it  is  by  the  lake  of 
Cha  ru,  and  the  North  of  it  by  the  stream  of  Reu  ;  thence  Ra  saileth 
with  favouring  gales. 

I  am  the  Teller  in  the  divine  ship ;  I  am  the  unresting  navi- 
gator in  the  Bark  of  Ra. 

I  know  those  two  sycamores  of  emerald,  between  which  Ra 
cometh  forth,  as  he  advanceth  over  what  Tmu  hath  lifted  up  (the 
firmament)  to  the  Eastern  gates  of  the  sky,  through  which  he 

I  know  this  garden  of  Aarru  of  Ra,  the  height  of  its  wheat  is 
seven  cubits,  the  ears  are  two  cubits,  the  stalks  five  cubits ;  the 
barley  is  seven  cubits.  It  is  the  glorified  ones,  each  of  whom  is  nine 
cubits  in  height,  who  reap  them  in  presence  of  the  powers  of  the 

The  third  domain.  (2)  O  this  domain  of  the  glorious  ones 
through  which  nobody  can  sail,  which  contains  glorious  ones,  and 
the  flame  of  which  is  a  consuming  fire.     O   this  domain  of  the 





L^=yiil  o 


'if  —  ^^n6 





Chapter  CXLIX.     British  Museum.     Papyrus  9900. 



Chapters  CXLV  and  CXLVI.     British  Museum.     Papyrus  9900. 












irip~n — "= 

•iyA—tl  ('111  -vl  a 



Chapter  CL.     British  Museum,  9900. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  303 

glorious  ones,  your  faces  are  looking  down  ;  make  straight  your 
ways,  and  purify  your  abodes  as  it  was  ordered  to  you  by  Osiris  the 
eternal  one. 

I  am  the  lord  of  the  red  crown  which  is  on  the  head  of  the 
shining  one,  (3)  he  who  gives  life  to  mankind  from  the  heat  of  his 
mouth,  and  who  delivers  Ra  from  Apepi. 

The  fourth  domain,  O  this  great  and  lofty  mountain  of  the 
Netherworld,  on  the  highest  point  of  which  ends  the  sky.  It  is 
three  hundred  measures  in  length,  and  ten  in  width.  There  is  a 
snake  on  it,  he  with  sharp  knives  is  his  name,  he  is  seventy  cubits 
in  his  windings,  lie  lives  by  slaughtering  the  glorious  ones  and  the 
damned  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  stand  on  thy  wall,  (4)  directing  my  navigation.  I  see  the  way 
towards  thee.  I  gather  myself  together.  I  am  the  man  who  puts  a 
veil  on  thy  head,  and  I  am  uninjured,  I  am  the  great  magician ; 
thy  eyes  have  been  given  me,  and  I  am  glorified  through  them. 
Who  is  he  who  goeth  on  his  belly?  Thy  strength  is  on  thy 
mountain ;  behold,  I  march  towards  it,  and  thy  strength  is  in  my 
hand.  I  am  he  who  lifts  the  strength.  I  have  come  and  I  have 
taken  away  the  serpents  (5)  of  Ra,  when  he  rests  with  me  at  eventide. 

I  go  round  the  sky,  thou  art  in  thy  valley,  as  was  ordered  to 
thee  before. 

The  fifth  domain,  O  this  domain  of  the  glorious  ones,  which  is 
open  to  no  one.  The  glorious  ones  who  are  in  it  have  thighs  of 
seven  cubits,  and  they  live  on  the  shades  of  the  motionless. 

Open  to  me  the  ways,  that  I  may  appear  before  you,  that  I  may 
reach  the  good  Amenta,  as  was  ordered  me  by  Osiris,  the  glorious 
one,  the  lord  of  all  the  glorified. 

I  live  of  your  glory,  I  observe  the  first  day  of  the  month,  and 
the  half-month  on  the  fifteenth  day. 

I  have  gone  round  with  the  eye  of  Horus  in  my  power,  following 

Any  god,  or  damned,  who  opens  his  devouring  mouth  against 
me  on  this  day,  is  struck  down  on  the  block. 

The  sixth  domain.  O  thou  Amemhet  who  art  sacred  more  than 
the  hidden  gods  and  the  glorious  ones,  and  who  art  dreadful  to  the 
gods.     The  god  in  it  is  called  Sechez-at,  (6) 

304  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Hail  to  thee,  Amemhet.    I  have  come  to  see  the  gods  within  thee. 

Show  your  faces,  and  take  away  your  head-dresses  in  my 
presence,  I  have  come  to  make  your  bread. 

Sechez-at  will  not  be  stronger  than  I  ;  the  slaughterers  will  not 
come  behind  me,  the  impure  ones  will  not  come  behind  me. 

I  live  upon  your  offerings. 

The  seventh  domain.  O  this  Ases,  too  remote  to  be  seen  ;  the 
heat  of  which  is  that  of  blazing  fire.  There  is  a  serpent  in  it  whose 
name  is  Rerek.  His  backbone  is  seven  cubits,  he  lives  on  glorious 
ones,  destroying  their  glory. 

Get  thee  behind  me,  Rerek,  who  is  in  Ases,  who  bites  with  his 
mouth  ;  and  who  paralyses  with  his  eyes. 

Thy  teeth  are  torn  away,  thy  venom  is  powerless. 

Thou  shalt  not  come  towards  me,  thy  venom  will  not  penetrate 
into  me.  Thy  poison  is  fallen  and  thrown  down,  and  thy  lips  are  in 
a  hole. 

The  white  serpent  has  struck  his  ka,  and  his  ka  has  struck  the 
white  serpent.  (7) 

I  shall  be  protected.     His  head  was  cut  off  by  the  lynx.  (8) 

The  eighth  domain.  O  this  Hahotep,  the  very  great,  the  stream 
of  which  nobody  takes  the  water  for  fear  of  its  roaring. 

The  god  whose  name  is  the  lofty  one,  keeps  watch  over  it,  in 
order  that  nobody  may  come  near  it. 

I  (9)  am  the  vulture  which  is  on  the  stream  without  end.  I 
brought  the  things  of  the  world  to  Tmu,  at  the  time  when  the 
sailors  (of  Ra)  are  abundantly  provided. 

I  have  given  my  strength  to  the  lords  of  the  shrines,  and  the  awe 
I  inspire  to  the  lord  of  all  things. 

I  shall  not  be  taken  to  the  block.  The  pleasure  they  take  in  me 
will  not  be  destroyed.     I  am  the  guide  on  the  northern  horizon. 

The  ninth  domain.  (10)  O  this  Akset  which  art  hidden  to  the 
gods,  the  name  of  which  the  glorious  ones  are  afraid  to  know.  No 
one  goes  out  who  goes  into  it,  except  this  venerable  god,  who 
inspires  fear  to  the  gods  and  terror  to  the  glorious  ones.  Its  open- 
ing is  of  fire,  its  wind  destroys  the  nostrils.  He  made  it  such(i  i) 
for  his  followers  in  order  that  they  may  not  breathe  its  wind,  except 
this  venerable  god  who  comes  out  of  his  egg. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  305 

lie  made  it  such,  being  in  it,  in  order  that  nobody  may  come 
near  it,  except  Ra  who  is  supreme  in  his  attributes. 

Hail  to  thee,  venerable  god,  who  comes  out  of  his  egg.  I  have 
come  to  thee  to  be  in  thy  following.  I  go  out  of,  and  I  come  into 
Akset.  Open  to  me  the  doors,  that  I  may  inhale  its  wind,  and  that 
I  may  take  the  offerings  within  it. 

The  tenth  domain.  (12)  O  this  city  of  the  Kahu  gods  who  take 
hold  of  the  glorious  ones,  and  who  gain  mastery  over  the  shades  (13) 

Who  they  see  with  their  eyes  ;   who    have  no  connection 

with  the  earth. 

O  ye  who  are  in  your  domain,  throw  yourselves  on  your  bellies, 
that  I  may  pass  near  you.  My  glorious  nature  will  not  be  taken 
from  me.  No  one  will  give  mastery  over  my  shade,  for  I  am  the 
divine  hawk  who  has  been  rubbed  with  anti  and  anointed  with 
incense ;  libations  have  been  offered  to  me ;  Isis  is  before  me  : 
Nephthys  is  behind  me. 

The  way  has  been  pointed  to  me  by  Nau,  the  bull  of  Nut  and 
Nehebkau.  I  have  come  to  you,  ye  gods  ;  deliver  me  and  glorify 
me  of  an  eternal  glory. 

The  eleventh  domain.  O  this  city  in  the  Netherworld,  this 
cavity  which  masters  the  glorious  ones. 

No  one  goes  out,  of  those  who  went  into  it,  from  the  dread  of 
the  appearance  of  him  who  is  in  it. 

He  who  sees  the  god  who  is  in  it,  face  to  face,  he  who  sees  him 
dies  there  from  his  blows,  except  the  gods  who  are  there,  and  who 
are  hidden  to  the  glorious  ones. 

0  this  Atu,  in  the  Netherworld.  Grant  that  I  may  reach  them ; 
I  am  the  great  magician,  with  his  knife  ;  I  am  issued  of  Set,  (I  stand 
on)  my  feet  for  ever. 

1  rise,  and  I  am  mighty  through  this  eye  of  Horus ;  my  heart  is 
raised,  after  it  has  fallen  low. 

I  am  glorious  in  heaven,  and  I  am  mighty  on  earth. 

I  fly  like  Horus,  I  cackle  like  the  divine  goose. 

It  was  given  me  to  alight  near  the  stream  of  the  lake ;  I  stand 
near  it,  I  sit  near  it,  I  eat  of  the  food  in  Sechit  Hotepit,  I  go  down 
to  the  islands  of  the  wandering  stars. 

The  doors  of  the  Maati  are  open  to  me ;  and  the  gates  of  the 
lupper  waters  are  unbolted  to  me. 

2  S 

306  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

I  raise  my  ladder  up  to  the  sky  to  see  the  gods. 
I  am  one  of  them,  I  speak  hke  the  divine  goose,  and  I  listen  to 
the  gods. 

I  talk  aloud,  I  repeat  the  words  of  Sothis. 

The  twelfth  domain.  O  this  domain  of  Unt,  within  Restau,  the 
heat  of  which  is  that  of  fire.  No  god  goes  down  into  it,  and  the 
glorious  ones  do  not  gather  into  it,  for  the  four  snakes  would  destroy 
their  names.  (14) 

0  this  domain  of  Unt !  I  am  the  great  among  the  glorious  ones 
within.  I  am  among  the  wandering  stars.  I  am  not  destroyed  ; 
my  name  is  not  destroyed. 

Come,  thou  divine  scent,  say  the  gods  who  are  in  the  domain  of  Unt. 

1  am  with  you,  I  live  with  you,  ye  gods  who  are  within  the 
domain  of  Unt. 

You  love  me  more  than  your  gods.  I  am  with  you  for  ever,  in 
the  presence  of  the  followers  of  the  great  god. 

The  thirteenth  domain.  O  this  domain  of  the  water,  which 
none  of  the  glorious  ones  can  possess,  for  its  water  is  of  fire,  its 
stream  is  burning,  and  its  heat  is  of  blazing  flame,  so  that  they  may 
not  drink  its  water  in  order  to  quench  the  thirst  which  is  within 
them,  for  their  mighty  fear,  and  their  great  terror. 

The  gods  and  the  glorious  ones  look  at  its  water  from  afar,  they 
do  not  quench  their  thirst,  and  their  heart  is  not  set  at  rest,  because 
they  may  not  go  near  it. 

When  the  river  is  full  and  green  like  the  flowing  sap  which 
comes  out  of  Osiris,  I  take  its  water,  I  draw  from  its  flood  like  the 
great  god  who  is  in  the  domain  of  the  water,  and  who  keeps  watch 
over  it  for  fear  that  the  gods  may  drink  from  its  water,  and  who 
inspires  dread  to  the  glorious  ones. 

Hail  to  thee,  thou  great  god,  who  art  in  the  domain  of  the  water. 
I  have  come  to  thee.  Grant  me  to  take  of  thy  water,  to  take  of  thy 
stream,  as  thou  doest  to  this  great  god. 

When  the  Nile  will  come,  when  he  will  give  birth  to  the  plants, 
and  cause  the  herbs  to  grow ;  as  it  is  given  to  the  gods,  when  he 
appears  in  peace,  grant  that  the  Nile  may  come  to  me,  and  that  J 
may  take  his  plants  ;  for  I  am  thy  own  son  for  ever. 

The  fourteenth  domain.  O  this  domain  of  Cher-aba  (15),  which 
drives  the  Nile  towards  Tattu,  and  which  causes  the  Nile  to  go  and 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  307 

spend  its  corn  in  his  course  from  Kokekmu  (16);  thou  which  pre- 
sentest  offerings  to  the  dead,  and  mortuary  gifts  to  the  glorious  ones. 

There  is  a  serpent  belonging  to  it,  who  comes  from  the  two  wells 
at  Elephantine,  at  the  gate  of  the  water.  He  goes  with  the  water, 
and  stops  at  the  stream  of  Cher-aba,  near  the  powers  of  the  high 
Hood  ;  he  sees  his  hour  of  the  silent  evening. 

Ye  gods  who  live  in  the  water  of  Cher-aba,  ye  powers  of  the 
high  flood,  open  to  me  your  ponds,  open  to  me  your  lakes,  that  I 
may  take  of  your  water,  and  that  I  may  rest  in  your  stream,  that  I 
may  eat  of  your  corn,  that  I  may  be  satisfied  with  your  food. 

I  have  risen,  my  heart  is  high,  for  I  am  the  great  god  in 

Make  me  offerings.  I  have  been  filled  with  the  vital  sap  coming 
out  of  Osiris.     I  shall  not  be  despoiled  of  it.     The  end. 


This  is  one  of  the  interesting  chapters  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 
It  is  more  frequently  met  with  than  the  other  ones,  and  it  generally 
constitutes  the  end  of  the  Theban  papyri.  It  is  the  chapter  of  the 
various  domains  which  the  deceased  has  to  reach,  and  in  which  he 
enjoys  special  privileges. 

The  vignettes  generally  give  the  plan  of  the  domain,  and  very 
often  the   colour  with  which  it  is  painted;  they  are  either   green 

\  ^       or  light   yellow  ,,^^,^^^1  ^ •     I"  most  of  the  papyri  there  are 

only  four  yellow — 3,  9,  10,  and  14. 

Renouf  translates    (,   ^R\  "domain"  (p.  208).     Dr.  Budge 

keeps  the  word  aat,  and  considers  them  as  the  divisions  of  the 
Elysian  fields.  Pierret  translates  demeiire,  Brugsch  siege,  defrmire, 
habitatmi.      I    shall    adopt    Renoufs   word,   though    residence   or 

habitation  seems  to  me  preferable.     An   /    >\  is  an  enclosed 

space  which  has  inhabitants  descnoed  or  mentioned  in  the  text. 
The  deceased  calls  first  on  the  domain,  and  often  in  the  same  breath 
goes  over  to  the  inhabitants  without  any  transition. 

1.  The  second  domain  is  the  horizon.  The  text  of  the  vignette 
says  :  the  god  who  is  in  it  is  Harmachis.  The  text  to  this  domain 
being  a  repetition  of  chapter  109,  I  adopt  Renoufs  translation 
(p.  181.) 

2.  The  third  domain  is  called  "that  of  the  glorious  ones." 

308  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

3.  The  moon.  ^^  reads  :  ()-[]-- Vl  f  ^  "11"  M  ll^  ^  ^ 
"  on  the  face  of  the  sun,  and  on  the  face  of  the  moon." 

4.  The  deceased  speaks  of  himself  as  a  magician  who  can  cover 
the  head  of  the  serpent  without  being  hurt.  The  eyes  of  the 
serpent,  which  have  the  power  of  paralyzing,  of  making  impotent 
(see  seventh  domain),  are  given  him  ;  the  result  is,  that  when  he 
goes  to  the  mountain  on  which  the  serpent  shows  his  strength,  this 
strength  collapses,  as  the  deceased  says  :  thy  strength  is  in  my  hand  ; 
I  am  he  who  lifts,  who  takes  away  the  strength. 

5.  Renouf  generally  translates  ^^.  V  <^/| '  '^^'"'^^Is. '  See 
p.  126,  and  Proc,  1893,  p.  385  ;  but  here  we  must  adopt  the  other 
sense,  serpent  or  worms.     Copt.  <i.Kopi. 

6.  Or  Secher-remn,  he  who  knocks  down  the  worm,  or  he  who 
knocks  down  the  fishes. 

7.  Ka  and  serpent  have  killed  each  other. 

8.  The  lynx  (see  note,  p.  82,  on  chapter  34).  It  seems  to 
be  the  cat  who  is  represented  in  the  vignettes  of  chapter  17, 
cutting  off  the  head  of  the  serpent. 

9.  This  is  a  chapter  found  on  the  sarcophagus  of  Amam  in  the 

~  r^ — . 

British  Museum  :  it  has  the  title  >rfi     %v  v^     rs     \>  |~^  , 

"taking  the  form  of  a  vulture"  (see  p.   139)  :  I  should  rather  say 
a  goose. 

10.  The  ninth  domain,  Akset  or  Aksi,  has  the  form  of  a  vase, 
which  a  crocodile  called  Maatetf  touches  with  his  snout. 

11.  The  words  are  obscure.  I  believe  them  to  mean:  Akset 
was  made  such  as  it  is,  in  order  that,  &c. 

12.  The  tenth  domain  is  called  that  which  is  at  the  mouth  of 
the  stream. 

13.  I  cannot  translate  the  following  words. 

14.  The  destruction  of  the  name  means  absolute  destruction  of 
the  person. 

15.  I  have  kept  the  reading  Cher-aba,  which  Renouf  advocates, 
in  opposition  to  Cher-aha,  adopted  by  most  egyptologists. 

16.  I  believe  this  name,  which  is  spelt  differently  in  each 
papyrus,  to  be  the  origin  of  the  K/3w0<  and  Mw0<,  these  two  rocks 
mentioned  by  Herodotus  (II,  28),  out  of  which  issues  the  Niles. 

There  are  hardly  any  variants  in  the  vignettes  which  accompany 
the  text  of  the  chapter  of  the  domains. 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 

Chapter  151.     Papyrus,  British  Museum,  looio. 

Chatter  152.     Papyrus,  Busca. 






Chapter  151  a  ter. 
Papyrus,  B.M.,  9900. 

Chapter  153. 
Papyrus,  Louvre,  III,  93. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  309 

Chapter  CL. 

This  is  not  a  separate  chapter:  it  stands  to  149  as  16  to  15.  It 
consists  of  the  vignettes  accompanying  Chapter  149,  and  it  is  the 
end  of  many  papyri.  Curiously,  there  are  fifteen  domains  instead  of 
fourteen,  one  of  them,  the  fifth,  seems  to  have  been  divided  into  two. 

At  the  corner  of  the  picture  are  four  serpents,  which  I  consider 
as  the  four  cardinal  points. 

Taking  the  domains  in  the  same  order  as  in  the  preceding  text, 
we  find  them  named  in  the  following  way  in  the  papyrus  Aa  : — 

1.  The  good  Amenta,  the  gods  within  which  live  on  s/iens  and  /// 

2.  The  garden  of  Aarru;  the  god  in  it  is  Ra. 

3.  The  domain  of  the  glorious  ones. 

4.  The  high  and  lofty  mountain. 

5.  The  basin,  the  fire  of  which  is  a  blazing  flame  ;  the  front  of 
the  fire,  the  god  in  it  is  the  bearer  of  altars. 

6.  Amemhet,  the  god  in  it  is  he  who  knocks  down  the  fishes. 

7.  Asset. 

8.  Hasert,  the  god  m  it  is  the  bearer  of  heaven. 

9.  Akset,  the  god  in  it  is  Maatetf. 

10.  The  face  of  the  Kahu  gods. 

11.  Aat,  the  god  in  it  is  Sothis. 

12.  The  domain  of  Unt,  the  god  in  it  is  the  destroyer  of  souls. 

13.  The  surface  of  the  water,  the  god  in  it  is  the  mighty  power. 

14.  The  domain  of  Cher-aba,  the  god  in  it  is  the  Nile. 


(a)  Words  of  Anubis. 

Thy  right  eye  is  in  the  Sektit  boat,  thy  left  eye  is  in  the  Atit 
boat.  Thy  eyebrows  are  with  (i)  Anubis,  thy  fingers  are  with 
Thoth,  thy  locks  are  with  Ptah  Sokaris ;  they  prepare  for  thee  a 
good  way,  they  smite  for  thee  the  associates  of  Sut. 

(d)  Said  by  Isis.  I  have  come  as  thy  protector,  JV,  with  the 
breath  coming   forth  from  Tmu.      I  shall  strengthen  for  thee  thy 

2  T 

3IO  BOOK    OF    THE   DEAD. 

throat.     T  give  thee  to  be  like  a  god.     I  will  put  all  thy  enemies 
under  thy  feet. 

(c)  Said  by  Nephthys.  I  go  round  my  brother  Osiris  A^.  I 
have  come  as  thy  protector.  I  am  myself  behind  thee  for  ever,  hear- 
ing when  thou  art  addressed  by  Ra,  and  when  thou  art  justified  by 
the  gods.  Arise,  thou  art  justified  through  all  that  has  been  done  for 
thee.  Ptah  has  smitten  thy  enemies  ;  thou  art  Horus  the  son  of 
Hathor.  It  has  been  ordered  what  should  be  done  for  thee.  Thy 
head  will  not  be  taken  away  from  thee  for  ever. 

(d)  Words  of  the  figure  of  the  Northern  wall. 

Ke  who  Cometh  to  enchain,  I  shall  not.  let  him  enchain  thee. 
He  who  Cometh  to  throw  bonds,  I  shall  not  let  him  throw  bonds  on 
ihee.  I  am  here  to  throw  bonds  on  thee.  I  am  here  to  enchain 
thee;  but  I  am  thy  protector.  (2) 

(e)  Words  of  the  Tat  of  the  U'estern  wall. 

Come  in  haste,  and  turn  away  the  steps  of  Kep-her.  Bring  light 
into  his  hidden  abode.  I  am  behind  Tat,  I  am  verily  behind  Tat, 
on  the  day  when  the  slaughter  is  repelled.  I  am  the  protector 
ofiV^.  (3) 

(/)  Words  of  the  flame  of  the  Southern  wall. 

I  have  spread  sand  around  the  hidden  abode,  repelling  the 
aggressor  that  I  might  throw  light  on  the  mountain.  1  have 
illuminated  the  mountain.  I  have  turned  the  direction  of  the 
sword.     I  am  the  protector  of  N.  (4) 

{£)  Said  by  Anubis  in  his  divine  hall,  the  lord  of  Ta-Tsert. 
I  keep  watch  over  thy  head.  Awake,  thou  on  the  mountain.  Thy 
wrath  is  averted.  I  have  averted  thy  furious  wrath.  I  am  thy 
protector.  (5) 

(Ji)  The  two  figures  of  the  soul,  with  raised  hands 
The  Uving  soul,  the  powerful  Chu  of  N.  worships  the  sun  when 

he  ariseth  on  the  Eastern  horizon  of  the  sky. 

The  living  soul  of  N.  adoreth  Ra,  when  he  setteth  in  the  land  of 

the  living,  on  the  Western  horizon  of  the  sky. 


(/)  Words  of  the  two  statuettes.  (6) 

O  statuette  there !  Should  I  be  called  and  appointed  to  do  any 
of  the  labours  that  are  done  in  the  Netherworld,  by  a  person 
according  to  his  abilities,  to  plant  fields,  to  water  the  soil,  to  convey 
the  sand  from  East  to  West ;  here  am  I,  whithersoever  thou 
callest  me. 

Words  of  the  genii  of  the  four  cardinal  points. 

{k)  I  am  Kebehsenuf.  I  have  come  to  be  thy  protector. 
I  have  joined  thy  bones.  I  have  strengthened  thy  limbs.  I  have 
brought  thee  thy  heart  and  put  it  in  its  place,  into  thy  body. 
I  will  cause  thy  house  to  prosper  after  thee. 

(/)  I  am  Hapi  thy  protector.  I  have  revived  thy  head  and  thy 
limbs.  I  have  smitten  thy  enemies  under  thee.  I  give  thee  thy 
head  for  ever. 

{m)  I  am  Tuamautef.  I  am  thy  son  Horus,  I  have  come,  and 
I  rescue  my  father  from  the  evil  doer,  whom  I  put  under  thy  feet. 

(«)  I  am  Emsta.  I  have  come,  I  am  thy  protector.  I  cause  thy 
house  to  prosper  permanently,  according  to  the  command  of  Ptah, 
according  to  the  command  of  Ra  himself. 


With  Chapter  151  begins  a  series  of  texts  written  either  on  the 
walls  of  the  funeral  chamber  or  on  the  mummy  cloth,  or  on  various 
amulets.  This  series  goes  as  far  as  160,  with  the  exception  of  152 
and  153,  which  have  been  inserted  there  without  any  apparent 

Chapter  151  is  not  so  much  a  text  as  a  picture.  It  represents 
the  funeral  chamber.  The  four  walls,  which  should  be  vertical,  are 
drawn  lying  flat  on  the  ground.  In  the  middle  of  the  chamber, 
under  a  canopy,  is  the  mummy,  on  which  Anubis  lays  his  hands ; 
under  the  bed  is  a  bird  with  a  human  head,  the  symbol  of  the  soul 
of  the  deceased.  We  must  suppose  that  the  god  Anubis  is  a  priest, 
or  a  member  of  the  family,  who  has  put  on  a  jackal's  head,  and  who 
pronounces  the  words  said  to  be  those  of  the  god.  At  the  foot  of 
the  bed  are  the  two  goddesses  Isis  and  Nephthys. 

Each  of  the  four  walls  had  a  small  niche  of  the  exact  size  of 
an  amulet,  which  was  lodged  in  it.  We  know  it  from  the  four 
oriented  steles  of  Marseilles  (Naville,  Les  quatre  steles  orieiitees  du 
Musee  de  Marseille),  where  we  find  the  text  belonging  to  each  wall, 

2    T   2 

312  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

and  also  the  niche  cut  in  the  stone  for  each  amulet.  On  the  North 
was  a  human  figure,  on  the  South  a  flame,  on  the  East  a  jackal, 
on  the  West  a  Tat. 

In  the  chamber  were  four  so-called  canopic  vases,  with  the  gods 
of  the  four  cardinal  points,  each  of  whom  has  his  words  to  say. 
Besides  these  were  statuettes  called  shabti  or  ushabti,  the  helpers  of 
the  deceased  in  his  work  in  the  Elysian  fields.  In  the  papyrus 
London,  looio  {A/.),  from  which  this  chapter  is  translated,  one  of 
them  has  the  usual  appearance,  the  other  the  head  of  Anubis. 

The  soul  of  the  deceased  is  supposed  to  be  in  the  chamber,  and 
to  worship  the  rising  and  the  setting  sun. 

Very  few  papyri  have  this  chapter  as  complete  as  Af.,  which  is 
taken  here  as  standard  for  text  and  vignettes,  but  there  are  fragments 
of  it  here  and  there.  The  Turin  version  is  much  shorter  than  the 
old  one.  The  papyrus  of  JSFii  (ed.  Budge)  contains  the  texts  of  the 
four  walls  with  rubrics  very  similar  to  those  of  the  steles  in  Marseilles. 
They  form  a  special  chapter  joined  to  137 a,  with  the  title  :  What  is 
do7ie  secretly  in  the  Ttiat,  the  mysteries  of  the  Timt,  the  introduction 
into  the  mysteries  of  the  Nether^vorld. 

In  order  to  facilitate  the  understanding  of  the  chapter,  I  have 
lettered  the  words  spoken  by  the  various  figures. 

1.  Renouf  would  have  translated  (see  Chapter  42),  thy  eyebrows 
are  those  of  Anubis  ;  but  the  following  chapter  shows  that  we  have 
to  translate  7vith  Anubis,  which  should  mean  here,  under  the 
protection  of  Anubis. 

2.  The  rubrics  say  the  figure  is  made  of  palm  wood,  and  is  seven 
fingers  high. 

3.  The  rubric  of  this  Tat  is  the  following :  said  on  a  Tat  of 
crystal^  the  branches  of  which  are  of  gold.  It  is  folded  up  ift  fitie 

There  is  another  chapter  of  the  Tat  put  on  the  neck  of  the 
deceased  (Chapter  155),  the  words  of  which  are  totally  different. 

4.  According  to  the  rubric,  the  flame  is  a  torch  made  of  reeds 

5.  The  Anubis  was  made  of  clay. 

6.  Words    engraved    on    the    funerary    statuettes    called  TjI^T 

Nk\     \  '^  t    or  ^czsm  J  f  \  >  'iii  abridged  form  of  Chapter  6,  for 
which  I  take  Renouf's  translation. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD  313 

CHAPTER  CLiA  bis. 

Said  by  Anubis  Amut,  in  his  divine  hall,  when  he  puts  his 
hands  over  the  body  of  yV.,  and  provides  him  with  all  that  belongs 
to  him. 

Hail  to  thee,  beautiful  face,  lord  of  sight,  sacred  eye  lifted  up 
by  Ptah  Sokaris,  raised  by  Anubis,  and  to  which  Shu  has  given  its 

Beautiful  face,  which  art  among  the  gods,  thy  right  eye  is  in  the 
Sektit  boat,  thy  left  eye  is  in  the  Atit  boat ;  thy  eyebrows  are  a 
pleasant  sight  among  the  gods.  Thy  front  is  in  the  protection  of 
Anubis,  thy  back  is  pleasant  to  the  venerable  hawk.  Thy  fingers  (i) 
are  well  preserved  in  writing  before  the  lord  of  Hermopolis,  Thoth, 
the  giver  of  written  words.  Thy  locks  are  beautified  before  Ptah 

N.  is  welcome  among  the  gods  ;  he  sees  the  great  god,  he  is  led 
on  the  good  roads,  he  is  presented  with  funerary  offerings,  his 
enemies  are  beaten  down  under  him  in  the  house  of  the  Prince  of 
Heliopolis  (2). 


The  words  spoken  by  Anubis  in  Chapter  1 5 1  have  been  taken 
out  and  made  into  a  special  chapter,  which  in  papyrus  London, 
9900  {All)  occurs  in  two  different  forms.  I  called  them  CLIa  Ms 
and  CLLa  ier,  the  second  one  being  only  an  abridgement  of  the  first. 
Vignettes  and  titles  are  not  the  same  for  these  two  chapters.  That 
translated,  CLIa  bis,  is  the  longest  of  the  two.  The  title  of  the 
other  one  is  •  the  Chapter  of  the  Mysterious  Head,  and  the  vignette 
thereof  consists  of  a  mummy's  head. 

In  comparing  this  chapter  with  the  words  of  Anubis  we  had 
before,  we  find  the  explanation  of  expressions  like  this  :  thy  eyebrows 
are  with  Anubis. 

(i)   ]]].     This  word  has  always  been  translated  yf^^^rx,  a  sense 

which  is  evidently  wrong  in  this  place,  where  parts  of  the  head  only 
are  mentioned,  and  when  one  would  expect  the  hair  or  the  beard. 

I  suppose  that  this  obscure  sentence  means  that  since  everything 
m  him  is  divine  the  design  or  colour  of  his  fingers  (?)  was  taken  from 
the  books  of  Thoth. 

(2)  See  note  8  on  Chapter  i. 

314  HOOK    OF    THE    DEAD. 


The  Chapter  of  building  a  house  (i)  on  earth. 

0  rejoice,  Seb,  N.  has  been  set  in  motion  with  his  vital  power 
he  has  given  to  men  and  gods  their  creative  strength. 

There  is  cheering,  when  it  is  seen  that  Seshait  (2)  has  come 
towards  Seb  ;  when  Anubis  has  commanded  to  N.  :  build  a  house  on 
earth,  the  foundations  of  which  be  Hke  On,  and  the  circuit  Hke 
Cher-aba ;  let  the  god  of  the  sanctuary  be  in  the  sanctuary.  I  also 
decree  that  it  should  contain  the  sacrificial  victim,  brought  by  slaves, 
and  held  up  by  ministrants. 

Said  by  Osiris  to  the  gods  in  his  following  :  come  hastily,  and  see 
the  house  which  has  been  built  for  the  glorified,  the  well  equipt,  who 
Cometh  every  day.  Look  at  him,  hold  him  in  awe,  and  give  him 
l^raise,  which  is  well  pleasing  to  him. 

(3)  You  see  what  I  have  done  myself,  I  the  great  god  who 
Cometh  every  day.  Look  ye,  Osiris  brings  me  cattle,  the  south  wind 
brings  me  grain,  the  north  wind  brings  me  barley  as  far  as  the  end 
of  the  earth. 

1  have  been  exalted  by  the  mouth  of  Osiris  (4),  applause  sur- 
rounds him  (5)  on  his  left  and  on  his  right. 

Look  ye,  men,  gods,  and  Chus,  they  applaud  him,  they  applaud 
him,  and  I  am  well  pleased. 

The  text  here  translated  is  that  of  the  Papyrus  of  A^u.  with  a  few- 
variants  taken  from  contemporary  texts. 

1.  The    J  here  mentioned  is  the  abode  of  the  j j,  where 

it  is  worshipped  and  receives  offerings.  In  the  vignette  of  Pap. 
Busca  (Ik),  the  plan  of  this  abode  is  like  the  funerary  constructions 
discovered  at  Nagadah  and  Abydos. 

2.  The  goddess  ^is  often  connected  with  building  (Chapter  52). 

3.  Here  the  deceased  begins  to  speak  himself. 

_^.  "^^   ^^^  beating  in  measure  as  the  musicians 

do,  the  regular  applause  so  often  heard  in  the- East. 

5.  The  person  changes,  as  is  often  the  case  in  such  texts.  The 
deceased  speaks  of  himself  in  the  third  person. 



Chapter  153A.     Louvre,  III,  93. 

Chapter  153A.     Louvre,  3084. 


Chapfer  161. 
Louvre,  III,  93, 

Chapter  153A.     B.M.,  9900. 

BOOK   OV   THK   DEAD.  315 


T^e  Chapter  of  comifig  out  of  the  net.  (i) 

0  he  who  turns  backwards,  mighty  of  heart,  who  spreads  his  net 
before  him,  who  entereth  the  earth  !  O  you  the  fishermen  sons  of 
their  fathers  (2),  who  go  round  in  the  midst  of  the  stream,  you  will 
not  catch  me  in  your  net,  in  which  you  catch  the  disabled,  and  you 
will  not  carry  me  away  in  your  canvas,  in  which  you  take  away  the 
evil  ones  in  the  earth  ;  the  frame  (jf  which  reaches  the  sky,  and 
the  weights  of  which  are  on  the  earth. 

For  I  will  come  out  of  its  meshes  and  shine  like  Hunnu  (Sokaris). 
I  will  come  out  of  its  bars  (3)  and  shine  like  Sebak.  I  shall  fly 
against  you  like  a  fisher  whose  fingers  (4)  are  hidden. 

1  know  the  fork  (5)  which  belongs  to  it.  It  is  the  great  finger 
of  Hunnu  (Sokaris).  I  know  the  stake  (6) ;  it  is  the  leg  of  Nemu  (7). 
I  know  its  pointed  head,  it  is  the  hand  of  Isis.  I  know  the  name 
of  its  blade ;  it  is  the  knife  of  Isis  with  which  she  cut  the  meat  for 

I  know  the  name  of  the  frame  and  of  the  weights.  They  are  the 
feet  and  the  legs  of  the  Sphinx  (8). 

I  know  the  name  of  the  ropes  with  which  fishing  is  done ;  they 
are  the  bonds  of  Tmu. 

I  know  the  names  of  the  fishermen  who  are  fishing.  They  are 
the  worms  (9),  the  ancestors  of  the  blood  drinkers  (10),  who  pour 
their  flow  on  my  hands,  when  the  great  god  the  lord  listens  to  the 
words  in  Heliopolis,  in  the  night  of  the  15th  of  the  month  (11), 
in  the  temple  of  the  moon. 

I  know  the  marked  space  (12)  in  which  they  are  enclosed.  It  is 
the  soil  of  iron  on  which  the  gods  stand. 

I  know  the  name  of  the  divine  supervisor  who  takes  hold  of  the 
fishes,  and  marks  them  on  the  tail.  He  is  the  supervisor  of  the 
divine  property. 

I  know  the  name  of  the  table  on  which  he  lays  them  (the  fishes) ; 
it  is  the  table  of  Horu.s. 

He  sits  alone  in  the  night;  nobody  sees  him ;  the  future  ones  (13) 
see  him,  and  the  present  ones  give  him  their  acclamations. 

I  shine  like  Horus  ;  I  govern  the  land,  and  I  go  down  to  the  land 

3l6  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

in  the  two  great  boats.  Horus  introduces  me  into  the  house  of  the 
Prince  (14). 

I  have  come  as  a  fisher;  the  fork  has  been  given  into  my  hand  ; 
my  blade  is  in  my  hand,  my  knife  is  in  my  hand.  I  come  forth ; 
I  go  round  about,  and  I  entangle  in  my  net. 

I  know  the  name  of  the  fork  which  closes  the  mouths  vomiting 
(fire  ?).     It  is  the  great  finger  of  Osiris. 

The  fingers  (prongs)  which  hold  fast,  they  are  the  fingers  of  the 
ancestors  of  Ra,  the  claw  of  the  ancestor  of  Hathor. 

I  know  the  strings  which  are  on  this  fork,  they  are  the  bonds 
of  the  lord  of  mankind. 

I  know  the  name  of  the  stake ;  the  thigh  of  Nemu.  Its  point  is 
the  hand  of  Isis,  its  coil,  the  cord  of  the  first-born  god,  its  cordage 
the  rope  of  Ra. 

I  know  the  name  of  the  fishermen  who  are  fishing ;  they  are  the 
worms,  the  ancestors  of  Ra,  the  creatures  (15),  the  ancestors  of  Seb. 

When  what  thou  eatest  is  brought  to  thee,  what  I  eat  is  brought 
to  me.     Thou  eatest  what  is  eaten  by  Seb  and  Osiris. 

0  (16)  thou  who  turnest  backwards,  mighty  of  heart,  who  fishes 
and  entangles  him  who  enters  the  earth  ;  O  you  fishers,  sons  of 
their  fathers,  and  ye  fowlers  who  are  in  Nefer-sent ;  you  will 
not  catch  me  in  your  nets,  and  you  will  not  entangle  me  in  your 
meshes,  wherein  you  catch  the  disabled,  and  where  you  catch  those 
who  are  in  the  earth ;  for  I  know  it  (the  net),  its  frame  above,  and 
its  weights  below.  Behold,  I  come,  my  stake  is  in  my  hand ;  the 
point  is  in  my  hand,  the  blade  is  in  my  hand. 

1  come,  I  arrive  to  my  ....(?)  I  have  come  myself;  I  have 
come  to  bind  it,  to  put  it  in  its  place.  My  knife  is  sharpened.  I 
put  it  in  its  place. 

The  stake  which  is  in  my  hand  is  the  thigh  of  Nemu ;  the  fork 
which  is  in  my  hand  is  the  fingers  of  Sokaris  ;  this  point  which  is  in 
my  hand  is  the  claws  of  Isis ;  the  blade  which  is  in  my  hand  is  the 
knife  of  Nemu. 

Behold  I  have  come,  I  sit  in  the  boat  of  Ra,  I  sail  on  the  lake 
of  Cha  ()  7)  and  on  the  lake  of  the  Northern  sky. 

I  hear  the  words  of  the  gods.  I  do  what  they  are  doing,  I  give 
praises  to  their  persons,  I  live  as  they  live. 

N.  appears  on  the  ladder  which  was  made  for  him  by  his 
father  Ra,  when  Horus  and  Sut  lake  hold  of  him. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  317 


In  the  Theban  version  the  Chapter  of  the  Net  is  divided  into  two, 
153A  and  153B,  which  have  different  titles  and  different  vignettes. 
153A  is  called  the  ''  Chapter  of  coming  oui,^'  or,  as  might  be  translated, 
^^  of  escaping  from  the  net.'"  The  vignettes  represent  a  clap-net,  used 
for  waterfowl.     The  second  Chapter  is  called  '''' the  Chapter  of  escapifig 

from  those  zvho  catch  \\  <&<  1 ,"  which,  from  the  etymology, 

c  ^  _zr       I 

might  be  translated  foul  or  fetid  fish.     There  the  vignette  represents 
a  drag-net  containing  fishes,  and  drawn  by  apes. 

It  is  probable,  one   may  suppose,   that   originally   one  Chapter 

referred  to  the  fowlers,  the  1  [  saV  -  ,  who  use  the  clap-net, 

©  ^11  Mi  IN  ^ 

and  the  other  to  the  fishermen,  the  'w  '\\    r\    ^"^  TTT,  who 

M    _M.  .>5r^  <e^  III 

use  the  drag-net.  But  in  the  form  in  which  these  Chapters  appear 
in  the  three  best  texts  where  they  have  been  preserved,  London, 
9900  {Aa),  Paris,  III,  93  {-Ph-),  and  the  papyrus  of  Nu,  fowlers  and 
fishermen  are  mixed  together. 

The  text  of  153A  is  very  corrupt,  and  seems  to  differ  greatly 
from  the  original.  The  variants  between  the  chief  documents  are 
considerable,  and  show  that  the  understanding  of  it  was  nearly  lost. 
It  probably  had  two  different  versions,  which  have  been  cast  into 
one,  since  after  the  first  two-thirds  it  begins  over  again  and  nearly 
repeats  itself 

The  Turin  text  contains  only  153A,  and  that  even  much  shorter, 
but  it  is  followed  by  a  rubric,  which  is  absent  from  the  Theban 

The  translation  is  made  from  the  three  above-named  documents. 

The  vignette  of  153A,  in  the  papyrus  III,  93,  of  the  Louvre  {Pb), 
shows  a  clap-net  drawn  by  four  men.  Behind  it  comes  the  deceased, 
holding  in  his  hand  two   instruments  mentioned  in  the  text :    the 

D — c  and  the  \\  ,  called  v\  \2_vo^t^  or  ^\    — h— \X_  •  eacb 

of  them  consists  of  different  parts  having  a  distinct  name. 

In  the  papyrus  of  JVii  the  deceased  is  seen  drawing  the  rope  of 
the  net. 

In  the  vignette  of  London,  9900  {Aa),  he  is  supposed  to  do  the 

2   U 

3l8  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1.  Among  the  dangers  to  which  the  deceased  is  exposed  is  that 
of  being  caught  in  a  net  by  hidden  genii,  who  will  treat  him  as  is 
done  to  water-fowl  or  fishes.  But  he  escapes  from  this  peril, 
because  he  knows  the  names  of  the  fowlers  and  fishermen  who 
intend  to  attack  him,  and  also  of  the  net  itself,  and  of  the  various 
parts  of  which  it  consists.  All  these  names  are  mystical ;  they  are 
connected  with  some  divinity,  and  this  gives  them  a  magical  power, 
owing  to  which  the  deceased  can  make  his  escape. 

2.  I  suppose  this  means  fishermen,  sons  of  fishermen. 

3.  Litt.  the  hands  :  the  bars,  the  sides  of  the  frame  of  the  net. 

4.  The  fingers  are  often  mentioned  when  we  should  say  the 
hand.  The  act  or  the  wound  is  attributed  to  the  fingers.  "Whose 
fingers  are  hidden,"  means  he  who  hides  the  hand  with  which  he  will 

5.  :> — c.  The  instrument  in  the  hand  of  the  deceased.  Though 
the  determinative  is  ^^^-^,  it  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  it  is 
made  of  wood  ;  it  may  be  the  determinative  of  weapons  in  general. 
It  has  prongs,  which  are  compared  to  nails  or  claws,  so  that  it 
probably  is  a  weapon  like  the  bident  for  spearing  fishes,  the  tines 
of  which  are  held  together  by  a  string  (Wilkinson,  Mariners  and 
Customs,  2nd  edition,  Vol.  II,  p.  J07).  Otherwise  it  is  not  unlike 
a  netting  needle  (Wilkinson,  loc.  cit.,  p.  175).  If  it  is  a  weapon,  one 
does  not  very  well  understand  why  it  is  said  to  belong  to  the  ret. 

6.  The   ^^\      ^    \2^sj7-7^  is    evidently    the   stake  or   peg   to 

which  the  end  of  the  clap-net  is  fastentd.     But  it  must  be  noticed 
that  in  the  vignette  of  London,  9900,  this  peg  is  a  dagger.     There- 

for   one    may   speak   of  its   pointed    head  (Brugsch,  Diet. 

SuppL,  p.  85),  and  of  its  [  . a^'';^-  ,  blade. 

7.  Nemu   is   perhaps   a  local  name  of  Horus  (Brugsch,  Did. 
geog.,V-  70- 

8.  jTt  •    "  The  god  in  Lion  form  "  (Renouf)  is  the  name  of 

the  Sphinx  {Sphinx,  Vol.  V,  p.  193).  ■ 

9.  See  Chapter  149,  note  5. 

10.  We    know    from    an    inscription    at    L')endereh    that    the 

>      (][    \^  Wl '  ^^^  drinkers,  feast  on  blood,    •¥" 
^=^^  ^    (Brugsch,  Diet.  Suppl.,  p.  18) 


BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  319 

11.  The  late  recension  of  Chipter  153  ends  here,  and  does  not 
contain  1531;.     It  is  followed  by  this  rubric  : 

Said  on  a  figure  of  the  deceased  ivhich  is  placed  in  a  boat.  Thou 
shalt  put  the  Ssktit  boat  on  his  right,  and  the  Atit  boat  on  his 
left.  Offerings  tvill  be  made  to  him  of  cakes,  beer,  and  all  good 
things,  on  the  day  of  the  birth  of  Osiris.  He  to  wh  vn  these  things 
have  been  done  ivill  be  a  living  soul  for  ever,  and  will  not  die  a 
second  time. 

12.  I  Y    J  .        I    consider    this    word   as   derived    from 

Y  J  \\  '  T  J  lil'  ^^'^'"^^"^  means  to  mark  an  object  with  a  cut  or 
with  fire,  for  a  religious  purpose,  or  simply  as  an  indication  of 
property.      A  little  further  it  is  spoken  of  fishes  4     L=>^n::>^ 

I    ^      "  marked  on  the  tail 

13.  We  have  here  the  opposition  between      "R    1  "  those  who  are," 

and  ^"^  I  "those  who  are  not,"  that  is,  those  who  are  not  yet,  the 

future  ones.  The  negative,  which  often  expresses  the  idea  of 
anteriority,  is  one  of  the  usual  ways  of  rendering  the  future;  that 
which  has  not  yet  taken  place,  which  is  to  come.     An  official  of  the 

Xllth   dynasty  says:   ''the  king  T~^'v>  V§^  1\    <:c^LJ^ 

A/W\/\A  ft 

<:ir>  ^; f\  made  me   his  commissioner  of  works,  having 

charge  of  present  and  future  work"  {Zeitschr.,  1882,  p   8,  note).     It 
is  said  of  Isis  that  "  she  issues  her  directions  for  what  is  and  what  will 

PL  /V\AAAA  J^ 

be "    1  """^^  ''^^^  ^  ^  ^^  (Stele  Metternich,  Brugsch,   Diet. 

Suppl.,  p.  355). 

14.  See  Chapter  i,  note  8. 

^5-  ^tor  t>^^s_y  ^W  "^^  ^^^^  ^^^  sometimes  men- 
tioned before  the  gods,  I  believe  the  word  might  be  translated,  the 
first  beings,  the  first  creatures  :  "die  Urwesen." 

16.  Hero  begins  the  second  version  of  the  chapter  which  has 
been  added  to  the  other  one. 

I -7.  wvAA/N  T      .     This  lake  is  often  mentioned  in  the  texts 

'       I    H  illl 

of  the  pyramids.     It  is  one  of  the  celestial  lakes  not  very  distant" 
from  the  Elysian  fields. 

2   U  2 

320  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

The  Chapter  of  escaping  from  the  catchers  offish. 

0  ye  snarers  (?),  O  ye  fowlers,  O  ye  fishers,  sons  of  their  fathers, 
know  ye  (i)  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  this  very  great  net :  the 
embracer  is  its  name. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  cordage  :  the  bonds 
of  Isis. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  stake :  the  thigh  of 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  the  fork :  the  finger  of 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  point :  the  nail  of  Ptah. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  blade:  the  knife  of  Isis. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  weight :  the  iron 
which  is  in  the  sky. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  its  flowers  (2) :  the 
feathers  of  the  hawk. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  the  fisherman :  the 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  the  ground  (3),  where 
are  its  limits  :  the  house  of  the  moon. 

Know  ye  what  I  do  know,  the  name  of  him  who  fishes  there : 
the  great  prince  who  sits  on  the  east  of  the  sky (4). 

1  am  Ra,  (5)  who  proceedeth  from  Nu,  and  my  soul  is  divine. 
I  am  he  who  producelh  food,  but  I  execrate  what  is  wrong. 

I  am  Osiris,  the  possessor  of  Maat,  and  I  subsist  by  means  of  it 
every  day. 

I  am  the  eternal  one,  like  the  bull.  (6)  I  am  feared  by  the  cycle 
of  the  gods  in  my  name  of  the  eternal  one. 

I  am  self-originating,  together  with  Nu,  in  my  name  of  Chepera, 
from  whom  I  am  born  daily. 

I  am  the  lord  of  Daylight,  and  I  shine  like  Ra;  he  gives  me  life 
in  these  his  risings  in  the  East. 

I  come  to  heaven,  I  take  hold  of  my  place  in  the  East. 

The  children  of  the  great  god  nourish  him  to  whom  they  have 
given  birth,  with  sacred  offerings. 

I  eat  like  Shu.     I  ease  myself  like  Shu.     The  king  of  Egypt 



Chapter  153B.     Louvre,  III,  93. 

Chapter  154.     Lepsius,  "  Todt. 

Chapters  151,  155,  156.     Louvre,  III,  89. 



(Osiris)  is  present.     Khonsu  and  Thoth  (7)  their  laws  are  within 
me.     They  impart  warmth  (8)  to  the  heavenly  host. 


This  Chapter  is  found  only  in  two  papyri :  Paris,  III,  93,  and 
the  Papyrus  of  A'u.  Both  of  them  are,  in. some  parts,  very  incorrect. 
The  Paris  document  here  and  there  omits  a  line ;  I  had  to  use 
them  both  for  the  translation. 

The  first  part  of  the  Chapter  is  only  a  nomenclature  of  the  various 
parts  of  the  net,  very  similar  to  153A. 

The  vignette  represents  a  drag-net  drawn  by  three  dog-headed 

I.  1    v\  /www    ^     ^^  .    I  believe  there  is  a  slight  difference 

of  meaning  between  this  old  participial  form,  and  the  usual  [  v\ 

^    .     I  consider  that  the  first  form  means :    do  you  know 
well?  are  you  certain  to  know?  or  do  you  pretend  to  know? 

I     I     I 



I    suppose   this   word   means   the    papyrus 

flowers   which  are  sometimes  tied  to  the  net.     (Bergmann,   H.I., 
P-  53-) 

3.  ^      where  we  had  in  153A.     I^     1       h. 

4.  Here  the  discrepancies  between  the  two  texts  are  so  great, 
that  I  do  not  venture  to  give  a  translation. 

5.  The  following  lines  are  an  abridged  recension  of  Chapter  85, 
where  I  repeat  Renouf's  translation. 

6.  The  bull  of  Amenta,  Osiris,  as  he  is  called  in  the  first  Chapter 
(see  note  5,  Chapter  i). 

7.  I   '   Yi^  V^   Thoth,  the  god  of    1  "^  I     cyJULOT It  Hermopolis. 
(Brugsch,  Did.  SiippL,  p.  927,  Did.  Gcog.,  p.  749.) 

litt.  warmth,  means  probably  a  moral  quality.     In 

the   Canopus   inscription 


corresponds   to   the   Greek 

322  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


The  Chapter  of  not  lettm^  the  body  decay  (i)  in  the  Netherivorld. 

Hail  to  thee,  my  father  Osiris.  I  have  come  to  embahn  thee. 
Do  thou  embahii  this  flesh  of  mine,  for  I  am  perfect  like  my  father 
Chepera,  who  is  my  image,  he  who  does  not  know  corruption. 

Come,  take  hold  of  my  breath  of  life,  lord  of  the  breath,  lofty 
above  his  equals  ;  vivify  (2)  me,  build  me  up,  thou  lord  of  the 
funeral  chest. 

Grant  me  to  go  down  into  the  land  of  eternity,  as  thou  doest 
when  thou  art  with  thy  father  Tmu,  he  whose  body  never  decays, 
he  who  does  not  know  destruction. 

I  have  not  done  what  thou  hatest,  the  command  (which  I  obey) 
is  that  which  thy  ka  loveth,  (5)  I  have  not  transgressed  it. 

.1  have  been  delivered,  being  thy  follower,  O  Tmu,  from  the 
rottenness  which  thou  allowest  to  come  over  every  god,  every 
goddess,  every  animal,  every  creeping  thing  which  is  corruptible. 

After  his  soul  has  departed  he  dies,  (4)  and  when  it  has  gone 
down  he  decays ;  he  is  all  corruption  ;  all  his  bones  are  rottenness, 
putrefaction  (5)  seizes  his  limbs  and  makes  his  bones  break  down, 
his  flesh  becomes  a  fetid  liquid,  his  breath  is  stink,  he  becomes  a 
multitude  of  worms. 

(As  for  me)  there  are  no  worms  (6).  He  is  impotent  whoever 
has  lost  the  eye  of  Shu  (7)  among  all  gods  and  goddesses,  all 
birds  and  fishes,  all  snakes  and  worms,  all  animals  altogether,  for 
I  cause  them  to  crawl  before  me,  they  recognise  me  and  the  fear  of 
me  prevails  over  them,  and  behold  every  being  is  alike  dead  among 
all  animals,  all  birds,  all  fishes,  all  snakes,  all  worms,  their  life  is 
like  death. 

Let  there  be  no  food  for  the  worms  all  of  them.  Let  them  not 
come  to  me  when  they  are  born,  I  shall  not  be  handed  over  to  the 
destroyer  in  his  cover,  who  destroys  the  limbs,  the  hidden  one  who 
causes  corruption,  who  cuts  to  pieces  (8)  many  dead  bodies,  who 
lives  from  destroying. 

He  lives  who  performs  his  commands,  but  I  have  not  been 
delivered  into  his  fingers,  he  has  not  prevailed  upon  me,  for  I  am 
under  thy  command,  lord  of  the  gods. 

Hail  to  thee,  my  father  Osiris  !  thy  limbs  are  lastmg,  thou  dost 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  523 

not  know  corruption ;  there  are  no  worms  with  thee,  thou  art  not 
repugnant,  thou  dost  not  slink,  thou  dost  not  putrefy,  thou  wilt  not 
become  worms. 

I  am  Chepera,  my  Hmbs  are  lasting  for  ever,  I  do  not  know 
corruption.  I  do  not  rot,  I  do  not  putrefy,  I  do  not  become  worms. 
I  do  not  lose  the  eye  of  Shu. 

I  am,  I  am,  I  live,  I  live,  I  grow,  I  grow,  and  when  I  shall  awake 
in  peace,  I  shall  not  be  in  corruption,  I  shall  not  be  destroyed  in 
my  bandages.  I  shall  be  free  of  pestilence,  my  eye  will  not  be 
corrupted,  my  skin  (?)  will  not  disappear.  My  ear  will  not  be 
deaf,  my  head  will  not  be  taken  away  from  my  neck,  my  tongue  will 
not  be  torn  away,  my  hair  will  not  be  cut  off,  my  eyebrows  shall  not 
be  shaven  off.  No  grievous  harm  shall  come  upon  me,  my  body 
is  firm,  it  shall  not  be  destroyed.  It  shall  not  ])erish  in  this  earth 
for  ever. 


This  Chapter  is  not  frequently  met  with  in  the  papyri ;  it  was 
written  on  the  wrappings  and  the  bandages  of  the  dead ;  for  instance, 
on  the  funeral  cloth  of  King  Thothmes  III,  where  it  is  not  complete. 
This  Chapter  is  interesting,  as  it  shows  how  repulsive  to  the  Egyp- 
tians was  the  idea  of  corruption,  of  the  decay  of  the  body,  which  is 
described  here  in  most  realistic  terms.  This  is  one  of  the  reasons 
why  they  gave  such  importance  to  mummification. 

Parts  of  this  Chapter  are  very  obscure.  The  translation  has  been 
made  from  the  text  on  the  mummy  cloth  of  Thothmes  III,  supple- 
mented by  the  Papyrus  of  JVu. 

The  only  vignette  we  have  is  that  of  the  Turin  Papyrus,  showing 
a  mummy  lying  on  the  bed,  and  illumined  by  the  rays  of  the  sun. 

I-  [JO  "^^^^j  "to  pass  away,  to  disappear  through  corruption 

or  decay."  Sometimes  it  seems  to  have  an  active  sense  :  to  let  some- 
thing pass  away,  to  lose  it. 

2.   ]\]l ,  n  is  generally  translated  "firm,  stable,  abiding" 

(Chapter  i,  note  9),  but  I  believe  in  most  cases  it  has  another  sense  : 
"to  vivify,  to  impart  the  breath  of  life,"  as  one  may  judge  from  the 
title  of  Chapter  182,  which  mentions  two  acts,  one  of  which  is  the 

324  BOOK   OF   THE  DEAD. 

consequence  of  the  other,  ^^j^^  T?  Tf  H  H  ^li  rj  ^ 

V^  \\  AAAw.  ^^^^   e,      Jf :  "  the  book  of  vivifying  Osiris,  giving  breath 
to  him  whose  heart  is  motionless." 

In  the  mythological  or  celestial  geography   h  u       is  the   East 

lA  li  ® 

(PL  IV).     There  life  originates  ;  there  also  the  deceased  inhales  the 
breath  of  life  (Chapter  57,  p.  no;  Naville,  Todf.,  Einl.,  p.  28). 

3.  See  Sphinx,  V,  p.  199. 

4.  <zz:>  ^^^  ^>v  ^^     ^    •      ^  consider   ^^^^ 

as  being  here  the  adverb  aftenvards.     His  soul  goes  out,  and  after- 
wards he  dies,  it  goes  down  and  aftenvards  he  decays. 

5.  n  _^  "v^  ^5.  Ol]  V^^^^^'  ^'"'  ^'^^  destroyers;  the  word 
occurs  again  further  on  :  the  destroyer  who  is  in  his  bush(?)  or  cover, 
the  hidden  one.  It  is  evidently  a  metaphor,  for  the  sense  is 
obvious  ;    it    is    putrefaction.       The    word    in    the    Turin    papyrus 

\  _Jp    \)(][    U^5   litt.    locks,    might   apply  to   the  vegetation    or 

the  excrescences  which  are  often  the  sign  of  putrefaction. 

6.  "^  c  ^v\  I  ^  ^  _  .      The  passage   is  very  obscure. 

I  believe  the  drift  of  the  idea  is  this  :  after  having  described  very 
thoroughly  what  corruption  is,  the  deceased  says  :  as  for  me  I  am 
protected  against  those  evils.  F.ven  should  every  being  fall  into 
corruption,  having  lost  the  eye  of  Shu,  it  is  nothing  to  me,  because  I 
am  feared  by  all. 

^  ^  v^  I  "worms  do  not  exist."     ,_^ is  explained 

by  two  passages.      At   Abydos  the  priest  says  to  the  god  (Mar., 

,  n  j\  <rr>  -0:=-  -ju-  fi  ^  n  n  "^^^^^  ^ 

Abydos,    I,    p.    34)    \\  ~^^^-  -<e>-  U  '■■'^'^  H    I  ^2>-  „^ . 

"I  have  come  to  perform  the  ceremonies,  for  I  have  not  come  to  do 
nothing,  I  have  not  come  in  vain."  In  the  poem  of  Pentaur,  when 
Rameses  II,  addressing  Amen,  recalls  all  he  has  done  to  honour  the 

god,   he   says  :  ^  V^  1  AK  (.  L  -^==^  Y    J   *^  m 

r^  Pf  V\7i  :   "  is  it  nothing,  this  thy  terrace  which  I  built  for  thee  ?  " 

7.  The  eye  of  Shu  is  either  an  amulet  or  a  magic  power  residing 


BOOK    OF   THE    DEAD. 




Chap.  155.       Chap.   156. 
B.M.,  9900. 

Chap.   158.  Chap.   157. 

Lepsius,  "Todt." 

Chapter  159.     Leyden  Papyrus. 

Chapter  160.     Leyden  Papyrus. 

Chapter  159.     Lepshs,  "  Todi." 

Chapter  160.     B.M.,  9900. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  325 

in  some  part  of  the  body,  which  prevents  it  from  becoming  worms. 
It  is  the  defence  against  corruption.     Further  the  deceased  says  : 
"  I  do  not  become  worms  ;  I  do  not  lose  the  eye  of  Shu." 
8.  Litt.  ploughs  into  dead  bodies. 


Chapter  of  the  Tat  of  gold.  ( i ) 

Here  is  thy  backbone,(2)  thou  still-heart  !  here  is  thy  spine,  thou 
still-heart !  Put  it  close  to  thee.  I  have  given  thee  the  water 
thou  wantest.  (3)  Here  it  is.  I  have  brought  to  thee  the  Tat,  in 
which  thy  heart  rejoiceth. 

Said  on  a  Tat  of  gold  inlaid  into  the  substance  of  sycamore-wood, 
and  dipped  into  juice  of  ankhamu.  If  it  is  put  on  the  neck  of  this 
Chtt,  he  arrives  at  the  doors  of  the  Ttiat,  and  he  comes  forth  by  day, 
et'en  though  he  be  silent.  The  Tat  is  put  in  its  place  on  the  first  day 
of  the  year,  as  is  done  to  the  folloiuers  of  Osiris. 


After  the  interruption  due  to  Chapters  153  and  154,  we  revert 
to  the  series  inaugurated  by  151,  the  description  of  the  chamber  in 
which  the  mummy  is  deposited,  and  of  the  funeral  equipment  of  the 
deceased,  his  amulets  and  ornaments.  The  papyrus  III,  93  (Pb), 
of  the  Louvre,  throws  several  of  these  Chapters  into  one,  with  the 
title  :  the  description  of  the  hidden  things  of  the  Tuat,  and  the  vignette 
(PI.  LV)  represents  three  figures  of  Chapter  151  :  the  statuette,  the 
torch  or  flame,  and  the  Anubis ;  besides  two  Tat  of  different 
substances,  one  of  them  for  the  wall,  and  one  to  be  put  on  the  neck 
of  the  deceased,  and  a  buckle. 

The  vignette  of  Chapter  155  represents  a  Tat  of  gold.  The 
various  versions  of  the  Chapter  differ  mostly  in  the  rubric.  I  followed 
the  papyrus  of  Nebseni  (Aa),  filling  up  the  gaps  from  other  texts. 

I.  The  rubric  seems  to  explain  that  the  text  refers  to  a  Tat  of 
gold,  which  is  inlaid  into  the  wood  of  a  mummy-shaped  coffin,  on 
the  neck,  and  which  holds  fast  by  means  of  the  sap  or  gum  of  a  tree 
or  fruit  called  ankhamu, 

2  X 

326  BOOK   OF    THE    DEAD. 

2.  This  shows  that  the  Tat  is  originally  a  conventional  repre- 
sentation of  a  backbone. 

3.  The  juice  or  gum  just  mentioned,  in  which  the  Tat  is  dipped. 


Cliapler  of  the  buckle  of  carnelian,  ivhich  is  put  on  the  neck 

of  the  deceased. 

The  blood  of  Isis,  the  virtue  of  Isis ;  the  magic  power  of  Isis, 
the  magic  power  of  the  Eye  are  protecting  this  the  Great  one ;  they 
prevent  any  wrong  being  done  to  him. 

This  Chapter  is  said  on  a  buckle  of  carnelian  dipped  into  the  juice 
of  ankhamu,  inlaid  into  the  substance  of  the  sycamore-wood,  and  put 
on  the  neck  of  the  deceased. 

Whorcer  has  this  Chapter  read  to  him,  the  virtue  of  Isis  protects 
him  :  Horus  the  son  of  Isis  rejoices  in  seeing  him,  and  no  jcay  is 
barred  to  him,  U7ifailingly. 


M.  Maspero,  who  made  a  special  study  of  this  Chapter  {Le 
chapitre  de  la  boucle,  Comptes  Rendus  de  PAcad.  des  Inscr.  et  Bell. 
Lettres,  187 1),  has  shown  that  there  are  several  recensions.  This, 
which  is  probably  the  oldest,  is  taken  from  the  papyrus  of  Nebseni, 
with  a  few  additions  from  texts  of  the  same  date. 

The  protective  power  of  the  buckle  is  shown  in  the  vignette 
of  Chapter  93,  where  a  buckle  with  human  hands  grasps  the  deceased 
by  the  left  arm,  and  prevents  him  from  going  towards  the  East. 


Chapter  of  the  vulture  of  gold,  put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased 

Isis  has  arrived  ;  she  hovers  over  the  dwellings,  and  she  searches 
all  the  hidden  abodes  of  Horus  when  he  comes  out  of  the  Northern 
marshes,  knocking  down  him  whose  face  is  evil. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  327 

She  causes  him  to  join  the  Bark,  and  grants  him  the  sovereignty 
over  the  worlds. 

When  he  has  fought  a  big  fight,  he  decrees  what  must  be  done 
in  his  honour ;  he  causes  fear  of  him  to  arise,  and  he  creates  terror. 

His  mother,  the  Great  one,  uses  her  protective  power,  which  she 
has  handed  over  to  Horus. 

Said  on  a  vulture  of  gold.  If  this  Chapter  is  written  on  it,  it 
protects  the  deceased,  the  paii>erful  one,  on  the  day  of  the  funeral, 
undeviatingly  for  times  infinite. 


This  and  the  two  following  Chapters  have  not  been  found  in  the 
old  recension.     They  are  taken  from  the  Turin  text. 

The  vignette  represents  a  vulture  with  outspread  wings,  which  is 
often  found  made  of  cartonnage  on  the  mummies.  The  same  bird 
is  often  painted  on  the  ceilings  of  tombs  or  temples. 

The  Chapter  of  the  collar  of  gold,  put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased. 

O  my  father  !  my  brother !  my  mother  Isis  I     I  am  unveiled  and 
I  am  seen.     I  am  one  of  the  unveiled  ones,  who  see  Seb. 

Said  on  a  collar  of  gold,  on  which  this  Chapter  has  been  7vritten, 
and  which  is  put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased,  the  day  of  his  burial. 


The  Chapter  of  the  column  of  green  Felspar,  (i)  put  on  the  neck 

of  the  deceased. 

O  thou  who  comest  out  every  day,  in  the  divine  house,  she  who 

has  a  big  voice,  who  goeth  round She  takes  hold  of  the 

potent  formulae  of  her  father,  the  mummy  which  is  on  the  bull.  (2) 

She  is  Renent 


328  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Said  on  a  column  of  green  Felspar,  on  tvhich  this  Chapter  has  been 
written,  and  7vhich  is  put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased. 

The  vignelte  of  this  Chapter  and  the  next,  show  distinctly  that 

the  I  is  a  miniature  column  or  tent-pole,  with  the  papyrus  capital, 

and  papyrus  leaves  at  the  base. 

This  Chapter  is  taken  from  the  Turin  text;  parts  of  it  are  quite 

1.  ^C\       ,  a  mineral  which  has  not  yet  been  det£rmined. 
c=n=i_^lir  .  . 

Brugsch  calls   it    "  Opal."     Lepsius   thought   its   colour   was   blue. 

Dr.  Budge  translates  "  mother-of-emerald."     Renouf 's  translation  is 
"green  Felspar"  (see  Chapter  29B,  note). 

2.  The  mummy  carried  off  by  the  Apis  bull,  a  representation 
often  seen  on  the  coffins  after  the  XXIInd  dynasty. 


Giving  the  column  of  green  Felspar. 

I  am  the  column  of  green  Felspar,  which  cannot  be  crushed,  (i) 
and  which  is  raised  by  the  hand  of  Thoth. 

Injury  is  an  abomination  for  it.  If  it  is  safe,  I  am  safe ;  if  it  is 
not  injured,  I  am  not  injured ;  if  it  receives  no  cut,  I  receive  no  cut. 

Said  by  Thoth :  arise,  come  in  peace,  lord  of  Heliopolis,  lord 
who  resides  at  Pu. 

When  Shu  has  arrived,  he  found  the  stone  at  Shenemu,  as  its 
name  is  neshem.  He  (the  deceased)  makes  his  abode  in  the 
enclosure  of  the  great  god  ;  whilst  Tmu  resides  in  his  dwelling;  (2) 
his  limbs  will  never  be  crushed. 


For  Chapter  160,  we  have  a  text  from  London,  9900  (Aa) ;  it  is 
not  complete,  but  the  gaps  can  very  easily  be  filled  up  from  the 
Papyrus  Busca. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  329 

The  vignette  of  Aa  represents  Thoth  I)ringing  the  column, 
enclosed  in  a  box  or  a  casket. 

r.  I  suppose  the  symbolical  expressions  of  this  Chapter  mean 
that  the  fies/iem,  of  which  the  column  is  made,  is  a  very  hard  stone, 
which  is  proof  against  any  injury. 

'-^    O  or     ^     (2,  which  I  translated  '^  crush,"  means  probably 

"grind  to  powder,"  and    I  ,   "to  receive  a  cut,"  means  to  be 

scratched  or  incised  by  a  sculptor's  tool.     The  power  of  the  amulet 
consists  in  making  the  body  of  the  deceased  as  hard  as  neshem. 

,  a  variant  of        when  it   refers    to  Tmu  (Nav.,  Todt., 

ch.  XVII,  1.  12). 


The  Chapter  of  unfastening  the  opening  in  the  sky.     Thoth  does  it  so 
that  it  may  be  finished  when  he  opens  {the  sky)  7viih  A  ten.  (i) 

Ra  (2)  is  living,  the  tortoise  (3)  is  dead.  The  body  has  been 
offered  in  the  earth  ;  the  bones  have  been  offered  of  N.  [The  West 
wind  of  Isis].  (4) 

Ra  is  living,  the  tortoise  is  dead.  It  is  safe  that  is  in  the  funeral 
chest  of  N.     [The  East  wind  of  Nephthys.] 

Ra  is  living,  the  tortoise  is  dead,  the  limbs  are  well  wrapped 
up.  Kebehsenef  is  to  keep  watch  over  them  for  N.  [The  North 
wind  of  Osiris.] 

Ra  is  living,  the  tortoise  is  dead.  His  wrappings  have  been 
opened ;  they  reveal  his  figure.     [The  South  wind  of  Ra.] 

Everybody  7vho  has  these  figures  on  his  coffin,  the  four  openings  of 
the  sky  are  open  to  him  ;  one  in  the  North,  it  is  the  7vind  of  Osiris ; 
one  in  the  South,  it  is  the  wind  of  Aah  (the  mooti)  ;  one  in  the  West, 
it  is  the  wind  of  Isis ;  one  in  the  East,  it  is  the  wind  of  Nephthys. 
Every  one  of  these  winds,  which  are  at  his  entrance  when  he  wants  it, 
breathes  into  his  tiostrils. 

330  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Let  no  one  outside  knoia  it,  it  is  a  mystery  wJiich  is  not  knawn  to 
the  common  people.  Do  not  reveal  it  to  any  one,  may  he  be  thy  father 
or  thy  son,  except  thyself.  It  is  a  real  mystery,  and  every  one  of  these 
things  is  unknown  to  all  men. 


This  Chapter  is  so  short  in  the  old  recension  (Paris,  III,  93) 
that  it  could  hardly  be  understood  without  the  rubric  of  the  Turin 
text.  The  four  Thoths,  each  of  whom  opens  a  door,  are  the  four 
winds,  coming  from  the  four  cardinal  points  {Zeitschr.  fiir  Aeg. 
Sprache,  1877,  p.  28). 

We  have  already  learned  from  Chapter  59  that  it  is  one  of  the 
privileges  of  the  deceased  to  have  the  command  of  the  four  winds. 

1.  The  title  is  obscure.  I  suppose  that  the  scribe,  who  had  a 
very  short  space  at  his  disposal,  left  out  a  word  or  two. 

2.  Magic  formula,  which  enables  Thoth  to  open  the  door. 

3.  See  Chapter  83,  note  i.  Brugsch  calls  the  tortoise  the  evil 

4.  The  words  in  brackets,  as  well  as  the  rubric^  are  taken  from 
the  Turin  Todtenbuch. 


Chapter  of  causing  a  flame  {f)  to  arise  tinder  the  head  of  the 


Hail  to  thee,  thou  lion,  (2)  thou  mighty  one,  with  high  plumes, 
the  lord  of  the  double  crown,  who  wavest  the  flail,  thou  art  the  lord 
of  the  phallus,  (3)  thou  art  vigorous  when  ariseth  the  morning  light, 
to  the  rays  of  which  there  is  no  limit. 

Thou  art  the  lord  of  forms,  with  numerous  colours,  who  conceals 
himself  within  his  eye  to  his  children. 

Thou  art  the  mighty  enchanter  among  the  cycle  of  the  gods, 
thou  swift  runner,  with  quick  strides.  Thou  art  the  mighty  god 
who  cometh  to  him  who  calleth  for  him,  who  delivereth  the 
oppressed  from  his  tortures.  Come  to  my  voice.  I  am  the  cow. 
Thy  name  is  in  my  mouth.     I  am  going  to  utter  it.     Hakahaka  (4) 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  33 1 

is  thy  name.  Furaa  is  thy  name.  Aakarsa  is  thy  name.  Ankrobata 
is  thy  name.  Khermauserau  is  thy  name.  Kharosata  is  thy 

I  adore  thy  name.  I  am  the  cow.  Listen  to  my  voice,  on  the 
day  when  thou  puttest  a  flame  under  the  head  of  Ra.  Behold  he 
is  in  the  Tuat,  and  he  is  mighty  in  HeliopoHs.  (5)  Grant  that  he 
may  be  who  is  on  earth.  He  is  thy  son,  who  loves  thee. 
Do  not  ignore  his  name.  Come  to  Osiris  N.  Grant  that  a  flame 
may  arise  under  his  head,  for  he  is  the  soul  of  the  great  body  which 
rests  in  HeliopoHs ;  the  shining  one,  the  form  of  the  firstborn  is  his 
name.     Barokatat'aua  is  his  name. 

Come,  grant  him  to  be  like  one  of  thy  followers,  for  he  is  even 
as  thou  art. 

Said  071  the  image  of  a  coiv,  made  oj  pure  gold,  to  be  put  on  the 
neck  of  the  deceased.  Also  if  it  is  painted  o?i  neiv  papyrus,  and 
put  under  his  head,  there  will  be  a  quantity  of  flames  all  around  him 
like  those  that  are  on  earth.  This  is  a  very  great  protection,  which  the 
cow  granted  to  her  son  Ra,  after  he  had  gone  to  rest.  His  abode  is 
surrounded  by  warriors  of  blazing  fire.  (6) 

If  thou  puttest  this  goddess  on  the  neck  of  the  King  who  is  on  earth, 
he  is  like  f  re  in  pursuing  his  enemies,  his  Jwrses  cannot  stap. 

If  thou  puttest  it  on  the  neck  of  a  man  after  his  death,  he  is  mighty 
in  the  Netherworld.  Nobody  will  drive  him  atvay  from  the  gates  of  the 
Tuat  undeviatingly . 

And  thou  shall  say  7vhen  thou  puttest  this  goddess  on  the  neck  of 
the  deceased :  O  Anion  of  Anions,  thou  tvho  art  in  the  sky,  turn  thy 
face  towards  the  body  of  thy  son,  make  him  sound  in  the  Netherivorld. 

This  book  is  most  secret.  Do  not  let  it  be  seen  by  any  man,  for  it 
is  forbidden  to  know  it.  Let  it  be  hidden.  It  is  called  the  book  of  the 
mistress  of  tlie  hidden  abode.      This  is  the  end. 


Chapters  162-165  ^^^  <^^  ^  ^^^y  '^^^  date.  They  are  of  a  different 
character  from  the  other  chapters  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  They 
belong  rather  to  the  magic  books  of  the  old  Egyptians.  When  they 
were  written  there  was  a  decay  in  the  religion,  which  drifted  more 
and  more  into  magic,  for  which  the  Egyptians  were  famous  under 
the  Roman  Empire,  ^^'e  find  there  a  great  number  of  barbarous 
words  unintelligible  to  us,  and  probably  also  to  the  old  scribes,  since 

332  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

they  differ  widely  according  to  the  papyri.     They  remind  us  of  those 
which  are  found  in  the  magical  texts  (Chabas,  Pap.  Magique  Harris., 

P-  ISO- 

It  is  probable  that  Chapter  162  is  older  than  the  following;  several 

papyri  end  with  it,  and  it  has  the  rubric   J\  V\  ^.^>_  n  ^  this  is  the 

end,  which  is  found  in  the  older  texts  after  Chapter  149. 

The  late  Dr.  Pleyte,  of  Leyden,  made  a  special  study  of  these 
chapters,  and  of  several  others  of  late  date  {Chapitres  suppUmentaires 
dii  Livre  des  Morfs,  Texte,  Traductiofi  et  Commentaire,  Leide).  The 
collation  which  he  published  of  various  documents  is  the  text  on 
which  this  translation  has  been  made. 

The  vignette  generally  consists  of  a  cow,  having  between  her 
horns  a  solar  disk,  with  two  plumes.  Occasionally  behind  her  there 
is  a  goddess  with  a  cow's  head  having  the  same  attribute.  This  cow 
I  consider  to  be  the  goddess  Nut,  the  mother  of  Ra.  An  image 
of  the  cosv,  made  of  pure  gold,  is  to  be  put  on  the  neck  of  the 
deceased  ;  or,  what  would  be  much  easier  and  cheaper,  it  is  to  be 
painted  on  a  hypocephalus  of  new  papyrus,  and  put  under  the 
deceased's  head.  Part  of  this  chapter  is  the  usual  text  found  on  the 

The  result  of  the  gift  of  one  of  these  amulets  will  be  that  in  the 
Netherworld  the  deceased  will  be  surrounded  by  flames.  This  is  the 
effect  of  the  presence  of  the  amulets  here  described.  It  does  not  take 
place  in  this  world,  but  in  the  other,  where  Ra  himself  enjoys  a  similar 
protection,  being  surrounded  by  "  warriors  of  blazing  fire."  This 
image  seems  to  point  to  the  magnificent  sunsets  often  seen  in 

I.    All  the  translators  have  interpreted     1    \\\    by  "  heat,"  the 

vital  heat  of  the  body.     But  this  is  not  the  true  sense  of  the  word, 

which  means  "  flame,"    \y\\  "'^^^     IX  "flame  of  fire."    The  root 

11   implies   the  idea  of  darting,  springing  forth  like  a  flame  or  a 

spark,  and  not  of  latent  heat.  1  1)  |  1  '^^  cannot  mean  any- 
thing except  a  great  quantity  of  flames.  These  flames  will  be  the 
protection  of  the  deceased. 

2.  The  lion  addressed  by  the  cow,  a  god  of  light  and  fire,  is  pro- 
bably Ra  himself. 



Chapter  CLXII. 
Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Chapter  CLXIV.     Lepsius,  Todtenbuch, 

Chapter  CLXIII.     Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Chapter  CLXV.     Lepsius,  Todtenbuch. 

Chapter  CLXVI,  ^.  a. 

Chapter  CLXVII,  A.  a. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  333 

3.  For  the  connection  between  generation  and  light,  see  Kuhn, 
"  Herabkunft  des  Feuers,"  p.  70  and  ff. 

4.  These  barbarous  names,  as  well  as  those  of  the  following 
chapters,  have  not  yet  been  explained.  Their  interpretation  is  to 
be  looked  for  in  the  African  languages,  for  Chapter  164  connects 
them  with  the  si)eech  of  the  negroes,  and  the  Anti  of  Nubia. 

5.   I  have  kept  for    [jl       Renoufs  translation  :  Heliopolis.     But 

it  must  not  be  understood  as  referring  to  the  well-known  city  at  the 
head  of  the  Delta.        m        is  here  a  city  in  the  other  world.      It  is 

a  name   belonging  to  the   mythological  and   not   to  the  terrestrial 

6.    I  consider   the  word     ^^\^  m  ^s\  1     of   the    Turin 

text,     or     according     to      other     papyri,      ^    (XI    V\      ll  (.    I  I 

rO  ^s    Y^      I  I    as  connected  with    ^  ||    ^'re,  burning. 


Chapters  brought  from  another  book,  in  addition  to  the  '■'■coming 
forth  by  day.''  Chapter  of  not  letting  the  body  of  a  man  decay  in  the 
Aktherworld,  of  rescuing  hi)n  from  the  devourers  of  S07ils  who  imprison 
men  in  the  Tuat,  and  of  not  raising  his  sins  on  earth  against  him,  but 
of  saving  his  flesh  and  his  bones  f'om  the  7vo?'ms  and  from  every  evil- 
doing  god  in  the  Netherivorld,  so  that  he  may  go  in  and  out  as  he 
likes,  and  do  everything  he  desires  without  restraint. 

—  I  am  the  soul  of  the  great  body  which  rests  in  Arohabu.  I  am 
protecting  the  body  of  Hanirta,  the  lord  of  motion,  who  rests  in  the 
marshes  of  Senhakarokana. 

—  O  thou  soul  of  souls,  who  art  not  unwilling  to  rise  when  thou 
restest  in  thy  body  which  dwelleth  in  Senhakarokana !  Come  to 
Osiris  N.,  deliver  him  from  the  Powers  of  the  god  whose  face  is  terrible, 
who  takes  possession  of  the  heart,  and  takes  hold  of  the  limbs  ;  a 
flame  rushes  out  of  their  mouths,  so  that  they  consume  the  souls. 

2  Y 

334  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

—  O  he  who  goes  to  rest  in  his  body,  and  then  rises  a  burning  heat, 
blazing  even  within  the  sea,  and  the  sea  goes  up  because  of  this 
burning  vapour,  at  the  time  of  the  morning  ;  come,  bring  thy  fire  ; 
pour  thy  burning  vapour  on  him  who  will  raise  his  hand  against 
Osiris  JV.  for  ever  and  ever. 

—  Hail,  Osiris  JV.,  thy  duration  is  that  of  the  sky  ;  thy  duration  is 
the  duration  of  the  ultimate  circles,  (i)  The  sky  holds  thy  soul ;  this 
earth  holds  thy  figure. 

—  Deliver  Osiris  JV.  Do  not  let  him  be  carried  away  by  his 
enemies,  to  him  who  devours  the  soul,  who  raises  evil  accusations. 
Restore  his  soul  to  his  body  and  his  body  to  his  soul. 

—  It  is  he  who  is  hidden  in  the  pupil,  in  the  Eye  of  Sharosharo. 
Shapuarika  is  his  name.  He  resides  on  the  north-west  front  of  Apt, 
in  the  land  of  Nubia,  and  he  will  never  navigate  towards  the  East. 

—  O  Amon  the  bull,  the  scarab,  the  lord  of  the  two  eyes  whose  name 
is  :  he  with  the  terrible  pupil.  Osiris  A^.  is  the  image  of  thy  tw^o  eyes, 
Sharosharo  is  the  name  of  one,  Shapuarika  is  the  name  of  the  other 
one.  He  is  Shaka  Amon,  Shaka  Nasarohaut ;  Tmu  who  illuminates 
the  two  earths  is  his  true  name.  Come  to  Osiris  M,  he  belongs  to 
the  land  of  Truth,  do  not  leave  him  alone.  He  is  of  the  land  which 
is  not  seen  again. 

—  Thy  name  is  with  the  mighty  Glorified.  (2)  He  is  the  soul  of 
the  great  body  which  is  in  Sais  of  Neith. 

Said  on  a  serpent  having  two  legs,  and  bearing  a  two-horned  disk. 
Two  eyes  are  before  him,  having  two  legs  and  two  tvitigs. 

In  the  pupil  of  one  is  the  image  of  one  raising  his  arm,  with  the 
face  of  Bes,  wearing  his  plumes,  and  having  the  back  of  a  hawk. 

It  is  painted  zvith  anti  and  shethu,  mixed  with  green  colour  of  the 
South,  and  tvith  waterfront  the  Western  lake  of  Egypt ;  on  a  bandage  of 
new  linen,  in  which  all  the  limbs  of  a  man  zvill  be  wrapped. 

This  he  will  fiot  be  driven  away  from  all  the  gates  of  the  Tuat ; 
he  will  eat,  drink,  ease  his  body  as  if  he  7vere  on  earth  ;  no  outcry  will  be 
raised  against  him  ;  his  etiemies  7vill  be  powerless  (?)  against  him. 

If  this  book  is  read  on  earth,  (3)  he  is  not  carried  atvay  by  the 
messetigers,  the  wicked  ones  who  do  evil  on  all  the  earth ;  and 
he  will  not  be  wounded,  he  will  not  die  from  the  blow  of  the  king.  He 
will  not  be  taken  to  prison  ;  for  he  will  go  in  to  his  attendants  and  go 
out  victorious,  he  ivill  be  free  from  the  fear  of  evil  doers  who  are  on  the 
whole  earth. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  335 


This  Chapter  begins  with  a  general  title  applying  to  163-5,  ^^^ 
probably  to  other  ones  not  included  in  the  papyrus  of  Turin  : 
"  Chapters  brought  from  another  book,  an  addition  to  the  coming 
forth  by  day."     This  means  that  these  chapters  were  not  considered 

as  belonging  to  the   <=>  ^^^^  ^^  "'■^^  coming  forth 

by  day,"  the  original  Book  of  the  Dead,  which  in  old  times  ended 
with  Chapter  149,  and  later  on  with  Chapter  162. 

The  vignettes  represent  the  figures  described  in  the  rubric  for 
which  the  chapter  was  written. 

Dr.  Pleyte  first  discovered  that  this  Chapter  is  a  kind  of  dialogue, 
consisting  of  words  spoken  by  the  god,  and  a  prayer  addressed  to  him 
in  favour  of  the  deceased.  The  strange  names  which  occur  in  the 
text  lead  us  here  also  to  Africa,  since  it  is  said  of  the  deceased  that 
he  resides  in  Apt  of  Nubia,  Napata. 

I.  A  papyrus,  in  Turin  of  a  woman,  reads  here  )sK  II  ^9 

[ni\T\      I   O    I 

[    ^   O  \>^'  etc.,  "thy  duration  is  the 



O    I 

duration  of  the  ultimate  circles." 

2.  '^  Vi>  ^  I  C/iuu.  Renouf  either  keeps  the  Egyptian 
word,  or  translates  •  "  the  Glorious  ones,  the  Glorified."  See  note  i, 
ch.  I,  ch.  15,  etc 

3.  The  amulet  tias  also  an  influence  on  earth,  it  protects  a  man 
against  hidden  dangers,  which  arise  not  from  men  but  from 
some  invisible  causes,  and  agents  like  those  evil  messengers, 
probably  spirits,  who  might  be   called    "  angels."     I    believe   that 

^   ^:^ J]  /ww«  I  ,  "  the  blow  of  the  king,"  must  mean  some 

sudden  illness  like    V\       '^^'^  1         ■      Dr.  Pleyte  also  considers 

this  part  of  the  rubric  as  applying  to  a  man's  life  on  earth  ;  there  is 

only  this  expression   <r::^>  / 1)  |  which  does  not  agree  with  this 

explanation,  and  would  rather  lead  us  to  think  that  what  is  described 
in  this  part  of  the  rubric  takes  place  in  the  other  world. 

2   Y  2 

336  BOOK   OF   THE    DEAlD. 


Another  Chapter. 

Hail,  Sekhet,  Bast,  daughter  of  Ra,  lady  of  the  gods,  whoholdeth 
her  fan  of  plumes,  the  lady  of  the  scarlet  garment,  the  mistress  of  the 
white  and  red  crown,  the  only  one  who  stands  above  her  father, 
when  there  are  no  gods  to  stand  above  her  ;  the  great  magician  in 
the  boat  of  millions  of  years,  lofty  when  she  rises  m  the  abode  of 
silence,  the  mother  of  the  Shakas,  the  royal  wife  of  the  lion  Haka. 

These  are  the  forms  of  the  princess,  the  mistress  of  the  funereal 
chamber,  the  mother  on  the  horizon  of  the  sky,  the  joyful,  the 
beloved,  who  destroyeth  the  rebels  collected  in  her  fist. 

She  stands  at  the  prow  of  the  boat  of  her  father,  in  order  to  strike 
down  the  evildoer,  in  order  to  place  JNIaat  at  the  prow  of  the  boat 
of  Ra. 

Neith,  the  burning  one,  after  whom  nothing  remains ;  she  who 
follows  Kaharo,  who  follows  Saromkaharomat  is  thy  name,  thou  art 
the  mighty  burning  wind  behind  Kanas,  (i)  at  the  prow  of  the  boat  of 
her  father  Haropukaka  Scharoshaba,  in  the  language  of  the  negroes 
and  of  the  Anti  of  the  land  of  Nubia  (2). 

Acclamations  to  thee,  mightier  than  the  gods;  thou  art  praised  by 
the  gods  of  Hermopolis,  the  living  spirits  who  are  in  their  tabernacles. 
They  give  praise  to  the  valour  of  Mut  (?),  (3)  and  they  begin  to  bring 
offerings  to  the  mysterious  gates.  Their  bones  are  sound,  they  are 
delivered  from  dangers ;  they  become  powerful  in  the  eternal  abode ; 
they  are  delivered  from  the  society  of  the  wicked  one,  the  spirit  with 
a  terrible  face,  which  is  among  the  assembly  of  the  gods. 

The  child  (4)  who  is  born  of  him  with  the  terrible  face,  will  hide  his 
body  to  the  cursed  serpent  whose  breath  is  burning ;  because  he  has 
found  the  names ;  the  niysterious  lion  is  one,  the  soul  of  the  dwarf 
(is  the  other).  As  for  the  eye  of  the  great  one,  the  princess  of  the 
gods,  her  name  is  she  who  partakes  of  the  name  of  Mut. 

His  soul  is  powerful,  his  body  is  sound  ;  they  are  safe  from  the 
abode  of  the  enemies  who  are  in  the  society  of  the  wicked  one. 
They  will  not  be  imprisoned. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  337 

These  words  which  were  spoken  by  the  mouth  of  the  goddess 
herself  have  become  the  words  of  the  goddesses,  and  the  male  gods, 
and  of  every  soul  to  whom  a  burial  is  given. 

Said  on  a  Mut  having  three  faces :  otie  is  the  face  of  the  Pekha- 
vulture  having  two  plumes  ;  the  other  is  the  face  of  a  man,  ivearing 
the  red  and  the  white  cro^vn.  The  other  is  a  face  of  a  Ner-vulture, 
having  two  plumes,  7vith  a  phallus  and  wings  and  the  claws  of  a  lion. 

It  is  painted  with  anti  with  resin  (?)  mixed  with  greeti  colour,  on  a 
scarlet  bandage.  There  is  a  dwarf  in  front  and  behind  her  ;  he  looks 
at  her  and  wears  t7vo  plumes.  He  has  one  arm  raised,  and  he  has 
two  faces,  one  of  a  hawk  and  the  other  of  a  man. 

He  7vhose  body  is  ivrapped  up  in  these  bandages,  he  is  mighty  among 
the  gods  in  the  N'etherivorld.  He  is  never  repulsed ;  his  flesh  and  his 
bones  are  like  one  who  never  died ;  he  drinks  at  the  source  of  the  river, 
he  receives  fields  in  the  garden  of  Aarru  ;  a  star  in  the  sky  is  given 
to  him. 

He  is  delivered  froju  the  fiend-serpent  with  a  burning  mouth.  His 
soul  will  not  be  imprisoned  like  a  bird  ;  he  will  be  lord  of  those  around 
him,  and  he  will  not  be  eaten  by  worms. 


The  translation  of  these  magical  Chapters  is  still  more  uncertain 
than  that  of  the  rest  of  the  book,  and  the  text  is  often  very  corrupt. 

The  vignette  consists  of  the  three  figures  described  in  the  rubric. 
That  which  is  given  here  is  taken  from  the  Turin  papyrus.  It  differs 
slightly  from  the  description  and  from  the  vignettes  of  the  other 
texts.  The  middle  figure  should  have  a  man's  body  with  a  lion's 

(i)  A  papyrus  at  Leyden  reads  here  dlJ^'^ '  ^'^^  enemies. 

(2)  There  it  is  said  distinctly  that  these  barbarous  words  belong 
to  African  languages.  They  are  probably  not  all  proper  names  ; 
some  of  them  seem  to  have  a  sense  which  we  have  not  yet  dis- 
covered, for  instance,  the  word  Shakas  in  this  expression  :  the 
mother  of  the  Shakas. 

(3)  Very  uncertain  text. 

(4)  These  words  seem  to  apply  to  the  deceased. 

338  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  of  landing  and  not  being  obscured,  so  that  the  body  may 
prosper  in  drinking  water.  ( i ) 

0  the  very  high  one,  the  great  one, 
Amen,  Amen,  the  Hon  Kasapa, 

The  first-born  of  the  gods  on  the  East  of  the  sky. 

Amon  of  the  Takruti, 

Amon  who  hides  his  colours,  whose  forms  are  mysterious,  and 
who  is  master  of  the  horns  of  Horus, 

The  great  one  of  Nut. 

Kaarki  is  thy  name, 

Kasaka  is  thy  name, 

The  Sphinx  is  thy  name, 

Kasabaka  is  thy  name. 

Amon  of  the  Ankak  Takashar,  Amon  the  sphinx  is  thy  name. 
O  Amon  !  I  implore  thee.  Behold,  I  know  thy  name ;  thy  forms 
are  in  my  mouth,  (2)  and  thy  colours  in  my  eyes. 

Come  towards  thy  offspring,  thy  form,  Osiris  N.  Bring  him 
towards  the  gate  of  eternity,  grant  him  to  rest  in  the  Tuat  ;  that 
his  flesh  may  be  entire  in  the  Netherworld  ;  that  his  soul  may  be 
powerful,  that  his  body  may  be  complete,  (3)  that  he  may  be  free 
from  the  society  of  the  wicked  one,  that  he  may  never  be  fettered. 

1  implore  thy  name,  and  thou  art  a  shield  for  me  ;  for  thou 
believest  that  I  know  thee. 

0  great  one,  great  one, 

Amon  (the  hidden  one)  is  thy  name, 

Rukashaka  is  thy  name, 

Thou  art  for  me  a  shield. 

Baarkai  is  thy  name, 

Markata  is  thy  name, 

The  Sphinx  is  thy  name, 

Nasakabuba  is  thy  name, 

Tanasasa  is  thy  name, 

Sharshatakata  is  thy  name. 

Amon,  Amon,  O  God,  O  God,  Amon. 

1  implore  thy  name,  and  as  1  have  given  thee  to  understand 

HOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  339 

(that  I  know  thee),  grant  me  to  rest  in  the  Tuat,  and  that  all  my 
limbs  be  reunited. 

Said  by  the  Spirit  which  is  in  Nut  :  I  am  doing,  I  am  doing 
all  thou  hast  said. 

Said  on  the  figure  with  raised  arm.  There  are  plumes  on  its  head  ; 
its  legs  are  apart ;  its  torso  is  a  scarab.  It  is  painted  in  blue  with 
liquid  gum. 

Said  also  on  a  figure  the  middle  part  0/  which  is  that  of  a  man  ; 
his  arms  are  hanging  dozvn.  The  head  of  a  ram  is  on  his  right 
shoulder,  and  another  on  his  left  shoulder.  Thou  ivilt  paint  on  one 
bandage  the  two  figures  of  the  god  with  raised  arm,  and  put  it  across 
the  chest  of  the  deceased,  so  that  the  two  painted  figures  may  be  on  his 

He  to  whom  this  has  been  done,  the  impure  ones  in  the  Tuat  can  do 
nothing  to  him.  He  drinks  the  nmning  wafer  of  the  stream,  he  shines 
like  a  star  in  the  sky.  (4) 


The  vignettes  consist  of  the  amulets  described  in  the  rubrics. 

1.  The  explanation  to  this  extraordinary  title  seems  to  be  given  in 
the  last  sentence  of  the  rubric,  where  it  is  said  of  the  deceased  :  "  he 
drinks  the  running  water  of  the  stream,  he  shines  like  a  star  in  the 
sky."  The  amulet  for  which  this  text  was  written  will  prevent  the 
deceased,  who  is  to  be  as  bright  as  a  star,  from  having  his  light  taken 
from  him,  from  being  obscured.  The  other  blessing  conferred  upon 
him  is  that  of  drinking  water  of  the  stream.  It  is  difficult  to  say  why 
these  two  blessings  alone  are  mentioned. 

2.  I  am  ready  to  utter  the  names  of  thy  different  forms,  and  I  see 
thy  various  colours. 

3.  That  his  body  may  be  reconstituted.  It  is  curious  to  find  in 
so  late  texts  a  vague  remembrance  of  what  seems  to  have  been  the 
prevalent  custom  in  prehistoric  times,  and  perhaps  also  during  the 
Thinite  period  :  the  dismemberment  of  the  body  of  the  deceased.  This 
custom  was  so  entirely  superseded  by  the  opposite  process  the 
mummification  and  the  careful  preservation  of  the  body,  that  the  old 
tradition  is  always  mentioned  with  horror  and  disgust.  The  Book  of 
the  Dead  is  full  of  objurgations  against  the  dismemberment  of  the 

4.  The  Turin  Todtenbuch  ends  here. 

340  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  of  the  Pillow. 

Awake  !  thy  sufferings  are  allayed,  ^V.  Thou  art  awaked  when 
thy  head  is  above  the  horizon.  Stand  up,  thou  art  triumphant 
by  means  of  what  has  been  done  to  thee. 

Ptah  has  struck  down  thine  enemies.  It  hns  been  ordered  what 
should  be  done  to  thee.  Thou  (i)  art  Horus,  the  son' of  Hathor, 
the  flame  born  of  a  flame,  to  whom  his  head  has  been  restored 
after  it  had  been  cut  off. 

Thy  head  will  never  be  taken  from  thee  henceforth. 

Thy  head  will  never  be  carried  away. 


With  Chapter  i66  begins  a  series  of  chapters  which  are  not  in  the 
Todtenbuch,  and  which  have  been  collected  from  various  papyri. 
For  most  of  them  there  is  only  one  text,  therefore  the  translation  is 
often  very  uncertain. 

This  Chapter,  which  is  taken  from  London  9900  {Ad),  seems  to 
be  only  a  variant,  with  a  few  additional  sentences,  of  Chapter  43, 
'•'  Chapter  whereby  the  head  of  a  person  is  not  severed  from  him  in 
the  Netherworld.''  It  alludes  to  the  reconstitution  of  the  body  of 
the  deceased,  and  to  providing  him  with  all  his  sepulchral  equip- 
m.ent.  Head-rests  like  that  which  is  represented  in  the  vignette  are 
often  found  in  the  tombs  with  the  coffins  already  at  the  time  of  the 
Xlth  dynasty 

Chapter  166  was  first  discovered  and  translated  by  Dr.  Birch 
{Zeitschr.,  1868,  p.  82). 

(i)  Here  begin  the  words  of  Chapter  43. 

(2)    ^  \L  ';^  [jr..    The  second  word   should   be 

taken  as  a  patronymic,  "flame-born."  Chapter  43  has  "^^"^  f/. 

BOOK  OF   THE   DEAD.  34 1 


Chapter  of  bringing  an  Eye. 

When  Thoth  had  brought  the  Eye,  he  appeased  the  Eye, 
After  Ra  had  wounded  (i)  her,  she  was  raging  furiously  and  then 
Thoth  calmed  her  after  she  had  gone  away  raging.  As  I  am  sound, 
she  is  sound  and  JV.  is  sound. 


This  Chapter  taken  also  from  London  9900,  is  a  mere  abridg- 
ment of  lines  30-34  in  Chapter  17.  It  refers  probably  to  an  eclipse. 
The  Eye,  the  moon  is  pierced  or  wounded  by  Ra,  which  causes  the 
goddess  to  be  furious.  Then,  according  to  Chapter  17,"  Thoth  calms 
her  troubled  state  (Brugsch),  and  brings  her  whole  and  sound  without 
any  defect."     This  is  called  to  appease  the  goddess. 

I.     The     correct     reading     according    to     Chapter     17,     is : 

■^J^^^    °''     ^"l^J^^^     -^'"^'"^^    ^^''^-    ^"^^^-' 
p.  751)  translates  the  word  :  to  pierce. 


Chapter    168    should   not   have   been   placed  among   those   of 
the  Book  of  the  Dead,  it  belongs  to  another  book  similar  to  the 

-Vh-  ,  the  book  engraved  on  the  walls  of  the  royal  tombs.      It 

describes  gods  and  genii  of   <cz>      I  ¥\  the  bounds  (1)  in 

the  Tuat  who  confer  certain  blessings  on  the  deceased  ;  such  as  this  : 
"those  who  lift  up  their  faces  towards  the  sky  at  the  prow  of  the 
boat  of  Ra,  grant  that  Osiris  N.  may  see  Ra  when  he  rises."  A 
vignette  gives  the  appearance  of  the  god  or  genius  spoken  of. 
Every  one  of  them  is  followed  by  this  sentence  :  "for  the  libation 
of  a  vase  has  been  made  on  earth  by  Osiris  N.  who  is  (now)  the 
lord  of  abundance,  and  goes  round  the  garden  of  Hotepit." 

The  three  versions  which  have  been  preserved  of  this  text  are 

2    Z 

342  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

very  fragmentary.    The  most  complete,  papyrus  10478  of  the  British 

Museum,  contains  only  the  7  to  12.     As  the  interest  of 

<r=>    o   111 

this   text,    the   character  of  which   is   chiefly   pictorial,  lies  in  the 
vignettes,  it  has  been  thought  unnecessary  to  give  a  translation  of  it. 
I.  See  note  2,  Chapter  127. 


Chapter  of  7-aising  the  funereal  Bed. 

Thou  art  a  lion,  thou  art  a  sphinx,  thou  art  Horus  who  avengeth 
his  father ;  thou  art  these  four  gods,  those  glorious  ones  who  are 
shouting  for  joy,  who  are  making  incantations,  and  who  bring  out 
water  by  the  power  of  the  tramp  of  their  feet.  Thou  risest  on  the 
right,  thou  risest  on  the  left.  Seb  has  opened  thy  blind  eyes,  (i) 
he  has  loosened  thy  legs  which  were  fettered.  Thou  hast  received 
thy  heart  of  thy  mother,  thy  whole  heart  of  thy  own  body ;  thy  soul 
is  in  the  sky,  thy  body  is  under  the  ground.  There  is  bread  for  thy 
body,  water  for  thy  throat,  sweet  breeze  for  thy  nostrils. 

Thou  restest  in  their  funereal  chambers,  which  those  who  are  in 

their  coffins  have  opened  for  thee  and  for  thy when  thou 

journeyest ;  thou  art  firm  on  thy  pedestal,  of  thy  existence,  thou 
appearest  in  heaven,  and  thou  fastenest  the  tackle  (2)  by  the  side 
of  Ra, 

Thou  fishest  with  the  net  on  the  river,  the  water  of  which  thou 
drinkest ;  thou  walkest  on  thy  feet,  and  thou  dost  not  walk  headlong. 
Thou  appearest  on  the  surface  of  the  earth,  and  thou  doest  not  come 
forth  from  under  solid  ground,  the  strength  (3)  which  is  in  thee  will 
not  be  shaken  through  the  action  of  the  god  of  thy  domain. 

Thou  art  pure,  thou  art  pure,  thy  forepait  is  purified,  thy  hind- 
part  is  cleansed  with  bet  and  natron,  and  cooled  with  incense. 

Thou  art  purified  with  the  milk  (given  to)  Apis,  and  with  beer 
of  the  goddess  Tenemit,  with  natron  which  removes  all  what  is 
wrong  in  thee,  and  which  was  provided  by  the  daughter  of  Ra  when 
she  gave  it  to  her  father  Ra ;  and  when  she  raised  for  thee  the 
mountain  where  is  buried  her  father  Osiris.  (4) 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  343 

I  have  taken  a  bite  of  these  sweet  things  which  are  on  the 
hands  (?)  of  Osiris  N.  the  loaves  (?)  from  above,  which  belong  to 
Ra,  made  of  grain  of  Abu,  and  four  loaves  from  below  which  be- 
long to  Seb,  made  of  grain  from  the  South.  The  god  (5)  of  thy 
domain  brings  thee  the  Field  of  Hotepit,  his  hands  are  before  thee. 

Thou  goest  out  like  Ra,  thou  art  powerful  Hke  Ra,  thou  art  in 
possession  of  thy  feet.  Osiris  N.  is  in  possession  of  his  feet  at  all 
times  and  at  all  hours;  thou  wilt  not  be  judged,  thou  wilt  not  be 
impiisoned,  thou  wilt  not  be  guarded,  thou  wilt  not  be  put  in  bonds, 
thou  wilt  not  be  placed  in  the  house  where  are  the  enemies.  Cakes 
are  piled  up  before  thee,  and  offerings  are  well  guarded  for  thee. 

There  is  no  one  to  oppose  thee  and  to  prevent  thee  from 
going  out. 

Thou  receivest  thy  clothing,  thy  sandals,  thy  stick,  thy  linen, 
thy  weapons,  with  which  thou  wilt  cut  off  heads,  thou  wilt  twist 
round  the  necks  of  thy  foes  ;  these  enemies  who  would  bring  death 
to  thee,  they  will  not  approach  thee. 

The  great  god  speaks  to  thee  :  Let  him  be  brought  here  for  all 
that  will  happen.  The  hawk  rejoices  in  thee,  the  cackler  cackles 
to  thee,  Ra  opens  to  thee  the  doors  of  the  sky.  Seb  opens  for 
thee  the  earth. 

Thou  art  great,  a  mighty  (6)  Chu,  whose  name  is  not  known, 
the  soul  which  opens  the  Amenta.  It  is  mighty  this  soul  of  N., 
for  he  (7)  is  beloved  of  Ra  and  well  pleasing  to  his  circle,  he  joins  (?) 
the  ways,  he  guards  the  men,  and  guides  the  lion  to  the  place  where 
his  ka  is  propitiated.  N.  .  .  .  the  lord  of  mankind  causes  thee  to  live 
and  that  thy  soul  be  sound,  that  thy  body  may  be  enduring  and 
great,  that  thou  mayest  see  the  light  (8)  and  breathe  the  wind,  that 
thy  face  may  be  revealed  in  the  house  of  right,  that  thou  mayest 
be  stationed  in  the  meadow,  and  not  see  any  storm,  that  thou 
mayest  follow  the  lord  of  the  two  earths,  that  thou  mayest  refresh 
thyself  under  the  merit  tree  by  the  side  of  the  goddess,  the  great 
magician.  (9) 

Seshait  is  sitting  in  front  of  thee.  Sau  is  protecting  thy  limbs  : 
the  bull  milks  for  thee  his  cows  which  are  in  the  train  of  Horse- 
chait.  (10) 

Thou  washest  thy  face  at  the  mouth  ot  the  stream  of  Cheraba, 
thou  art  welcome  to  the  great  gods  of  Pu  and  Tepu  ;  (11)  thou 
seest  Thoth  conversing  with  Ra  in  the  sky.  Thou  goest  out  and 
goest  in  into  Anit,  thou  conversest  with  the  Rehiu. 

2  Z  2 

344  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

Thy  ka  is  with  thee,  that  thou  mayest  rejoice;  and  the  heart  of 

thy  birth;  thou  wakest  thy are  happy;  the  cycle  of  the  gods 

give  pleasure  to  thy  heart.  Thou  goest  out  (and  thou  seest)  four 
loaves  for  thee  from  Sechem,  and  four  loaves  from  Hermopolis  ;. 
thou  goest  out  and  there  are  four  (loaves)  from  Heliopolis  on  the 
table  of  the  lord  of  the  two  earths. 

Thou  wakest  in  the  night,  and  thou  art  welcome  to  the  lords 
of  Heliopolis,  Hu  (12)  is  in  thy  mouth,  thy  feet  do  nol  turn  back, 
there  is  life  in  thy  limbs. 

Thou  seizest  the  sma  (13)  at  Abydos  and  thou  conductest  victuals 
to  the  great  gods  and  vases  of  drmk  to  those  who  are  above  the 
clouds  in  the  festival  of  Osiris,  on  the  morning  of  the  Uak  festival ; 
the  hersheta  priest  decks  thee  with  gold  ;  thy  garment  is  well  arranged 
with  byssus;  the  Nile  rises  over  thy  body;  thou  art  glorious  (14) .... 
thou  drinkest  on  the  shore  of  the  lake  ;  thou  art  welcome  to  the 
gods  who  are  in  it ;  thou  comest  forth  in  the  sky  with  the  gods  who 
bring  Maat  to  Ra,  thou  art  brought  before  the  cycle  of  the  gods, 
thou  art  like  one  of  them.  Thou  art  the  gander  among  the  geese 
which  are  offered  to  Ptah  Anebefres. 


This  Chapter  and  the  following  are  found  in  one  papyrus  only, 
Paris,  III,  93,  a  document  more  remarkable  for  the  beauty  of  its 
vignettes  than  for  the  correctness  of  the  text. 

Both  Chapters  refer  to  8    Vj  ^;:z::^  ( ( 

or  couch  on  which  the  deceased  will  lie  like  Osiris.  None  of  them 
has  a  vignette.  As  in  the  course  of  these  chapters  there  is  no  mention 
of  the  bed  itself,  we  must  suppose  that  they  were  read  while  the  bed 
was  raised  or  arranged.  The  translation  of  this  text  is  particularly 
difficult,  and  often  conjectural,  owing  to  our  papyrus  having  no 
other  document  to  compare  it  with. 

1.  All  this  bears  a  great  resemblance  to  Chapter  26. 

2.  In  landing,  see  Chapter  99. 

I       the  funereal  bed 

Q c  LZTZl 

3.    [  \\\^ ■        -'■     ^'^^^     ^^P^     Renoufs     translation, 

"  Strength,"  but  I  believe  the  sense  is  the  same  as  before  :  "  solid 
ground,  dry  land,  continent  (Feste,   Brugsch),"  as  we  find  in  this 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  345 

sentence   from    the  Stele  at  Abusimbel :  aaa^a^ 

;l  "^  ^rr^--^-n 

I       AAAAAA     ^O 


111  I    ^ 

"  the  mountains,   the  water,  and 

the  continents  are  shaken  by  thy  name." 

4.  For  the  mountain  where  the  burial  of  Osiris  takes  place,  see 
vignette  to  Chapter  186. 

5.  I  translate  as  if  there  was    ] 

6.  "Mighty,"  Renouf's  translation.  I  should  prefer  ''distin- 
guished, eminent,"  see  note  2,  Chapters.  14 1-3. 

8.  The  light  kmdled  for  liis  ka  (see  Chapter  132,  A  and  B), 
and  which  gives  life  to  the  ka.  The  lighting  of  a  lamp  is  a  symbol 
of  the  birth  (Lep.,  Denkm.^  Ill,  74  c.)  and  accompanies  it. 

9.  For  this  word  I  have  not  followed  Renoufs  translation, 
which  would  have  been  :  the  master  of  the  words  of  power  (see 
Chapter.  108). 

10.  A  name  of  Isis,  represented  as  a  cow,  and  worshipped  as 
such,  chiefly  in  the  town  of  Apis,  the  capital  of  the  Libyan  nome, 
near  Lake  Mareotis.  The  bull  there  was  Osiris,  and  the  calf  Horus 
(see  note  4  on  Chapter  109). 

11.  See  note  5  on  Chapter  18. 

12.  The  god  of  abundance. 

13.  lyiji^  an  unknown  object :  however,  the   sense  is  clear. 

This  means :  thou  becomest  the  [1  wf    '  A   V    v  '  ^^^^  look-out 

of  the  ship  which  is  transporting  victuals  (see  Chapters  109  and  149^^). 

14.  The  text  seems  to  be  very  incomplete  here. 


Chapter  of  a>'ra?igifig  the  funereal  Bed. 

Thy  limbs  have  been  given  thee,  thou  takest  hold  of  thy  bones, 
I  have  set  for  thee  thy  limbs ;  the  earth  is  bent  upon  protecting  thy 
flesh.  Thou  art  Horus  who  was  within  the  egg;  when  thou  art 
raised,  thou  seest  the  divine  body  (of  Ra),  thou  marchest  towards  the 
horizon,  to  the  place  where  thou  likest  to  be ;  and  when  thou  art 

346  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

there,  there  are  haihngs  and  cries  of  welcome,  with  all  (good  things) 
which  appear  on  the  altar, 

Horus  has  raised  thee  when  he  rose  himself,  as  he  did  for  him 
who  is  in  the  sacred  abode. 

Hail,  Osiris,  thou  art  born  twice.  Ua  has  raised  thee,  Anubis 
on  his  mountain  has  caused  thy  bandages  to  grow  upon  thee.  O, 
JV.  Ptah  Sokaris  grants  thee  to  put  thy  hand  on  the  ornaments  of 
the  divine  house. 

O,  N'.,  Thoth  himself  conies  to  thee  with  the  writing  of  divine 
words ;  he  grants  thee  to  direct  thyself  towards  the  horizon  of  the 
sky  to  the  place  where  ^hy  ka  likes  to  be,;  he  has  done  it  to  Osiris 
on  the  night  when  he  came  forth  living. 

Thy  white  diadem  is  established  on  thy  brow.  The  god  Nemu 
is  with  thee ;  he  grants  thee  to  be  at  the  head  of  the ? 

Hail,  jV.,  arise  on  thy  bed,  and  come  forth.  Thou  are  raised  by 
Ra  on  the  horizon  of  the  Maati  in  his  boat. 

Hail,  i^",  thou  art  raised  by  I'mu,  who  grants  thee  to  endure 
for  ever. 

Hail,  N-t  thou  art  raised  by  Amsu  of  Koptos ;  thou  art  adored 
by  the  gods  of  the  shrine. 

Hail,  N.,  blessed  be  thy  coming  in  peace  to  thy  house  of  eternity 
and  to  thy  everlasting  monument. 

Salutations  to  thee  in  Pu  Tepu,  in  the  shrine  which  thy  ka 
loveth,  within  thy  dwelling. 

Mighty  is  thy  soul,  thou  hast  been  raised  from  thy  resting 
couch  (?),  thou  art  greater  than  the  victim  (?)  which  has  been 
embraced  by  the  gods. 

Tliou  art  like  the  god  who  begets  the  beings.  It  is  admirable 
what  thou  Greatest  more  than  that  of  the  gods. 

Thy  splendour  is  greater  than  that  of  the  Glorified,  thy  spirits 
are  mightier  than  those  who  are  in  (?). 

Hail,  N.,  thou  art  raised  by  Ptah  Anebefres,  who  puts  thy  dwelling 
in  front  of  that  of  the  gods. 

Hail,  JV.,  thou  art  Horus,  the  son  of  Osiris,  begotten  by  Ptah, 
created  by  Nut.  Thou  shinest  like  Ra  on  the  horizon  when  he 
lighteth  the  two  earths  by  his  rays. 

The  gods  say  to  thee  :  Come,  come  forth,  see  what  belongs  to 
thee  in  thy  house  of  eternity. 

Thou  hast  been  raised  by  Rennut,  the  great  one,  who  conceived 
Tnm  in  the  presence  of  the  circle  of  the  gods  of  Nut. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  347 

I  am  the  second  outcome  of  the  sky,  and  the  third  of  him  who 
makes  his  light.  I  have  come  out  of  the  womb ;  I  have  been  an 
infant  hke  my  father;  there  are  no  perverse  actions  of  mine  in  the 

various  events  of  my  lot. 

Chapter  of  wrapping  up  {the  deceased)  in  a  pure  garf?ient. 

O  Tmu,  Shu,  Tefnut,  Seb,  Nut,  Osiris,  Isis,  Sut,  Nephthys, 
Horus  of  the  two  Horizons,  Hathor  in  the  great  dwelling,  Chepera, 
Mentu  lord  of  Thebes,  Amon  lord  of  Nestaui,  ye  the  great  cycle  of 
the  gods,  ye  the  small  cycle  of  the  gods,  ye  gods  and  goddesses 
issued  from  Nu,  Sebek  of  Shet,  Sebek  in  all  his  manifold  names, 
in  all  the  abodes  where  his  ka  likes  to  be ;  ye  gods  of  the  South  and 
of  the  North,  ye  gods  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  grant  a  pure  garment 
to  the  mighty  Chu  N. ;  give  him  to  be  glorious  by  it  and  destroy  all 
that  was  wrong  in  him. 

This  pure  garment  of  A^  has  been  allotted  to  him  for  ever,  for 
eternity ,  for  you  destroy  all  that  is  wrong  in  him. 


This  Chapter,  which  has  no  vignette,  is  found  in  one  papyrus 
only,  written  for  a  deceased  of  the  name  of  Amenophis.  Its 
Theban  origin  is  clearly  indicated  by  the  mention  of  Mentu  and 
Amon,  the  two  great  gods  of  Thebes. 

Its  character  is  different  from  the  Book  of  the  Dead  in  general. 
It  seems  to  be  part  of  a  ritual  such  as  the  Ritual  of  Amon  and 
Mut,  with  which  it  has  a  great  likeness  (see  Moret,  Rituel  du  culte 
dtvin,  ch.  6).  (i)  The  clothing  in  a  pure  or  perhaps  a  clean  garment, 
will  be  the  sign  that  all  that  was  wrong  in  the  deceased  has  been 
destroyed  by  the  gods.  Therefore  the  deceased  calls  on  them, 
asking  them  to  complete  this  destruction  in  order  that  he  may  shine 
or  be  glorious,  wearing  the  pure  garment. 

It  is  alluded  to  in  the  next  Chapter  (fifth  verse),  "  thou 
puttest  on  the  pure  garment,  and  thou  divestest  the  apron,  when 
thou  stretchest  thyself  on  the  funereal  bed." 

348  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Begi7ining  of  the  Chapter  of  reciti?ig  the  ceremonies  made  in  the 


(i) with  bet  incense,  I  inhale  the  smell  of  natron  and  incense 

I  have  been  purified through  the  sacred  utterances 

coming  out  of  my  mouth.     I  am  pure  verily of  the  fishes  in 

the  river,  towards  the  statue  in  the  house  of  purification  ;  they  are 
pure  the  words  of  N. 

Blessed  be  thou,  N.,  thou  art  well  pleasing  to  Ptah,  well  pleasing 
to  Anebefres,  well  pleasing  to  all  gods,  well  pleasing  to  all  goddesses. 
Thy  beauties  are  like  a  quiet  stream,  like  the  choicest  water ;  thy 
beauties  are  like  a  festival  hall  in  which  everyone  exalts  his  god ; 
thy  beauties  are  like  the  pillars  of  Ptah,  like  the  shoots  of  the 
maut  (2)  plant  of  Ra.  N.  is  the  pillar  of  Ptah  and  the  ewer  of 

O  (3)  thou  who  art  called  aloud,  thou  who  art  called  aloud,  thou 
the  lamented,  thou  art  glorified,  thou  art  exalted,  thou  art  glorious, 
thou  art  strong. 

O  thou  who  art  raised  up,  thou  art  raised  up,  N.  has  been  raised 
up  by  means  of  all  the  manifold  ceremonies  done  to  him ;  thy 
enemies  are  struck  down ;  Ptah  has  struck  down  thine  enemies,  thou 
art  victorious  and  thou  hast  dominion  over  them.  Thy  words  are 
listened  to,  what  thou  hast  ordered  is  clone,  thou  art  raised,  thou 
art  triumphant  before  (4)  the  Circles  of  gods  attached  to  every  god 
and  every  goddess. 

O  thou  who   art   called   aloud  {bis),   second  verse.     Thy  head 

is woven  by  a  woman  from  Asia  ;  thy  face  shines  brighter 

than  the  moon  ;  the  top  of  thy  head  is  lapis  blue ;  thy  hair  is  darker 
than  the  doors  of  the  Tuat,  thy  hair  is  black  like  the  night ;  thy 
forehead  is  adorned  of  blue ;  the  rays  of  Horus  are  on  thy  face. 
Thy  garments  are  of  gold  ;  Horus  has  decked  them  with  blue  ;  thy 
eyebrows,  the  two  sisters  joined  together ;  Horus  has  adorned  them 

with  blue ;  thy  nose  inhales  the  pertume  of and  thy  nostrils 

are  like  the  winds  in  the  sky. 

Thy  eyes  are  the  seers  of  the  hill  of  Bachau,  thy  upper  eyelids 

BOOK    OF   THK    DKAD.  349 

are  enduring  for  ever ;  their  lashes  are  of  real  lapis  ;  thy  pupils  are 
pleasant  gifts,  and  thy  lower  eyelids  are  painted  with  antimony. 

Thy  lips  utter  for  thee  words  of  truth,  they  repeat  the  words  of 
truth  of  Ra  which  are  well  pleasing  to  the  gods.  Thy  teeth  are  the 
two  heads  of  the  serpent  by  which  the  two  gods  are  seized,  thy 
tongue  is  voluble ;  thy  voice  is  more  shrill  than  that  of  the  bird  in 
the  marshes  ;  thy  ears  (?)  are  well  established  at  their  place,  they  go 
(with  thee)  to  the  land  of  Amenta. 

O  thou  who  art  called  aloud  {^/'s),  third  verse.  Thy  neck  is 
adorned  with  gold,  it  is  girt  with  electron  ;  (5)  thy  throat  and  thy 
lungs  are  like  Anubis ;  (6)  thy  backbone  is  like  the  Uat'  goddesses ; 
thy  back  is  lined  with  gold  and  girt  with  electron  ;  thy  loins  (7) 

are  like  Nephthys (8)  is   a  Nile   which    is   flowing.      Thy 

buttocks  are  two  eggs  of  crystal,  thy  legs  are  well  fastened  for  walking, 

thou  art  sitting  in  thy  place thou  hast  received  from  the  gods 

thy  two  eyes. 

O  thou  who  art  called  aloud  (i>is),  fourth  verse. 

Thy  throat  is  like  Anubis,  thy  limbs  are  necklaces  made  of  gold  ; 
thy  breasts  are  two  eggs  of  crystal  which  Horus  has  painted  blue,  thy 
forearms  are  adorned  with  topaz,  thy  shoulders  are  well  established 
on  their  base  ;  thy  heart  is  happy  every  day,  thy  whole  heart  is  the 
work  of  the  two  divine  Powers,  thy  body  worships  the  stars  of  the 
gods  above  and  below ;  for  thy  belly  is  like  a  calm  sky,  and  thy 
bowels  are  the  Tuat  which  nobody  can  fathom,  and  which  sends  out 
light  in  the  dark  night ;  its  offerings  are  eatable  plants. 

He  (JV.)  praiseth  the  Majesty  of  Thoth,  saying  :  the  desires  of 
his  beautiful  person  take  place  in  my  tomb ;  as  my  god  commanded 
me.     Every  pure  thing  he  loves  is  there. 

O  thou  who  art  called  aloud  (Ifis),  fifth  verse. 

Thy  thighs  are  a  pond  in  a  time  of  abundant  inundation  ;  a 
pond  which  is  lined  by  the  children  of  the  god  of  water  ;  thy  legs 
which  go  to  and  fro  are  of  gold  ;  thy  knees  are  lentisks  in  the 
marshes ;  they  feet  are  firm  every  day  ;  thy  shin-bones  lead  thee  on 
the  right  path. 

Thy  arms  are  pillars  on  their  bases  ;  thy  fingers  are  ....  of  gold  ; 
their  nails  are  like  knives  of  flint  in  what  they  do  for  thee. 

O  thou  who  art  called  aloud  (di's)  .... 

Thou  puttest  on  the  pure  garment  and  thou  divestest  thy  apron 
when  thou  stretchest  thyself  on  the  funereal  bed  ;  haunches  are  cut 
for  thy  Aa,  and  a  heart  is  offered  unto  thy  mummy.     Thou  receivest 

3  A 

350  1300K   OF   THE   DEAD. 

a  bandage  of  the  finest  linen  from  the  hands  of  the  attendant  (9)  ot 
Ra;  thou  eatest  on  thy  resting  couch  bread  which  has  been  baked 
by  the  fire  goddess  herself;  thou  eatest  the  haunch,  thou  seizest  the 
meat  which  has  been  prepared  by  Ra  in  his  holy  place  ;  thou  washest 
thy  feet  in  silver  basins  made  by  the  skilful  artist  Sokaris  ;  thou 
eatest  bread  placed  on  the  altar,  and  prepared  by  the  holy  fathers, 
thou  livest  upon  baked  cakes  and  hot  drinks  from  the  store-house  ; 
thou  inhalest  the  smell  of  flowers  ;  thy  heart  is  not  reluctant  at  the 
sight  of  offerings  ;  thy  ministrants  make  for  thee  the  loaves  and  the 
cakes  of  the  Powers  of  Heliopolis ;  and  they  themselves  bring  thee 
the  sacred  things  ;  thy  offerings  have  been  chosen  for  thee  ;  and  thy 
ordinances  are  in  the  gates  of  the  Great  Dwelling  ;  thou  risest  like 
Sahu  and  thou  arrivest  like  the  morning  star  ;  Nut  stretches  forth 
her  arms  towards  thee  ;  Sahu,  the  son  of  Ra,  and  Nut,  the  mother 
of  the  gods,  the  two  great  gods  of  the  sky,  they  speak  one  to 
another  saying  :  Take  him  in  thy  arms  ;  I  have  brought  in  my  arms 
the  form  of  N.  in  the  happy  day  when  he  is  glorified,  when  his 
memory  is  recorded,  when  he  is  in  the  mouth  of  all  generations. 

Thou,  raised  one,  thou  hearest  how  thou  art  glorified  throughout 
all  thy  house. 

O  thou  who seventh  verse. 

Anubis  has  given  him  his  shroud  ;  he  has  done  all  that  pleased 
him ;  the  high-priest  has  prepared  his  ribbon ;  for  he  is  the 
provider  (?)  of  the  great  god  ;  thou  goest  and  washest  thyself  in  the 
lake  of  Perfection,  thou  makest  offerings  in  the  house  of  the  gods 
of  the  sky,  and  thou  propitiatest  the  lord  of  Heliopolis ;  thou 
receivest  the  water  of  Ra  in  ewers,  and  milk  in  large  vases. 

O  thou  raised  one,  thou  makest  offerings  on  the  altar,  and  thou 

washest  thy  feet  upon  the  stone  of ,  on  the  banks  of  the 

divine  lake ;  thou  comest  forth  and  thou  seest  Ra  upon  the  four 
pillars  which  are  the  arms  of  the  sky;  on  the  head  of  Anmutef,  and 
on  the  arms  of  Apuat  who  opens  for  thee  the  path  ;  thou  seest  the 
horizon  where  are  all  the  sacred  things  which  thou  desirest. 

O  thou  who  are  called  aloud  {^ns),  eighth  verse. 

All  the  good  things  have  been  spread  out  for  thee,  before  Ra. 
Thou  hast  a  beginning  and  thou  hast  an  end  as  Horus  and  Thoth 
have  ordered  for  thee.  They  call  upon  JV.,  they  see  how  he  is 
glorious,  they  give  him  to  come  forth  like  a  god  to  meet  the  Powers 
of  Heliopolis.  Thou  journeyest  on  the  great  path  as  thy  mummy 
has  received  the  sacred  things   from    thy  father ;     thy  hands  are 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  351 

wrapped  in  linen  every  day ;  the  beginning  of  the  journey  of  the 
god  is  at  the  gate  of  the  Great  DwelHng, 

O  thou  who  art  called  aloud  {/>is),  ninth  verse. 

JV.  Breatheth  the  air  for  his  nose  and  for  his  nostrils,  he  receiveth 
a  thousand  geese  and  sixty  baskets  of  all  things  good  and  pure  ; 
thy  enemies  have  been  struck  down  ;  they  are  no  more. 


This  Chapter  is  taken  from  papyrus  London  9900  Aa.  It  has  no 
vignette,  the  translation  here  given  is  that  which  I  published  in 
1873  {Zeitsclirift,  1873,  pp.  25  and  81),  with  a  few  changes. 

1.  Lacunre, 

2.  Perhaps    the    — ^  "^  which    M.     Loret    has    identified    as 

being  the  celery  {Recueil,  Vol.  XVI,  p.  4). 

3.  Here     begins    a    hymn,    the    first     words    of     which     are 

®      "O     thou     who    art    called 



aloud,"  repeated  twice.     These  words  have  become  the  name  of  the 
hymn,  as  we  say  the  Magnificat  or  the   Te  Deum.     The  hymn  is 

divided  into  nine  fragments  or  verses,    J (Renouf,  Life  Work, 

Vol.  II,  p.  390). 

4.  Renouf's  translation.  See  Chapter  18,  §  10.  Rather  than 
before,  I  should  translate,  through  the  action  of 

5.  "  Electron  "  is  Lepsius's  translation.  Renouf,  who  translates 
•'  copper,"  has  discussed  the  point  in  a  letter  to  Lepsius  {Life  Work, 
Vol.  II,  p.  2). 

6.  I  believe  this  means  made  of  black  metal,  probably  silver, 
blackened  by  some  chemical  process. 

7.  Papyrus   Ebers   T^    "foramen  ani,    rectum." 

8.  The  text  has  here  ^  an  evident  blunder.  We  should  read 
here  the  phallus. 

9.  Brugsch,  Z)/V/.  SuppL,  p.  102 1,  translates ^^.   ^^  v\    ^_j  M?\ 

aati,    "  Bettenmacher." 

3    A    2 

352  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


The  addresses  of  Horns  to  his  father  when  he  goes  in  to  see  his  father, 
and  7i<hcn  he  comes  out  of  his  great  sanctuary  to  see  him  Rd 
Unneferu,  the  master  of  Ta-tser,  and  then  they  embrace  one 
another ;  therefore  he  is  glorious  in  the  Netherworld. 

Hail,  Osiris  ;  I  am  thy  son  Horus  ;  I  have  come,  (i) 

I  have  avenged  (thee). 

I  have  struck  down  thy  enemies. 

I  have  destroyed  all  that  was  wrong  in  thee. 

I  have  killed  him  who  assailed  thee. 

I  stretched  forth  my  hand  for  thee  against  thy  adversaries. 

I  have  brought  thee  the  companions  of  Sut  with  chains  upon 

I  have  brought  thee  the  land  of  the  South,  I  have  added  to  thee 
the  land  of  the  North. 

I  have  settled  for  thee  the  divine  offerings  from  the  North  and 
the  South. 

I  have  ploughed  for  thee  the  fields. 

I  have  irrigated  for  thee  thy  land. 

I  have  hoed  for  thee  the  ground. 

I  have  built  for  thee  ponds  of  water. 

I  have  turned  up  the  soil  of  thy  possessions. 

I  have  made  there  for  thee  .sacrifices  of  thy  adversaries. 

I  have  made  sacrifices  for  thee  of  thy  cattle  and  thy  victims. 

I  have  supplied  there  in  abundance  .... 

I  have  brought  thee  .... 

I  have  sacrificed  for  thee  .... 

I  have  shot  for  thee  antelopes  and  bulls. 

I  have  plucked  for  thee  geese  and  waterfowl. 

I  have  bound  thy  enemies  in  their  chains. 

I  have  fettered  thy  enemies  with  their  ropes. 

I  have  brought  thee  from  Elephantine  the  fresh  water  which 
refreshes  thy  heart. 

I  have  brought  thee  all  the  plants. 

I  have  settled  for  thee  on  the  earth  all  thy  subsistence  as  to  Ra. 

I  have  made  for  thee  bread  at  Pu  with  red  grain. 




Chapter  CLXXIII,  .-/.«. 

IJOOK    Ol'   THE    DliAD.  353 

I  have  made  for  thee  drink  at  Tepu  with  white  grain. 
I  have  ploughed  for  thee  wheat  and  barley  in  the  Field  of  Aarru. 
I  have  mowed  them  there  for  thee. 
I  have  glorified  thee. 
I  have  given  thee  thy  soul. 
I  have  given  thee  thy  power. 
I  have  given  thee  .... 
I  have  c;iven  thee  .... 

I  have  given  thee  the  dread  which  thou  inspirest. 
I  have  given  thee  thy  bravery. 

I  have  given  thee  thy  two  eyes,  the  two  plumes  which  are  on  thy 

I  have  given  thee  Isis  and  Nephthys,  they  are  placed  on  thee. 

I  have  anointed  thee  with  the  offering  of  holy  oil. 

I  have  brought  thee  the  offering  by  which  thy  face  is  destroyed.  (2) 


This  Chapter  is  taken  also  from  London  9900.  The  vignette  at 
the  end  represents  Osiris  sitting  in  a  naos.  Before  him  are  the 
offerings  of  fowl  and  cattle  which  Horus  presents  to  his  father.  At 
the  beginning  the  deceased  is  seen,  with  raised  aims  ;  he  is  supposed 
to  be  Horus,  and  above  him  are  written  the  following  words  : — 
"  Adoration  to  Osiris,  Khenta  Amenta,  the  great  god,  the  lord  of 
Abydos,  king  for  ever,  prince  of  eternity,  the  venerable  god  in 
Restau,  pronounced  by  N.,  I  give  thee  grain,  lord  of  the  gods,  the 
one  god  who  liveth  on  justice.  I  am  thy  son  Horus.  I  have  come 
to  thee.  I  avenge  thee,  I  bring  to  thee  Maat,  to  the  place  where  is 
the  circle  of  thy  gods.  Grant  me  to  be  among  thy  followers,  and  to 
smite  thy  enemies.  I  have  established  for  thee  thy  food  offerings 
on  the  earth  for  ever." 

This  Chapter  was  first  published  and  translated  in  the  Zeitsc/iri/f, 
Vol.  XHI,  p.  83. 

1.  These  words  are  repeated  before  every  one  of  the  following 

2.  This  sentence  is  abridged.  It  is  given  in  full  by  the  Ritual 
at  Abydos  :  "  I  have  anointed  thy  head  with  the  oil  of  the  brow  of 
Horus ;  if  it  is  destroyed  there  (on  his  brow)  he  is  destroyed  as  god ; 
i.e.,  his  divinity  is  destroyed." 

354  BOOK   OF    Till-:    DEAD. 

Chapter  of  causing  the  Chii  to  come  out  of  the  great  door  in  the  sky. 

It  is  read  (i)  to  thee  by 'thy  son  (Horus). 

The  great  ones  tremble  when  they  see  the  sword  which  is  in  thy 
hand,  when  thou  goest  out  of  the  Tuat. 

Hail  to  thee,  the  wise  one,  created  by  Seb,  born  of  Nut.  The 
cycles  of  the  gods  are  at  rest.  Horus  rests  in  his  dwelHng  (2),  Turn 
rests  in  his  abode  (?).  All  the  gods  of  East  and  West  rest  in  the 
great  goddess  (3)  of  the  birth,  between  the  arms  of  her  who  gave 
birth  to  the  god. 

When  I  am  born  I  see,  I  recognize  where  I  am,  I  have  been 
raised  on  my  place.  The  order  has  been  accomplished  of  her  who 
hates  sleep  and  depression,  and  who  stands  in  Utenet. 

My  bread  comes  from  Pu,  and  I  receive  my  form  in  Heliopolis. 
Horus,  in  accordance  with  the  command  he  had  received  from  his 
father  the  lord  of  clouds,  Astes,  raised  him,  and  I  have  been  raised 
by  Tmu. 

I  am  the  great  one.  I  come  forth  between  the  legs  of  the  cycle 
of  the  gods.  I  have  been  conceived  by  Sechet,  and  Shestet  (4)  gave 
me  birth  to  be  her  star,  Sothis,  the  first  one,  the  great  walker  who 
brings  Ra  through  the  sky  every  day. 

I  have  come  to  my  abode.  I  have  united  the  two  diadems.  I 
shine  like  a  star.  O  ye  flowers,  the  name  of  which  is  "  the  precious 
bunch,"  I  am  the  lotus  which  cometh  out  of  the  holy  earth ;  when 
I  am  plucked,  I  settle  myself  at  the  nostrils  of  the  Great  Figure. 

I  have  come  out  of  the  lake  of  flame,  I  have  received  justice 
instead  of  evil.  I  am  near  the  white  cloth  (5),  and  I  keep  watch 
over  the  Urrei  in  the  night  of  the  great  flood  of  tears.  (6) 

I  shine  like  Nefertmu  the  lotus  which  is  at  the  nostril  of  Ra 
when  he  comes  forth  on  the  horizon  every  day,  and  the  gods  are 
purified  by  his  sight. 

N.  is  triumphant  among  the  ka,  smiting  the  hearts  through  his 
great  wisdom.  He  is  near  the  god,  he  is  the  Sau  (7)  (the  knowing 
one)  at  the  western  (right)  side  of  Ra. 

I  have  come  to  my  abode  among  the  ka,  uniting  the  hearts 
through  my  great  wisdom.     I  am  Sau  near  the  god,  at  the  western 



CLXXXIII,  A.jor. 


CLXXXIV,  /'./. 

Chapter  CLXXXV,  L.  a. 

Chapter  CLXXV.     Papyrus  of  Ani. 

Chapter  CLXXIV,  A./. 

Chapter  CLXXX,  L.  a. 


Chapter  CLXXXVI,  Z>.  a. 

BOOK    OF   TIIK    DEAD.  355 

side  of  Ra  ;  my  sceptre  (?)  is  in  my  hand.  I  am  called  the  great 
favourite,  as  I  am  clad  in  red  garments.  I  am  Sau,  on  the  western 
side  of  Ra,  with  a  stout  heart  in  the  cave  of  Nu. 


This  Chapter  is  already  found  in  the  pyramid  of  Unas  (1.  379-399). 
Prof.  Erman  {Zeitschr.,  XXXIII,  p.  2)  has  made  a  special  study 
of  it,  and  has  pointed  out  that  the  title  of  this  Chapter  originates 

from  a  misunderstandinn;  of  the  word 



which  should  be  a   star 

and  not  a  gate  or  a  door.  Were  it  not  for  the  vignette,  which 
represents  the  deceased,  the  woman  Muthotepet  coming  out  of  a 
door,  we  should  translate  :  "  Chapter  of  the  coming  forth  of  the 
Chu  as  a  great  star  in  the  sky  "  ;  in  accordance  with  these  words 
found  in  the  course  of  the  chapter:  "Shestet  gave  me  birth  to  be 
her  star,  Sothis,"  etc. 

Two  papyri  only  contain  this  Chapter,  one  in  London  and  one 
in  Paris.  The  London  text  has  a  vignette  with  these  words  :  "  the 
coming  out  of  the  door  in  the  sky  by  ...  " 

1.  '%:^ '^^^z^    M.  Maspero  translates:    ton  fils  I'a  fait 

(le  sacrifice).  The  word  .<2>-  is  employed  here  as  in  the  rubric  of 
Chapter  141,  "to  say,  to  speak."   This  speech  is  a  ceremonial  act,  one 

-<s>-  fV    ° 
of  the  v\      done  for  the  deceased. 

<=^  Jl  111 

2.  We  noticed   before   (Chapter    160,   note   2)    that  is  a 

o  I 
variant  for         when  applying  to  Tmu.     Here  it  applies  to  Horus, 

The  unknown  word  [  [  [  being  parallel,  I  give  it  conjecturally  a 
similar  sense. 

3.  <=:>  "the  great  one,   the  great  goddess,"  and    its  variants 

<=>  /n  <=>  J)  etc.,  occur  frequently  m  the  Book  of  the  Dead, 
and  seem  to  be  a  name  of  the  sky. 

4-  [flh^'"^  which  is  found  in  the  papyrus,  is  clearly  a  mistake 
for  the  name  of  the  goddess  Shestcf,  which  we  read  in  the  text  of 

356  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

5.  Perhaps  a  tent  in  which  he  will  shelter  the  Ursei. 

6.  See  note    i,  Chapter  4,  and  Z//^    IVor/i,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  46.     I 
suppose  it  means  here  a  heavy  rain. 

7.  In  the  pictures  in  the  royal  tombs    the   sun-god    stands   in 

his  boat  between  -^^aa  and  y  \_J.      Here  it  is  said  that  Sau  is  at  the 

West  of  Ra,  meaning  on  his  right  side.  Ra  is  spoken  of  here  as 
if  he  were  a  human  being,  turning  towards  the  South  as  all  Egyptians 
did.  His  west  is  his  right-hand  side.  Even  now  the  Egyptian 
fellaheen  in  their  language  do  not  often  say  right  and  left,  they 
generally  make  use  of  the  points  of  the  compass  :  west  of  thee,  etc. 


Chapter  of  nof  dyitig  a  second  death  in  the  Netherivoiid. 

0  Thoth  (1)  !  What  has  become  of  the  children  of  Nut?  they 
have  stirred  up  hostilities,  they  have  raised  storms,  they  have  com- 
mitted iniquity,  they  have  raised  rebellion,  they  have  perpetrated 
murder,  they  have  done  oppression,  and  thus  have  acted,  the  strong 
against  the  weak,  in  all  that  they  have  done  to  me. 

Grant,  O  Thoth,  what  Tmu  hath  decreed.  Thou  seest  not  the 
iniquities,  thou  art  not  pained  at  their  attacks  upon  the  years,  and 
their  invasions  upon  the  months,  because  they  have  done  their 
mischiefs  in  secret. 

1  am  thy  pallet,  O  Thoth,  and  I  bring  to  thee  thine  inkstand ; 
I  am  not  one  of  those  who  do  mischief  in  secret.  Let  not  mischief 
be  done  unto  me. 

O  Tmu  !  what  is  this  place  to  which  I  have  journeyed  ?  for  it  is 
without  water  and  without  air !  It  is  all  abyss,  utter  darkness,  sheer 
perplexity.  One  liveth  here  in  peace  of  heart.  There  is  no 
pleasure  of  love  here.  Let  there  be  granted  to  me  glory  instead  of 
water,  air  and  pleasures  of  love ;  and  peace  of  heart  instead  of 
bread  and  beer. 

[Decree  this,  Tmu,   that  if  I  see  thy  face   I  shall  not  be  pained 

by  thy  sufferings  (2) Tmu  decrees  ;  behold  the  great  gods 

have  given  him  this  mission,  he  will  reign  on  his  throne  and  he  will 
inherit  his  throne  in  the  Isle  of  fire  :  and  for  thee  I  decree  that  the 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  357 

god  may  see  him  as  his  second  self,  and  that   my  face  may  see  thy 

My  lord  Tmu,  what  is  the  duration  of  my  life  ?  Thou  art  for 
eternities  of  eternities,  the  duration  of  endless  years  ;  and  behold  I 
am  going  to  deface  all  I  have  done :  this  earth  will  become  water, 
an  inundation  as  it  was  in  the  beginning.  I  will  remain  with 
Osiris,  and  I  will  make  my  form  like  another  serpent,  whom  no  man 
will  know,  and  no  god  will  see. 

It  is  good  what  I  have  done  to  Osiris,  who  is  exalted  above  all 
the  gods.  I  have  given  him  the  power  in  the  region  of  the 
Netherworld,  and  his  son  Horus  will  inherit  his  throne  in  the  Isle  of 
flame.  I  will  make  his  throne  in  the  boat  of  millions  of  (years). 
Horus  is  well  established  on  his  seat  in  order  that  he  may  take 
possession  of  his  place  of  rest ;  also  I  send  a  soul  to  Sut  in  the 
West,  who  is  exalted  above  all  gods  ;  and  I  have  caused  his  soul  to 
be  guarded  in  the  boat,  so  that  he  may  feel  reverential  fear  of  the 
divine  body  (Osiris).] 

O  my  father  Osiris  !  I  have  done  for  thee  what  thy  father  Ra  did 
for  thee.  Let  me  have  increase  upon  earth,  let  me  keep  my  dwelling 
place,  let  my  heir  be  vigorous,  let  my  sepulchre  flourish  and  my 
dependents  upon  earth.  Let  all  my  adversaries  be  crushed  to 
pieces  with  Selk'et  (the  scorpion  goddess)  over  their  ruin.  I  am 
thy  son,  O  my  father  Ra  !  thou  hast  been  the  cause  of  this  Life, 
Health  and  Strength.  Horus  is  established  upon  his  throne. 
Grant  that  my  duration  of  Life  may  be  that  of  one  who  attains 
beatitude.  (3) 


The  translation  and  notes  of  this  Chapter,  except  what  is  in 
brackets,  are  Renoufs  work.  They  are  taken  from  the  introduc- 
tion he  published  to  his  edition  of  the  papyrus  of  Ani  (p.  16). 

The  vignette  represents  the  deceased  and  his  wife  worshipping 

This  Chapter  is  found  in  the  papyrus  of  Ani,  and  at  greater 
length  in  a  papyrus  of  the  Museum  of  Leyden,  from  which  it  has 
been  copied  by  Naville  into  his  edition. 

The  Leyden  text  is  unfortunately  very  incomplete,  both  in  the 
upper  and  lower  parts  of  the  columns.  The  two  texts  differ  very 
materially  in  some  of  their  readings,  and  will  require  considerable 
study  before  a  satisfactory  translation  can  be  given. 

3   B 

358  BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD. 

1.  The  deceased  is  evidently  supposed  to  be  just  arrived  in  a 
place  of  utter  darkness  and  desolation,  and  expresses  his  feelings 
of  distress  to  Thoth  in  the  opening  address. 

2.  [The  text  of  Leyden  is  much  more  complete.  Owing  probably 
to  want  of  space,  the  scribe  of  Ani  has  shortened  his  text.  There 
the  omissions  are  so  considerable  that  it  is  impossible  to  find  a  sense. 
I  have  often  adopted  the  reading  of  the  Leyden  papyrus  in  the 
translation  of  this  part  of  the  chapter.] 

3.  The  remaining  columns  in  the  Leyden  manuscript,  although 
incomplete,  enable  us  to  see  that  the  deceased  is  assimilated 
throughout  to  Osiris,  as  born  again  in  his  son  Horus.  There  is  a 
cry  of  adoration  to  him  in  Sutenhenen,  and  exultation  in  En-aaref, 
the  whole  cycle  of  the  gods  is  filled  with  satisfaction  at  seeing  him 
inherit  his  throne  and  rule  over  the  earth.  Sut  is  filled  with  terror 
when  he  sees  the  change  which  has  taken  place ;  the  different 
generations  of  mankind,  the  past,  the  present,  and  the  future,  are  in 
obeisance.  Mention  is  made  of  the  "Hoeing"  and  of  the  blood 
which  flowed  in  Sutenhenen  [an  allusion  to  the  myth  of  the  destruc- 
tion of  mankind]  and  of  other  particulars  in  connection  with  Osiris. 
And  the  chapter  is  said  to  be  recited  over  an  image  of  Horus  made 
of  lapis  lazuli  (or  blue  material)  and  placed  at  the  throat  of  the 
deceased.     It  is  also  to  be  recited  in  the  Netherworld. 

Chapter  of  not  dying  a  second  time  in  the  Nethenvorld. 

I  execrate  the  land  of  the  East.  I  do  not  go  to  the  dungeon,  for 
I  have  not  done  those  things  which  are  forbidden  by  the  gods. 

For  I  have  passed  through  the  place  of  purification  in  the  middle 
of  the  Meskat;(i)  the  inviolate  god  has  given  me  his  glorious 
attributes  on  the  day  when  the  two  Earths  were  united  in  the  presence 
of  the  Master  of  (all)  things. 

He  who  knows  this  chapter  is  a  mighty  Chu  in  the  Netherworld. 

A  short  Chapter  found  in  one  papyrus  only,  and  consisting  of  a 
few  sentences  taken  from  various  chapters. 
I.  See  Note  19,  Chapter  17. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  359 


Chapter  0/  raising  the  Chu,  of  vivifying  his  soul  in  the  Netherworld. 

O  Nut,  Nut,  who  created  the  father  out  of  his  earth  (i)  and  Horus 
after  him,  who  bound  his  wings  as  to  a  hawk  and  his  feathers  hke 
Kemhesu,  (2)  who  brought  him  his  soul,  and  who  perfected  his 
words,  who  showed  him  his  abode  in  the  presence  of  the  stars,  the 
occupiers  of  the  sky,  for  he  is  the  great  star  of  Nut. 

Thou  seest  JV.  uttering  words  to  the  Glorified,  for  he  is  the  great 
form  who  will  not  rule  (?)  over  them  if  thou  art  not  among  them. 
Thou  seest  the  head  of  TV!  as  a  ba  (3)  (ram) ;  his  horns  are  like  those 
of  a  sacrificed  victim,  those  of  a  black  ram,  born  of  the  ewe  who 
bare  him,  and  suckled  by  four  sheep. 

There  came  to  thee  Horus  with  blue  eyes,  do  thou  guard  Horus 
with  red  eyes  in  his  sickness  and  in  his  wrath  ;  let  his  soul  not  be 
opposed,  let  his  messengers  come  to  him,  and  his  quick  runners  (4) 
hasten  to  him  ;  let  them  come  on  the  west  side,  and  one  by  one  (.'') 
march  towards  thee. 

The  god  has  said  this  :  thy  words  are  those  of  the  father  of  the 
gods,  (5)  thy  name  will  be  triumphant  before  the  gods;  they  exalt 
thee  and  the  cycle  of  the  gods  give  thee  their  hands. 

Said  by  the  god  to  the  father  of  the  gods  :  take  possession  of  the 
door  of  the  ka  on  the  horizon,  let  them  throw  open  their  gates  ; 
thou  art  welcome  to  them,  do  thou   prevail  over  them,  let  them 

advance  towards  the  god  (6) when  they  come  out  they  raise 

their  faces,  they  see  him  before  the  great  god  Amsu  (6) thy 

head,  I  have  raised  for  thee  thy  head,  take  possession  of  it his 

head  has  perished  behind  thee,  thy  head  will  not  perish  and  what 
thou  hast  done  before  men  and  gods  will  not  be  destroyed. 


This  Chapter  is  found  in  the  pyramid  of  Unas  (11.  361-376),  where 
the  text  is  not  much  better  than  in  the  Papyrus  London  9900. 

1.  I  believe  this  obscure  expression  means  Osiris. 

2.  A  form  of  Horus  represented  as  a  crouching  hawk,  with  two 
feathers  on  his  head  (Renouf,  Life  Work,  Vol.  HI,  p.  236). 

3   B   2 

360  HOOK    OF    TIIK    DEAD. 

3.  'Jliough    1^    is  written  by  a  bird   with  a  liunian    head,  it 

applies  to  the  soul  represented  by  a  ram.    See  vignettes  to  Chapter  85. 

4-  P  fl  '^^  O  '   evidently    the    word    H  (]  ''^*'  o  ^  ^    of    the 

inscription   of    the   "  Destruction    of  mankind,"  where  it  refers  to 

\/ °^^^^  I  the  messengers. 


c>    \> 

means  properly  a  hunter,  a  man  of  the  field,  which 
W  I 

would  have  no  sense  here.      Unas    reads   H   i  'j     |  |  ]    "the  divine 

fathers."     Adopting  the  reading  of  Unas  in  the  singular,  I  read  the 
father  of  the  gods,  probably  Seb,  who  is  mentioned  a  little  further 
in  the  text  of  the  pyramid. 
6.  Lacunse. 


Chapter  of  raising  the  body,  of  givifig  it  eyes,  of  makiiig  it  possess  ears, 
of  fixing  its  head,  of  putting  it  on  its  base. 

Thou  hast  received  the  eye  of  Horus  ;  (i)  thy  table  is  a  table  of 

Hail,  Hunnu,  lift  up  thy  heart  to  purify  thy  body  ;  they  have 
eaten  the  eye  of  Horus,  the  olive  of  Heliopolis,  (2)  they  destroy 
(what  is  wrong)  in  the  body  of  Osiris. 

(3)  The  mouth  of  N.  had  been  thirsty ;  but  he  will  never  hunger 
(any  more) ;  N.  will  never  thirst ;  for  Chas  delivers  him  and  does 
away  with  hunger. 

O  you  who  fill  the  vases,  you  chiefs  who  distribute  bread  and 
cakes,  and  who  have  charge  of  the  waterflood ;  there  was  ordered 
for  N.  bread  and  beer,  Ra  himself  ordered  them  ;  he  ordered  them 
to  those  who  fill  the  year  with  plenty ;  they  seize  them  (the  gifts) 
and  they  give  him  his  wheat,  his  barley,  his  loaves,  for  he  is  th^ 
great  bull. 

BOOK    OK    THE    DEAD.  36 1 

Grant  to  N.  tlie  charge  of  the  five  loaves  in  the  funerary  chapel ; 
there  are  three  in  heaven  for  Ra,  there  are  two  on  earth  for  the 
cycle  of  the  gods,  and  Nu  sees  them. 

O,  Ra,  be  gracious  to  N.  in  this  happy  day  when  N".  joined  Shu 
and  Isis,  and  when  he  was  united  to  (Nckhebit) ;  (4)  they  give  bread 
and  lieer  to  N.,  and  they  do  all  the  things  good  and  pure  in  this 
happy  day,  the  things  of  Turn,  bringing  him  the  things  of  the  eye  of 
Horus  .  .  .  whenever  he  arrives  to  see  the  god. 

Thou  takest  possession  of  water,  and  thou  marchest  towards  the 
altar  of  Sashert :  four  measures  of  water,  as  was  commanded  by 
Osiris  to  N.  Shu  has  handed  over  his  wealth  to  N.  ;  they  are  thy 
bread  and  thy  beer. 

Awake,  lofty  judge;  awake,  thou  sleeper;  awake  from  thy.  .  . 
thy  offerings  are  brought  before  Thoth  and  Horus,  who  comes  out 
from  the  Nile,  and  Apuat  who  comes  out  of  Asert. 

It  is  pure,  the  mouth  of  N. ;  the  cycle  of  the  gods  offers  incense 
to  the  mouth  of  N.  His  mouth  is  pure  verily,  and  his  tongue  in  his 
mouth,  for  N.  hates  filth,  he  is  washed  from  impurity  as  Sut  is  washed 
in  the  city  of  the  Rehui  when  he  goes  with  Thoth  to  heaven. 

Feed  N.  with  you  ;  let  him  eat  what  you  eat,  drink  as  you  drink, 
sit  as  you  sit,  be  mighty  as  you  are  mighty,  navigate  as  you  navigate. 
The  tent  of  N.  is  woven  in  the  field  of  Aarru,  his  running  water  is  in 
the  Garden  of  Hotepit.  Offerings  are  made  to  him  among  the 
gods  ;  the  drink  of  N.  is  the  wine  of  Ra. 

He  goes  round  the  sky  like  Ra,  he  travels  over  the  sky  like 
Thoth.  N.  execrates  hunger,  he  does  not  eat  (feel)  it,  he  execrates 
thirst.     N.  has  received  bread  from  the  lord  of  eternity. 

He  ordered  that  JV.  should  be  conceived  in  the  night  and  born 
in  the  morning,  close  to  the  follower  of  Ra,  before  the  morning  star. 

N.  was  conceived  of  N.  and  born  of  N'.,  he  brings  you  the  loaves 
which  he  found  in  the  pupil  of  the  eye  of  Horus,  on  the  bough  of 
the  tennu  tree. 

When  he  came,  Khenta  Amenta  brought  him  the  victuals  and 
the  offerings  of  Horus  in  his  abodes  where  he  lives  of  them.  N. 
lives  of  them  ;  as  Horus  drinks,  N.  drinks  ;  his  food  is  on  the  altar  of 
Sashert.     N.  is  welcome  to  Anubis  on  his  mountain. 

Hail,  N.,  thy  figure  is  that  which  thou  hadst  on  earth,  thou  art 
living  and  renewed  every  day.  Thy  face  is  unveiled,  and  thou  seest 
the  lord  of  the  horizon  ;  he  gives  bread  to  N.  at  his  hour  of  the  day 
and  at  his  appointed  time  in  the  night.     Horus  has  avenged  thee. 

362  BOOK   OF    THE    DEAD. 

he  has  smashed  the  jawbones  of  thy  enemies,  he  has  smitten  the 
violent  one  at  the  door  of  his  fortress. 

Hail,  JV.,  thine  enemies  are  no  more,  in  the  great  hall  the  scales 
are  right  concerning  thee,  thou  makest  long  strides  like  Osiris  (5) 
the  lord  of  the  arrivals  in  the  Amenta.  He  arrives  when  he  likes,  he 
sees  the  great  god  in  his  creations,  life  is  given  to  his  nostrils,  he  is 
triumphant  over  his  enemies. 

Hail,  A^.  Thou  hatest  falsehood,  thou  propitiates!  the  lord  of  (all) 
things  in  the  night  of  "stopping  the  tears,"  thou  receivest  sweet  life 
from  the  mouth  of  the  cycle  of  the  gods,  and  Thoth  is-  satisfied  in 
giving  thee  victory  over  thine  enemies. 

Nut  spreads  her  wings  over  thee  in  her  name  of  the  veil  of  the 
sky,  she  giveth  thee  to  be  in  the  following  of  the  great  god,  thine 
enemies  are  no  more.  She  delivers  thee  of  all  evil  things  in  her 
name  of  Chnumeturit,  for  she  is  the  great  one  among  her  children. 

O  chief  of  the  hours,  in  front  of  Ra,  make  way  for  JV.  that  he 
may  arrive  into  the  circle  of  Osiris,  the  living  lord  of  the  two  earths, 
who  lives  eternally. 

JV.  is  in  the  following  of  Nefertmu,  he  is  the  lotus  at  the  nostrils 

of  Ra he  is  pure,  in  the  presence  of  the  gods ;  he  sees  Ra 



This  Chapter,  taken  from  London  9900,  is  found  complete  in  the 
pyramid  of  Unas  (1.  166  ff.).  Four  other  pyramids,  those  of  Teta, 
Pepi  I,  Merenra  and  Pepi  II  contain  the  greatest  part  of  it ;  as  also 
does  a  stele  of  the  Xllth  Dynasty  found  in  Abydos,  and  belonging 
to  a  man  called  Nehi.  Hatshepsu  had  it  copied  on  both  sides  of 
the  chamber  of  offering  specially  dedicated  to  her  {Deir  el  Bahari, 
Vol.  IV,  pi.  CIX-XIII  and  p.  8).  In  the  pyramids  as  well  as  at 
the  temple  this  text  is  connected  with  offerings.  The  representation 
in  the  temple  may  be  considered  as  the  vignette  to  this  chapter. 
We  see  there  the  queen  sitting  before  an  altar  of  offerings  called 

The   eye   of  Horus,  a  generic  term  applied  to 

a  great  number  of  offerings. 

2.  There  is  much  confusion  in  the  first  lines  of  this  chapter. 

bOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  363 

3.  Text  evidently  incorrect. 

4.  Taken  from  Unas. 

5.  I  read  ^    I        ■  ■'^z:;*  (Lepsius,  Todt.,   148,  3,  title  to 

Chapter  180),  to  make  long  strides,  means  to  go  about  freely. 

6.  Formula  inscribed  on  the  coffin  of  King  Mycerinus,  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  on  many  coffins  of  the  New  Empire,  especially 
under  the  Saites. 


Chapter  of  coming  forth  when  goi?ig  out  of  yesterday  (i)  and  coming 
in  the  {present)  day,  being  equipped  by  one's  own  ha?ids. 

I  am  raised  from  yesterday,  I  come  to-day,  I  come  out  of  my 
own  creations. 

I  am  the  sap  coming  out  of  its  tree,  I  am  the  flow  coming  out  of 
its  form  ;  for  I  stand  before  the  lord  of  the  white  crown,  I  am 
gracious ;  my  words  are  well  established  before  the  lord  of  the  red 
crown,  he  who  avenges  (2)  his  eye. 

I  died  yesterday,  but  I  come  to-day ;  (3)  I  made  my  way  towards 
the  doorkeeper  of  the  great  god ;  I  come  forth  by  day  against  my 
enemy  ;  I  triumph  over  him  for  ever.  He  is  given  me,  and  he 
will  not  be  rescued  from  my  hand  ;  he  will  dwindle  away  in  my 
possession,  before  the  great  circle  of  gods  in  the  Netherworld. 

I  have  been  given  the  diadem  of  the  great  goddess  which  is 
on  the  head  of  the  shadow,  and  on  the  figure  of  the  living  gods. 

I  have  made  my  way my  enemy  is  brought  to  me ;  he  is 

given  me  and  he  will  not  be  rescued  from  my  hand ;  he  will  dwindle 
away  in  my  possession,  before  the  circle  of  gods  of  Osiris  in  his 

festival,  when  the  inhabitants  of  the  Amenta (4)  in  his  name 


I  am  the  lord  of  the  red  ones  in  the  day  of  the  births,  I  am  the 
master  of  the  sword,  it  will  not  be  taken  away  from  me. 

I  am  in  my  bower,  I  have  the  sweet  juice  from  my  palm  trees  ; 
they  bring  me  what  is  agreeable  to  my  heart. 



I  come  forth  in  the  day  against  this  my  enemy  ;  when  he 
is  brought  to  me  I  triumph  over  him,  he  will  not  be  rescued  from 
my  hand,  he  will  dwindle  away  in  my  possession  in  the  presence  of 
the  great  circle  of  gods  in  Ta-tsert,  and  the  queen  of  the  souls,  the 
most  mighty. 

I  rest  in  the  garden  of  Hotepit,  according  to  the  commands 
of  the  lords  of  Cheraba,  my  figure  is  high  in  the  presence  of  the 
most  mighty ;  I  am  strong,  I  rest  in  the  isles  of  the  garden  of 


This  Chapter  is  found  in  two  papyri  only  :  London  9900  Aa,  and 
the  papyrus  of  iV//.  This  last  text  differs  considerably  from  the  first 
at  the  end  of  the  chapter.  The  translation  is  made  from  Aa,  with 
occasional  references  to  N?(. 


I.   The  explanation  of  this   curious  expression     l-^ 

(T)      is  given  by  the  words  of  Nu   ^^    ^   v8\    Vs.     ' 


I  died  yesterday,  but  I  come  to-day." 


Q    yester- 

day is  the   past,  is  death ;    whereas 




this  day, 

the  present  day,  is  life.     Leaving  what  has  been,  and  coming  to  what 
is,  is  only  a  figure  meaning  resurrection  after  death. 

2.  I    have  kept  Renouf's  translation,  although  I  consider  it  is 

1  he  word    |    ^ 



means  reconstitute,  restore, 

and  not  avenge.  The  common  expression,  Horus  the  avenger  of  his 
father,  should  be  translated  :  "  Horus  who  reconstitutes  the  body  of 
his  father  "  torn  to  pieces  by  Sut. 

3.  These  words  are  taken  from  the  text  of  Nu. 

4.  In  both  papyri  there  are  words  omitted  here. 

BOOK   OF   THE    DEAD.  365 


Chapter   of  coining  forth   by  day,    of  giving  praise  to  Rd  in  the 
Amefita,  of  paying  homage  to  the  inhabitants  of  tJie    Tuat,   of 
opening  the  way  to  the  mighty  soul  in  the  Netherworld,   of  letting 
him  walk,  lengthen  his  strides,  and  go  in  and  out  in  the  Nether- 
tvorld ;  attd  take  the  form  of  a  living  soul. 

Ra  sets  as  Osiris  with  all  the  splendour  of  the  Glorified  and  of 
the  gods  of  the  Amenta ;  for  he  is  the  one,  the  marvellous  in  the 
Tuat,  the  exalted  soul  in  the  Netherworld,  Unneferu  who  exists  for 
ever  and  eternally. 

Hail  to  thee  in  the  Tuat,  thy  son  Horus  rests  in  thee,  thou 
speakest  thy  words  to  him  ;  grant  him  that  he  may  be  resplendent 
before  the  inhabitants  of  the  Tuat,  that  he  may  be  the  great  star; 
that  he  may  bring  what  is  his  to  the  Tuat  and  may  travel  in  it,  he, 
the  son  of  Ra  proceeding  from  Tmu. 

Hail  to  thee  in  the  Tuat,  god  seated  upon  his  throne,  who  boldest 
thy  sceptre  hik,  king  of  the  Tuat  and  lord  of  Acherta,  great  prince 
wearing  the  double  diadem,  great  god  who  hides  his  dwelling,  lord 
of  wisdom,  chief  of  his  circle  of  gods. 

Hail  to  thee  in  the  Tuat,  praises  also  to  what  is  in  thee;  (i)  hail 
to  thee  in  the  Tuat,  the  weeping  gods  cut  their  hair  in  thy  honour, 
they  clap  their  hands,  they  implore  thee,  they  pray  thee,  they  weep 
before  thee.     Thy  soul  rejoices  and  thy  body  is  glorious. 

It  is  exalted,  the  soul  of  Ra  in  the  Amenta,  his  body  is  blessed 
there  ;  the  powers  praise  him  in  the  bounds  of  the  Tuat,  Teb  Temt  (2) 
who  rests  in  his  covering. 

Hail,  Osiris,  I  am  the  servant  of  thy  temple,  the  inhabitant  of  thy 
divine  dwelling,  thou  speakest  to  me  thy  words  ;  give  me  to  shine 
before  the  inhabitants  of  the  Tuat  like  the  great  star  who  brings 
what  is  his  to  the  Tuat,  who  journeys  in  it,  he  the  son  of  Ra,  pro- 
ceeding from  Tmu. 

I  rest  in  the  Tuat,  I  am  the  master  of  the  dusk,  I  enter  in  there 
and  I  come  out.  The  arms  of  Tatunen  receive  me,  the  blessed  lift 
me  up.  Stretch  your  arms  towards  me,  for  I  know  your  gates,  (?) 
guide  me.     Praise  me,  ye  blessed  ones,  praise  me,  rejoice  in  me  as 

3  C 

366  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD, 

in  Ra,  praise  me  like  Osiris,  for  I  have  placed  before  you  your 
offerings  and  you  take  possession  of  your  victuals,  according  to  the 
orders  Ra  gave  me. 

I  am  his  favourite,  I  am  his  heir  upon  the  earth.     I  have  arrived. 

Ye  blessed  ones  grant  that  I  may  enter  the  Tuat,  open  me  the 
entrance  to  the  good  Amenta.  I  have  presented  the  sceptre  to 
saJm,  and  the  ne/iu/ies  (3)  to  him  whose  name  is  hidden. 

Look  at  me,  ye  blessed  ones,  divine  guides  in  the  Tuat ;  grant 
that  I  may  receive  thy  glory,  that  I  may  shine  like  the  god  of 
mysteries ;  deliver  me  from  the  gods  of  the  pillory,  who  fasten  to 
their  posts ;  do  not  bind  me  to  your  posts,  do  never  send  me  to  the 
place  of  destruction.  I  am  the  heir  of  Osiris,  I  receive  the  nemines 
in  the  Tuat. 

Look  at  me,  I  shine  like  one  who  proceeds  from  you,  I  become 
like  him  Avho  (praises)  his  father,  and  who  extols  him. 

Look  at  me,  rejoice  in  me,  grant  that  I  may  be  exalted,  that  I 
may  become  like  him  who  destroys  his  forms ;  open  the  way  to  my 
soul,  set  me  on  your  pedestals  ;  grant  that  I  may  rest  in  the  good 
Amenta,  show  me  my  dwelHng  in  the  midst  of  you,  open  for  me  your 
ways,  unfasten  the  bolts. 

0  Ra,  who  guides  this  earth,  for  thou  art  guiding  the  powers  and 
following  the  course  of  the  gods ;  I  am  the  guardian  of  his  door  who 
tows  the  navigating  gods. 

1  am  the  only  one,  the  guardian  of  his  door,  he  who  puts  the 
gods  in  their  abodes. 

I  am  on  my  pedestal  in  the  Tuat.  I  am  the  possessor  among 
possessors  ;  I  am  at  the  far  end  of  the  Tuat. 

I  am  the  blessed  one  in  the  Acherta,  and  I  make  my  resting 
place  in  the  Amenta,  among  the  powers  and  among  the  gods. 

I  am  the  favourite  of  Ra  ;  I  am  the  mysterious  Bennu  who 
enters  in  peace  in  the  Tuat  and  goes  out  of  Nut  in  peace. 

I  am  the  lord  of  the  thrones  (4)  above,  traversing  the  horizon  in 
the  train  of  Ra ;  the  offerings  for  me  are  in  the  sky  in  the  field  of 
Ra,  and  my  portion  on  earth  in  the  garden  of  Aarru ;  I  journey  in 
the  Tuat  like  Ra ;  I  weigh  the  words  like  Thoth,  I  march  as  I  will, 
I  hasten  in  my  course  like  Sahu  the  mysterious  one,  and  I  am  born 
as  the  two  gods. 

I  am  the  chief  of  the  bearers  of  offerings  to  the  gods  of  the  Tuat, 
who  gives  offerings  to  the  Glorified.  I  am  the  brave  one  who 
strikes  his  enemies. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  367 

O  ye  gods,  O  ye  Glorified  who  precede  Ra,  and  who  escort  his 
soul,  tow  me  as  you  tow  him,  in  the  same  way  as  you  conduct  Ra 
and  tow  those  in  the  sky.     I  am  the  lofty  power  in  the  Amenta. 


The  papyri  give  us  four  versions  of  this  Chapter.  Two  of  them 
are  in  London  9900  Aa,  but  as  they  are  both  copied  from  the 
wrong  side,  they  are  of  little  use.  Each  of  them  had  its  own  title; 
one  was,  "the  worsliipping  of  Ra  in  the  good  Amenta,  the  praising 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Tuat,"  and  the  other,  "chapter  of  towing 
(the  gods) " ;  the  two  other  copies  are,  one  in  a  papyrus  in  Paris  and 
the  other  at  Leyden. 

This  Chapter  does  not  properly  belong  to  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 
It  is  part  of  a  book  engraved  at  the  entrance  of  nearly  all  the  tombs 
of  the  kings,  the  so-called  "  Litany  of  the  Sun."  This  chapter  is 
taken  from  the  end  of  the  book.  The  various  paragraphs  are  not 
always  in  the  same  order  as  in  the  monumental  text.  There  are 
abridgments  and  many  omissions,  which  in  the  translation  have  been 
filled  up  from  the  text  in  the  tombs. 

The  papyrus  of  Leyden  (La)  has  a  vignette  representing  the 
deceased  worshipping  two  gods. 

I.  Words  taken  from  the  text  in  the  tombs  of  the  kings. 

The  texts  in  the  tomb  mention  here  the  god 


who  occurs  there  frequently,  and  who  is  quite  unknown  in  the  Book 
of    the    Dead.     This    god    is    often    spoken   of    as    being    in    a 

IZD,    a    kind    of    oval    case.       The    text    here    reads 


— ^  £^ ,  which  has  no  meaning. 

3.  The  head-dress      H.    worn  by  the  sphinxes. 

The  tombs  read  here     "^ — <.  1 

oCl    1 

3  C   2 

368  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Chapter  of  arriving  before  the  Divine  circle  of  Osiris  and  before  the 
gods,  the  guides  in  the  Tuat,  before  the  guards  of  their  halls,  (i)  the 
heralds  of  their  gates  and  the  doorkeepers  of  their  pylons  in  the 
Amenta,  and  of  taking  the  form  of  a  living  soul  and  praising 
Osiris  the  lord  of  his  circle  of  gods. 

Hail  to  thee,  Chenta  Amenta,  Unneferu,  lord  of  Tatsert ;  thou  art 
shining  like  Ra.  He  himself  comes  to  see  thee  and  he  rejoices  in 
seeing  thy  beauties.  His  disk  is  thy  disk,  his  rays  are  thy  rays,  his 
diadem  is  thy  diadem,  his  height  is  thy  height,  his  splendour  is  thy 
splendour,  his  beauties  are  thy  beauties,  his  might  is  thy  might,  his 
odour  is  thy  odour.  His  width  is  thy  width,  his  abode  is  thy  abode, 
his  throne  is  thy  throne,  his  descendence  is  thy  descendence,  his 
judgment  is  thy  judgment,  his  Ament  is  thy  Ament ;  his  wealth  is 
thy  wealth,  his  duration  is  thy  duration,  his  creations  are  thy 
creations ;  such  as  he  is  such  art  thou,  (2)  such  as  thou  art  such 
is  he. 

He  shall  not  die,  thou  wilt  not  die;  if  he  will  not  triumph  over  his 
enemies,  thou  wilt  not  triumph  over  his  enemies  ;  no  evil  things  will 
happen  to  him,  no  evil  things  will  happen  to  thee  for  ever  and  ever. 

Hail,  Osiris,  son  of  Nut,  lord  of  horns,  wearing  the  high  atef  Q.xo\ir\, 
o  whom  the  2irer  diadem  and  the  hik  sceptre  has  been  given  in  the 
presence  of  the  cycle  of  the  gods.  Turn  has  raised  the  fear  of  his  might 
in  the  hearts  of  mankind,  of  the  gods,  the  Glorified  and  the  dead  ; 
the  royal  power  has  been  given  him  in  Heliopolis  :  he  is  the  great 
forms  in  Tattu,  the  lord  of  fear  in  his  two  abodes,  the  very  brave  one 
in  Restau,  he  whose  memory  is  pleasant  in  the  palace,  the  very 
brilliant  in  Abydos.  It  has  been  given  him  to  triumph  before  the 
whole  cycle  of  the  gods ;  he  is  mighty  more  than  the  great  powers  j 
the  fear  of  him  is  over  the  whole  earth. 

The  (3)  great  ones  stand  on  their  shrines  before  him,  the  prince 
of  the  gods  of  the  Tuat,  the  great  power  of  the  sky,  the  lord  of  the 
living,  and  the  king  of  those  who  are  therein.  Thousands  glorify 
him  in  Cheraba,  the  future  ones  rejoice  in  him.  He  receives  the 
choicest  meat  offerings  in  the  upper  abodes  j  haunches  are  presented 



Chapter  CLXXXI,  Z.  a. 

^      4:       ^^ 

'-     t     t 

Chapter  CLXXXII,  A.  t. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  369 

to  him  in  Memphis,  the  festival  of  the  Eve's  provender  is  celebrated 
to  him  in  Sechem,  he  is  the  great,  the  mighty  one. 

Thy  son  Horus  avenges  thee,  he  destroys  all  that  is  wrong  in 
thee  ;  he  has  fastened  to  thee  thy  flesh,  he  has  set  thy  limbs  and 
joined  thy  bones ;  he  has  brought  thee  ....  (4)  Arise,  Osiris,  thy 
hands  have  been  given  thee,  stand  up  living  for  ever. 

Seb  made  a  mark  (5)  on  thy  mouth  ;  the  great  cycle  of  the  gods 
protect  thee  ....  They  come  with  thee  towards  the  entrance  of  the 
hall  of  the  Tuat.     Thy  mother  Nut  stretches  her  hand  behind  thee, 

she  protects  thee,  she  doubles  her  care  for  thee  (4) of  the 

children.  The  two  sisters  Isis  and  Nephthys  come  to  thee ;  they  fill 
thee  with  life  health  and  strength,  and  all  the  joy  which  they 

....  in  thee,  because  of  thee.  They  gather  for  thee  all  kind  of 
good  things  within  thy  arms.  The  gods,  the  lords  of  the  ka,  come 
near  thee  ;  as  they  praise  thee  for  ever. 

Happy  art  thou,  Osiris,  thou  shinest  brilliantly,  thou  art  powerful ; 
thou  art  glorified.  Thy  attributes  have  been  fixed  to  thee  ;  thou  art 
like  Anubis.     Ra  rejoiceth  in  thee,  he  is  bound  to  thy  beauty. 

Thou  sittest  on  thy  holy  seat.  Seb  procures  for  thee  what  thou 
desirest  to  receive,  it  is  on  thy  hands  in  the  Amenta. 

Thou  navigatest  through  the  sky  every  day,  thou  leadest  him 
(Ra)  to  his  mother  Nut,  where  he  sits  living  in  the  Amenta,  in  the 
boat  of  Ra,  every  day.  Thou  art  with  Horus  in  order  that  the 
protection  of  Ra  may  be  behind  thee;  and  the  glorious  power  of 
Thoth  may  cling  to  thee  and  the  health  of  Isis  be  within  thy  limbs. 

I  have  come  to  thee,  lord  of  Ta-tsert,  Osiris  Chenta  Amenta, 
Unneferu,  who  lasts  eternally  and  for  ever ;  my  heart  is  right ;  my 
hands  are  pure;  I  have  brought  good  things  to  my  lord  and 
offerings  to  him  who  made  them.  I  have  come  from  afar  to  your 
abodes.  I  have  done  a  good  thing  on  earth,  I  have  struck  for  thee 
thy  enemies  like  bulls,  and  I  have  slaughtered  them  like  victims,  I 
have  made  them  to  fall  down  on  their  faces  before  thee. 

I  am  pure,  thou  art  pure.  I  have  purified  thyself  for  thee,  in 
thy  festival,  I  have  dressed  geese  for  thee  on  thy  altar,  for  thy  soul, 
for  thy  Form  and  for  the  gods  and  goddesses  who  follow  thee. 

Whoever  ktwivs  this  book,  7io  evil  thing  can  have  mastery  over  him  ; 
he  is  not  driven  away  from  the  doors  of  the  Tuat ;  7vhen  he  goes  in 
and  out,  he  receivei  bread  and  beet  and  ail  good  things  before  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Tuat. 

370  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


This  Chapter  is  found  in  two  papyri  :  one  at  I^eyden,  and  one  at 
Naples.  Its  title  begins  like  that  of  Chapter  124.  The  first  para- 
graphs are  translated  from  the  papyrus  at  Leyden,  which  stops 
suddenly,  because  the  space  allotted  to  the  text,  below  the  vignette, 
came  to  an  end.     From  there  the  scribe  passes  over  to  the  rubric. 

1.  See  note  to  Chapter  144. 

2.  See  note  5,  Chapter  144. 

3.  The  following  is  taken  from  the  papyrus  at  Naples. 

4.  Lacunae. 

5.  This  is  part  of  the  funereal  ceremonies.      1  Y  is  to 

A  ^ a     I 

touch  the  mouth  or  make  a  mark  on  it  with  the  instrument   called 

f^ — >      (Schiaparelli,  Libro  dei  Funerali,  Vol.  I,  p.  139). 


Book  of  vivifying  ( i )  Osiris,  of  giving  air  to  him  whose  heart  is 
motionless,   through  the  action  of  Thoth,   who  repels  the  enemies  of 
Osiris   who   come   there   in    his  form  (2)  ...  as  protector,   saviour, 
defender  in  the  Netherworld. 

It  is  said  hv  Thoth  himself,  so  that  the  morning  light  may  shine 
on  him  {Osiris)  every  day. 

I  am  Tholh,  the  perfect  scribe,  whose  hands  are  pure,  who 
opposes  every  evil  deed,  who  writes  justice  and  who  execrates  every 
wrong,  he  who  is  the  writing  reed  of  the  Inviolate  god,  the  lord  of 
laws,  whose  words  are  written  and  whose  words  have  dominion  over 
the  two  earths. 

I  am  the  lord  of  justice,  the  witness  of  right  before  the  gods  ;  I 
direct  the  words  so  as  to  make  the  wronged  victorious.  I  have 
dispelled  darkness,  and  driven  away  the  storm.  I  have  given  the 
sweet  breaths  of  the  North  to  Osiris  when  he  comes  out  of  the  womb 
which  bare  him.  I  give  Ra  to  be  setting  as  Osiris  and  Osiris  to  be 
setting  as  Ra.     I  give  him  to  enter  the  mysterious  cave  in  order  to 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  37 1 

revive  the  heart  of  him  whose  heart  is  motionless,  the  exalted  soul 
which  is  in  the  Amenta. 

Hail,  acclamations  to  thee,  god  whose  heart  is  motionless, 
Unneferu,  the  son  of  Nut.  I  am  Thoth,  the  favourite  of  Ra,  the 
very  brave,  who  is  beneficent  to  his  father;  the  great  magician  in 
the  boat  of  millions  (of  years) ;  the  lord  of  laws,  who  pacifies  the 
two  earths  by  the  power  of  his  wisdom  .  .  ,  who  drives  away  enmity 
and  dispels  quarrels,  who  does  what  is  pleasing  to  Ka  in  his  shrine. 

I  am  Thoth,  who  giveth  Osiris  victory  over  his  enemies  ;  I  am 
Thoth,  who  prepares  to-morrow  and  who  foresees  what  will  come 
afterwards ;  his  action  is  not  vain  when  he  settles  what  is  in  the  sky, 
the  earth  and  the  Tuat,  and  when  he  gives  life  to  the  future  ones. 

I  give  breath  to  the  hidden  ones  by  the  virtue  of  my  speech. 
Osiris  is  triumphant  against  his  enemies. 

I  have  come  to  the  lord  of  Ta-tsert,  Osiris  the  bull  of  the  Amenta, 
who  lasts  forever.  I  give  an  eternal  protection  to  thyliinbs;  I  have 
come  bearing  the  amulet  in  my  hand ;  my  protection  is  active  every 

The  living  charm  is  behind  him,  behind  this  god,  whose  ka  is 
glorious,  the  king  of  the  Tuat,  the  prince  of  the  Amenta,  who  takes 
hold  of  the  sky,  triumphantly,  on  whom  the  atef  zxoww  is  established, 
who  shines  with  the  white  diadem,  who  has  seized  the  hook  and  the 
flail ;  mighty  is  his  soul,  the  great  one  of  the  urer  crown  ;  who  has 
united  all  the  gods,  the  love  of  him  penetrates  their  bodies,  Unneferu 
who  lasts  for  ever  and  eternally. 

Hail  to  thee,  Chenta  Amenta,  who  giveth  birth  to  all  human 
beings  a  second  time,  who  is  renewed  in  an  instant,  who  is  better  than 
those  who  were  before.  Thy  son  Horus  establishes  thee  on  the 
pedestal  of  Tmu  ;  thy  face  is  perfect,  Unneferu. 

Arise,  bull  of  the  Amenta,  thou  art  established,  well  established 
in  the  womb  of  Nut ;  she  replenishes  thee  (with  life  and  health) 
when  thou  comest  out  of  her.  Thy  heart  is  well  established  on  its 
stands  and  thy  whole  heart  as  at  the  beginning.  Thy  nose  is  vivified 
with  the  breath  of  life ;  thou  art  living,  renewed,  made  young  like 
Ra  every  day,  thou  art  great  and  triumphant,  Osiris,  who  has  been 

I  am  Thoth,  I  have  calmed  Horus,  I  have  pacified  the  Rehiu  in 
their  moment  of  storm.  I  have  come,  I  have  washed  away  the  Red 
ones ;  I  have  calmed  down  the  riotous,  and  I  have  struck  him 
with  (?)  all  kinds  of  evil  things. 

372  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

1  am  Thoth,  I  have  celebrated  the  festival  of  Eve's  provender  in 
Sechem.  I  am  Thoth,  I  come  every  day  from  Pu  Tepu,  I  have 
directed  the  offerings,  I  have  given  cakes  to  the  glorious  ones  who 
stretched  forth  their  hands.  I  have  avenged  the  arm  of  Osiris, 
I  have  embalmed  it.  I  have  made  sweet  its  fragrance  like  good 

I  am  Thoth,  I  come  every  day  to  Cheraba  ;  I  fastened  the  tackle  ; 
I  let  the  boat  go  :  I  brought  it  from  East  to  West.  I  am  higher  on 
my  pedestal  than  any  god,  for  my  name  is  he  who  is  high  on  his 
pedestal.  I  opened  the  good  roads  in  my  name  of  Apuatu,  I  give 
thee  acclamations,  and  I  throw  myself  down  on  the  earth  before 
Osiris  Unneferu  the  eternal,  the  everlasting. 


Chapters  182  and  183  are  hymns  to  Osiris  very  like  each  other, 
supposed  to  be  pronounced  by  Thoth  himself.  Occasionally  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  whether  the  words  are  spoken  by  the  god  or 
the  deceased. 

Chapter  182  is  taken  from  Papyrus  looio  in  London. 

The  vignette  represents  the  mummy  on  the  funeral  bed,  sur- 
rounded by  several  gods  and  genii. 

1.  See  note  2,  Chapter  154. 

2.  A  word  is  omitted  there. 


Adoration  to  Osiris,  giving  him  praise,  boiving  doivn  before  Unneferu, 
failing  on  ofie's  face  before  the  lord  of  Ta-tsert,  and  exalting  him 
who  is  on  his  sand. 

I  have  come  to  thee,  son  of  Xut,  Osiris,  prince  everlasting.  I 
am  in  the  train  of  Thoth,  I  rejoice  in  all  that  he  has  done. 

He  brings  thee  sweet  breezes  to  thy  nose,  the  breath  of  life  to 
thy  beautiful  face,  the  wind  coming  out  of  Tmu  to  thy  nostrils,  lord 
of  Ta-tsert. 

He  grants  that  the  morning  light  shine  on  thy  body,  he  illumin- 
ateth  thy  path  with  his  rays,  he  removeth  all  that  is  wrong  in  thy 

BOOK   OF   THE   DLAD.  373 

body  by  the  virtue  of  his  speech.  He  appeases  the  two  gods,  the 
two  brothers,  he  drives  away  anger  and  quarrel,  and  he  made  the 
two  Rehti,  the  two  sisters,  gracious  unto  thee,  so  that  the  two  earths 
may  be  at  peace  before  thee ;  he  removes  the  displeasure  out  of  their 
hearts,  so  that  one  embraces  the  other. 

Thy  son  Horus  is  triumphant  before  the  whole  cycle  of  gods ; 
he  has  received  the  royal  power  on  the  earth,  and  his  dominion  over 
the  whole  earth  ;  the  throne  of  Seb  has  been  imparted  to  him  ;  the 
high  dignity  of  Tmu  is  kept  in  record  as  his  possession,  engraved  on 
a  brick  of  iron,  as  was  ordered  by  thy  father  Tatunen  in  his 

(This  god)  giveth  thee  to  join  him  on  the  firmament,  when  he 
raiseth  water  on  the  mountains  in  order  to  make  growth  come  forth 
on  the  mountains,  and  all  growth  spring  out  of  the  earth ;  he 
brings  forth  all  products  on  water  and  on  land. 

Thou  hast  handed  over  to  thy  son  Horus  all  the  gods  of  Heaven 
and  the  gods  of  earth,  they  are  his  servants  at  his  gates,  and  all  that 
he  has  commanded  is  before  them  ;  they  fulfil  it  at  once  ;  thy  heart 
is  satisfied,  thy  heart,  lord  of  the  gods,  is  overjoyed  because  of  it. 

Egypt  and  the  desert  are  at  peace  ;  they  are  the  vassals  of  thy 
royal  diadem ;  the  temples  and  the  cities  are  well  ordered  in  their 
places;  the  cities  and  the  provinces  are  his  possession  according  to 
their  names,  they  bring  to  thee  tributes  of  offerings,  and  they  make 
libations  to  thy  name  for  ever.  Thou  art  called  upon,  and  thy  name 
is  praised,  thy  ka  is  gratified  by  funereal  meals. 

The  Glorified  who  are  in  thy  following  sprinkle  water  on  thy  food 
by  the  side  of  the  dead  souls  in  this  land.  All  thy  thoughts  are 
excellent  like  those  of  him  who  was  at  the  beginning. 

Be  crowned,  son  of  Nut,  as  the  Inviolate  god  is  crowned ;  thou 
art  living,  thou  art  revived,  thou  art  renewed,  thou  art  perfect.  Thy 
father  Ra  giveth  health  to  all  thy  limbs,  thy  divine  circle  giveth  thee 
praise.  Isis  is  with  thee,  she  will  never  leave  thee  before  all  thy 
enemies  are  struck  down. 

All  the  lands  praise  thy  beauties  like  Ra  when  he  rises  every 
morning;  thou  art  crowned  like  him  who  is  high  on  his  pedestal,  thy 
beauties  are  exalted,  thy  strides  are  lengthened ;  thou  hast  received 
the  royal  power  of  Seb,  thy  father  who  creates  thy  beauties  ;  thy 
mother  gave  existence  to  thy  limbs,  Nut  who  bare  the  gods  bare 
thee  to  be  the  chief  of  the  five  gods.  The  white  crown  of  the  South 
is  placed  on  thy  head;  thou  seizest  the  hook  and   the   flail.     AVhen 

3  D 

374  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 

thou  wast  still  in  the  womb,  before  thou  didst  appear  on  earth,  thou 
wast  crowned  to  be  lord  of  the  two  earths,  the  a^e/ crown  of  Ra  was 
on  thy  head. 

The  gods  come  to  thee,  bowing  down,  the  fear  of  thee  possesses 
them  ;  they  see  thee  with  the  might  of  Ra,  and  the  valour  of  thy 
majesty  fills  their  hearts. 

Life  is  with  thee,  abundance  is  attached  to  thee.  I  offer  Maat 
before  thee  :  grant  that  I  may  be  in  the  train  of  thy  majesty  like  one 
who  is  on  the  earth.  May  thy  name  be  called  upon,  may  it 
be  found  among  the  just  ones. 

I  have  come  to  the  city  of  this  god,  to  the  city  of  god,  to  the 
region  of  old  time  ;  my  soul,  my  hi,  my  Chu  are  in  this  land.  The 
god  of  it  is  the  lord  of  justice,  the  lord  of  abundance,  the  great  and 
the  venerable  one,  who  is  towed  through  the  whole  earth  ;  he 
journeys  to  the  South  in  his  boat,  and  to  the  North  driven  by  the 
winds,  and  his  oars,  to  be  entertained  with  gifts  according  to.  the 
command  of  the  god,  the  lord  of  peace  therein,  who  left  me  free  of 
care.  The  god  therein  rejoices  in  him  who  practices  justice  ;  he 
grants  an  old  age  to  him  who  has  done  so  ;  he  is  beloved,  and  the 
end  of  it  is  a  good  burial  and  a  sepulture  in  Ta-tsert. 

I  have  come  to  thee  :  my  hands  bring  Maat,  my  heart  does  not 
contain  any  falsehood,  I  offer  thee  Maat  before  thy  face,  I  know 
her  ;  I  swear  by  her  :  I  have  done  no  evil  thing  on  earth ;  I  have 
never  wronged  a  man  of  his  property.  I  am  Thoth,  the  perfect  and 
pure  writer  :  my  hands  are  pure.  I  have  put  away  all  evil  things  :  I 
write  justice  and  I  hate  evil  :  for  I  am  the  wTiting-reed  of  the 
Inviolate  god,  who  utters  his  words,  and  whose  words  are  written  in 
the  two  earths. 

I  am  Thoth,  the  lord  of  justice,  who  giveth  victory  to  him  who  is 
injured  and  who  taketh  ihe  defense  of  the  oppressed,  of  him  who  is 
wronged  in  his  i)roperty.  I  have  dispelled  darkness  ;  I  have  driven 
away  the  storm  ;  I  have  given  air  to  Unneferu,  and  the  sweet  breezes 
of  the  North  when  he  comes  out  of  the  womb  of  his  mother.  I  have 
given  him  to  enter  into  the  mysterious  cave  where  is  revived  the 
heart  of  the  god  whose  heart  is  motionless,  Unneferu,  the  son  of 
Nut,  the  victorious. 


This  hymn  is  taken  from  the  papyrus  of  Unneferu,  in  London. 
See  note  i  in  Chapter  i. 



Chapter  CLXXXV,  P.  d. 

Chapter  CLXXXVI.     Papyrus  of  Ani. 

BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD.  375 


.    Chapter  of  being  near  Osiris. 

There  is  not  much  more  than   the  vignette  left.     Only   two   or 
three  words  remain.     They  are  taken  from  a  papyrus  in  Paris. 


Giving  praise  to  Osiris,  Jailing  on  the  earth  before  the  lord  of  eternity; 
propitiating  t/ie  god  7vith  what  he  loves,  speaking  the  truth,  the 
lord  of  which  is  not  known. 

Hail  to  thee,  venerable  god,  great  and  beneficent  prince  of 
eternity,  in  his  abode  in  the  Sektit  boat.  Acclamations  are  given 
him  in  the  sky  and  on  earth  ;  he  is  exalted  by  the  past  and  present. 
Great  is  the  fear  he  inspires  in  the  hearts  of  men,  of  the  Glorified 
and  of  the  dead.  His  soul  was  given  him  in  Tattu,  his  might  in 
Heracleopolis,  his  image  in  Heliopolis,  and  his  power  over  forms  (i) 
in  the  double  sanctuary. 

I  have  come  to  thee ;  my  heart  holds  right,  my  heart  contains  no 
falsehood.  Give  me  to  be  among  the  living,  to  navigate  up  and 
down  in  thy  train. 


I  have  given  No.  185  to  a  hymn  to  Osiris,  witli  which  many 
papyri  begin,  but  which  occasionally  comes  just  before  the  represen- 
tation of  the  cow  in  the  West.  There  seems  to  have  been  no 
canonical  text  for  that  hymn,  in  which  the  writer  was  left  to  follow 
his  imagination. 

The  hymn  here  given  is  one  of  the  most  complete.  It  is  taken 
from  the  papyrus  of  Sutimes  in  Paris. 

The  vignette  represents  always  Osiris  in  a  shrine,  with  worshippers 
before  him. 

I  I  I 

,  litt.,  "  his  greatness  of  forms."     I  suppose 
it  means  his  power  of  taking  all  the  forms  he  likes. 

37^  BOOK   OF   THE   DEAD. 


Adoration  to  Hathor,  the  lady  of  the  West,  f alibi g  down  before 


I  have  come  to  thee,  to  see  thy  beauties,  give  me  to  be  at  the 
head  of  thy  followers  and  among  thy  divine  attendants. 


A  great  many  papyri  end  with  a  picture  r^resenting  Hathor  [of 
the  West,  in  company  of  the  goddess  Thueris  coming  out  of  the 
mountain  where  the  burial  is  to  take  place.  The  text,  which  is 
generally  very  corrupt,  as  if  the  writer  had  neglected  the  words  for 
the  picture,  is  an  adoration  to  Hathor,  which  varies  in  its  form. 

The  text  here  translated  is  taken  from  a  papyrus  at  Leyden. 

The  vignette  is  taken  from  the  papyrus  of  x\ni. 



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